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tv   Washington Journal Debate on Removal of Confederate Monuments  CSPAN  August 26, 2017 2:24pm-4:23pm EDT

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coverage against saturday, september 2 with featured authors including david mccullough and thomas friedman, former secretary of state condoleezza rice and best-selling authors michael lewis and j d mass. one saturday september 2 c-span twos book tv. thursday on washington journal we asked for your comments come per concerning debate over removal of confederate monuments around the u.s.. this portion is two hours. us what you think as we get an update from across the country. thesehould be done about confederate monuments. do you believe they represent haiti or history? we want to get your thoughts on that. we had a discussion about this with two professors, lester spence was asked about
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the best approach to removing these monuments. here is what they have to say. guest: the approach that cities have taken before was to have plaques next to the monuments come up with them in context. , thatplaques were just the statue was erected is part -- andst cause project that was ok. gone, what i are would like to see is the base maintained. where the statues themselves are removed but the bases stay there in order to reflect on the one hand that there was a political
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project dedicated to white supremacy that had a long .istory and then that there was another political project that was created in order to remove them. the besthat is approach in this circumstance. i can imagine other potential orroaches whether leaving taking pieces of the statue and maintaining them but erecting another statue next to them. there are a number of different choices that people have, and this generation will have more conversation about what we should be doing. also on the program was law professor who discussed why removing his monuments is not so clear-cut. >> i think the monuments are
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--gely relics of the battle the bad old days. i think it is important to leave them up so that we understand and remember that there were people who were in charge and places like charlottesville and richmond virginia and towns throughout the south and some in the north who wanted to celebrate the confederacy and the war fought to maintain slavery. balance things a little differently and i think it is important to preserve those monuments on the landscape, so that people would remember that there was once a celebration of the confederacy. look at the conversations we are having now about what the civil war was about and why people were celebrating and pushing these monuments up.
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that is a great conversation and a great opportunity for learning . i think that conversation largely goes away once we take the monuments down. spots on the table what do you think should be done about these confederate monument. roger and wilmington, delaware. good morning. historyi taught u.s. and i am in the peace movement since i read about the civil war. againstva lee was slavery. i don't believe he owned any slaves. if he did he got rid of them. the other issue in the civil war was state rights. california had certain loss on , can the federal government forced them to do away with those laws on pollution? there were issues of tariffs, trades, states rights.
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it wasn't just slavery. check your history books, get on the computer. host: let's go to history.com this is whatline it says on its website. most of these monuments did not go up immediately after the wars and. during the time markers of the civil war tended to be memorials to mourn soldiers who had died. eventually they started to build the confederate monuments but -- vast memorial -- were which matches up with the area of jim crow segregation. the biggest spike was between 1900 and the 1920's. in contrast to the earlier memorial these monuments tended to glorify leaders of the confederacy like generally and jefferson davis and stonewall jackson. all of those monuments were
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there to teach values to people, which is why they put them in the city squares and state buildings. the values include of the glorification of the civil war. united daughters of the confederacy founded in 1890's was the most important and influential group, it was responsible for the rock -- mount rushmore of the confederacy. in 1910 andon began 1960 42 million dollars. in hartford connecticut, what do you think? guest: i think it is an affront to the society. you can compare this with they want to glorify what hillary did and the third reich in germany.
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i am an african-american man of i don't thinknd these should be exhibited at all. it goes back to a time when we were in enslaved people. i say down with the statues. host: kevin, sandy utah. i think these statues are basically to remind black people in their -- of their place. that was the reason they were erected. i think they should come down. host: what do you think about the violence -- we lost kevin. ravens rhode island, jeff? some of them should come down, statues and maybe some of the southerners that were
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involved in the kkk. others should stay like robert e. lee. was considered probably one of the best battlefield strategists in the history of all warfare. he was offered the command of the entire union army by president lincoln and he turned -- butcause he thought one of the key point. picture of take a robert byrd down, john f. kennedy -- if you go on the internet, he praised at off son.r's -- adolph his you can go on internet for that. friends withdy was
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the brilliant german rocket science -- scientists. he had such brainpower in , they were sitting in a car together waiting to the crowds. he was a member of process. rights about black a member of the senate virginia veteran andtnam war member of the virginia war memorial commission, understanding the purpose of confederate memorials. erected monuments to those who fought in war several decades after the war. the confederate soldier monument at the old courthouse in leesburg was erected 43 years after the war ended.
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and in syracuse, new york. what do you think? caller: i don't think they
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should take the statues down. and what is happening in north carolina. host: north hollywood california. caller: i think they should take the statues down and. at one point i didn't think that they should, but after giving it some serious thought i believe they should take the statues awn because they represent history that is behind us and we need to leave it behind hours. everybody needs to get out your -- on board to bring the country together.
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we need to get some about otherg cultures. happening is there is a lot of confusion about what is going on. black people at the center of all of it. racists and jim crow and some that is going on for years. yes it's a country of immigration but for a long time it has been a country for black and white and maybe a few asians. now that there is an influx of different people coming here, we need to have an understanding. that theirhinks races important. everyone needs to realize that
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we are all important and we are all americans and we are not a divided country. do otherthing else to theirry to impede ignorance about other people. no one wants to hear it. host: let me ask you, you said you changed your mind. why do you think so? caller: i talked to other people. they said it is part of the history. i think they should probably suggestedme people they should move to a museum or something. i think something like that is a good thing. i don't think they should destroy them. probably be should
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where people can get a clear understanding of the history. at that place they will lay out what it is really about. that now, it is something you don't want to see it and be reminded. we are not going to forget. we won't put it aside. host: terry in newburgh, see. -- tennessee. ify i see it -- they are going to take all of
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the statues down they should take mlk statue down. that's what they should do. why? caller: there's nothing wrong with the but if they're going to take these down they should take all of him down and his two. host: you equip the civil rights movement with jim crow laws? caller: there's nothing wrong with that, they should take his down to be fair about it, too. host: robert in henderson, kentucky. ironically my last name is lee. thatought on this is taking our statues or flag is symbolic. you cannot legislate, regulate
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or dictate a person's heart. that comes from within. when people were killed in charleston in the black church and governor nikki haley took ,own the flag that was all good there was still 40 some thousand dollars raised for him on the internet. black life is still devalued in america. symbolic.n statues is the real chance comes from within. for the person that studies and gets down to the concrete issues it is about what is in the heart. that has to come from within.
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host: usa today, confederate u.s., divided the city start with the face of these monuments with some markers while others are symbols of hate. jamesburgth carolina, florida, san diego, baltimore, brooklyn franklin ohio madison, wisconsin, worthington ohio, daytona beach, florida. we will be talking to reporters throughout the three hours and also your viewpoint on what should happen with these monuments. robert in for smith, arkansas. wondering i am
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beginning to wonder if they are after white supremacists or if mey -- it seems like to ,here was a guy on television it looks like he's started a race riot. polls, theentioned survey that was done august 13-15. do you see that light confederate war heroes more of the suit symbol of southern pride or racism 54% said southern pride, 26% said some ball of racism -- symbol of racism. caller: good morning. related, however, we
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celebrate memorial day every year. i think itmistaken was the daughters of the confederacy who started a memorial day for the southern dead. that't remember the year congress then changed it to memorial day that we then honor the northern and all the dead and all the wars so memorial day is a confederate starting of our memorial day, which is related to the month -- monument issue. i don't know how many people know this. you think about these monuments? should they remain? put in a museum? that theybelieve
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should stay up. thing i can't remember which state in the south tour down a veteran. -- tore down a veteran. so yes. host: what about the historical context when most of these monuments were erected around the time of jim crow. what was happening at the time that segregation was being put into law and at the same time a ofement to put these symbols in front of state capitol buildings and public squares. what about that context. beler: perhaps they can moved to someplace else where people could still see them and
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not really be in the claim -- glaring eyes in front of a courthouse or a school. i am mixed on this. one reporter who is covering this in richmond, virginia. -- is joining us from skype from that area. through what monuments , a tourist attraction in your area and what is the debate right now? >> thank you for having me. it is important to start by saying that this conversation that richmond is having is not a new one.
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virginia does a wonderful job of preserving its history, and one can look at archives and articles and see that people in soon as thet as lead monument was erected -- who was the editor of the original planet editorialized that people were going to be debating about the legacy of treason. these monuments have always been equated with resistance. we are having a contemporary federation here in richmond. that are people i had said the violence that he inflicted on worshipers in south carolina was a jump off point for our conversation in richmond. i think there is an accuracy to that. after that happened there was a big issue.
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mayor barstow me advocated for and bought context statues throughout richmond. when hegood on that appointed a 10-member commission to look at how to best at context along monument avenue. the commission has met a handful of times since his announcement withne, they are task gauging the community and finding out the best way to move forward since the announcement. our mayor has changed his position and called for the removal of the monuments along by my avenue. there is at least one member of the city council who plans to submit a resolution and asked the state for permission to move
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.tatues that would help the richmond local authorities move around that tricky state law that said it people cannot disturb monuments must say had been put into place. host: describe monument avenue. at his store district in richmond, there are homes all along it, tree-lined, very scenic and beautiful. connectedbusinesses throughout the thoroughfare. confederateve figures sitting along the
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avenue. people have said that monument avenue in and of itself is a confederate shine -- shrine of sorts. host: what has the debate been like? caller: very intense. in that commission that we mentioned before has been meeting there has been one very well attended meeting, 500 people that they are. we saw 40 speakers. half of the speakers were in for, of the mayor's call
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suggestions for signage and billboards and facts being posted in some way alongside the monuments. after the other speakers at that meeting were still having a conversation about whether or not they should be touched at all or come down and be moved. tense and high emotions any time anyone talks about it. it is a closely-hell issue here in virginia. there was an editorial, we asked the mayor of the commission and readers what contacts could possibly change the statue's meaning and message from what was met when they were elected following a bloody civil war fun to keep black people in bondage?
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what do you think at the next public meeting on september 13 question? transpired in between this last meeting in september 13. i spoke to one member of the commission who said they had asked for a cooling down. don't know, they haven't seen anything like what happened in charlottesville but emotions are high. i know that there are people in the community who felt like they did not want to participate because removal was not an option now that it is perhaps there will be more people forcefully come out.
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i would not try to predict. you can follow the atource if you go to twitter wcvb. thank you for an update out of richmond. host: back to your thoughts on this. tuesday had aon rally in arizona. when he talked about this debate . here's what he had to say. >> in the proud tradition of from georgeeat, washington please don't take it statue down. georgeybody want washington statue? no. is that sad?
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to lincoln to teddy roosevelt, don't take teddy roosevelt down, too. ,hey are trying to figure out they don't know. they are trying to take away our leaders,nd our weak these things have been there for 150 euros -- years. you go back to the university and its down. people.ak, him oro you agree with do you believe that these symbols should come down, what they represent, racism and hate? racism country,
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has created the civil war with , this is not limited to the united states. -- 1898 to 1975 they were -- in vietnam in 1975. 23 countries in africa -- white this is aace -- wonderful country. i am a vietnam veteran.
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when we tried to make people , it will not survive if you take the starches -- if you leave the statues in. angela merkel, it has to stop. washington journal's twitter page conducting a poll what should be done about confederate monuments, take them down, keep them out. a couple of responses from viewers one saying they have to come down. put it in a historical museum to educate people. addie in los angeles. caller: good morning.
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i am a vietnam veteran also. the monuments are one thing, but --this country, confederacy they might have lost the battle but they won the war. host: how so. caller: look at their government policies to the civil war for blacks. if you go to the congressional -- in 1871 that was the second civil rights bill. itthat was to be implemented would change this country into a corporation. that is a congressional act of 1871.
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if you look at the redlining, the way we have been doing with banking, everything that ,appened after the civil war containment is government implemented. to writed the south the textbooks for our children. how did that happen? the one who lost the war writes the textbook. host: james in maryland, what do you think? i think they should be put into a museum for the people who want to, can go there and visit her just like in your desk monumentsu don't see of all of hitler's crew who massacred the jews.
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they don't have it around the towns, that have it in museums. in america they should have them in museums. people can go there to visit the statues. host: more of your calls coming up. newspaper, thehe wall street journal,
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and then there's this headline on several of the papers this morning. we will start with the "new york times" headline on the relationship between the president and congress.
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the wall street journal and new york times editorial boards have something to say about this prospect.
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so that is the latest on washington and what is happening between the white house and congress. in sacramento, california, back to our discussion with all of you. what should happen with these confederate monuments? i think they should leave them alone. stop messing with the history of our country. i was in vietnam three years. i did not ask people what color they were when they were wounded. i put them in my helicopter, brought the wounded back, put them on planes, on carriers to be shipped back to the united states to their families. we still have that. we still are going to be doing that. why would we want to tinker --
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next thing we are going to do is start taking stuff out of our schools so our children cannot learn from what we did in vietnam or any other country. it's crazy. we are acting like children. host: all right. caller: i mean, i'm in my mid-70's. what is going on? we have the republicans fighting the democrats. it's nuts. host: what about the argument from the other side, african-americans saying that when they see these symbols, that glorify the civil war generals, it is a symbol of trying to keep african-americans in bondage? symbol to's not a keep them in bondage. i never asked anybody what their color was when they were wounded. they had the red light running. i loaded them in my chopper, threw them out of a war zone to a hospital ship, got him care,
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brought them back when the care was taken, put them on a c-130 off of a carrier, pulled them back to the spot in germany, and from there, they brought them back to their families in the u.s. did not care what color they were. still don't today. this is just stupidity. jacksonville, florida, what do you think? caller: caller: i'm a 38-your watcher of c-span. combat veteran of vietnam. with respect to my comment -- my colleague a few minutes ago, i vehemently disagree with his assessment of the monuments. i think they should be taken down. i think they should be taken down immediately. i thought the caller a couple of calls ago was very insightful, to discuss again that even though the north dublin the battle, the south is still
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winning the war with all the legislation that has to do with voter suppression -- even though the north don't one -- the north on the battle. there are actually only two races of people that understand the horrors of slavery. african-americans and the israelis. they have a recorded history of their people being in slavery. no other ethnic group this planet has gone to the experiences of the israelis and people,eople and black so they understand what it is when you see a memorial erected to another group who wants to preserve the memories of slavery. you don't see any swastikas germany.wn in you don't see any memorials of hitler's and the nazis being flown in germany. the german people have sought to
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historicalny kind of memory of the nazis, given what they did to the jewish people. in america, it should be the same thing. we should move these memorials because it is an affront to african-american people. y. any other ethnic group who comes to america, if their color or shoe is not black, they are considered white. there are still considered white. they can move to any neighborhood they can. they can get the best jobs they can. and our people whose color is are stiller, we carrying from the sale of the horrors and memories of not only being african-american people but considered three quarters of a human by being property and being owned. with any color who talks about preserving a memory
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of a people who only looked for a fair and a square deal at present friends and roosevelt tried to give us after world war ii. guild in jamestown, north carolina. share your thoughts with us. good morning. about four or five calls back home and made a statement that memorial day was a confederate holiday. there is nothing further from the truth than what she said. it's absolutely wrong. memorial day was started by in charlestonaves to honorolina in 1865 the soldiers from the union army that were killed. and memorial day in the south has been deemphasized for many years. so let's get the facts straight about how memorial day started.
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her statement was wrong and couldn't be farther from the truth. regarding the statues -- host: hold hundred where did you get your information -- hold on. where did you get your information? has beenhis documented. you can go to various sites. look up the origins of memorial day. 1865. charleston, south carolina. let's all you have to do. there are numerous sources. host: go ahead with your thoughts on the monuments. caller: they should take down all the months -- monuments. monuments that honor the confederate -- confederacy. monuments that honor the union. take them all down. suggest is told tell the truth in historical museums. and typingogizing
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what happened during the civil war. show pictures in the museums of antietam and gettysburg. in the civil war, more were killed than all the wars the u.s. has fought in. tell the truth and museums. have any of these statues anymore and just tell the truth. and educate the populace. ofo have ecumenical kinds gatherings and reconciliation so we can get past all of the hate and bitterness that is still very prevalent in both the south and the north. that's my comment for today. history.com says it is unclear where exactly the tradition of memorial day originated. numerous different communities may have independently initiate the memorial gathering. government federal
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declared waterloo, new york the official birthplace of memorial day. at first celebrated the day on may 5, 1866 because it hosted an annual communitywide event during which is this is closed. -- businesses closed. john logan called for a nationwide day of remembrance later that month. the 30th of may 1868 is a designated for the purpose of strewing flowers or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in the defense of their country during the late rebellion. the date of decoration day was chosen because it wasn't the anniversary of any particular battle. on the first decoration day james garfield made a speech and 5000 participants decorated the day -- grave. many northern states held similar events enterprise the tradition in subsequent years.
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made0 each one had decoration day an official state holiday. southern states continue to until afterdead world war i. memorial day and decoration day gradually came to be known originally honored only those lost while fighting in the civil war. during run for one united states found itself embroiled in another major conflict and the holiday falls to commemorate american military personnel that died in all wars. . fe. in santa caller: maybe somebody has already suggested this. change thet you just plaques to tell the truth? the statues are part of our infamy. don't make them out to be heroes. tell the truth. they fought for an unjust cause. the debateis part of
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that's happening across the country. that's what the mayor of richmond originally said. give these monuments context. it seems like it would be more truthful. it's part of our history. just tell the truth like the last caller said. host: john in new york. what do you think. caller: i think they should be taken down. cemetery. in a it's too much hate and too much .ivisions i don't think that should be glorified with all the pain. lynchings and beatings. all of that stuff. but that read on the graveyard and they should be replaced with maybe florence nightingale or hank aaron, jackie robinson, armstrong.
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-- neil armstrong. to verify someone being cast for no reason at all. should -- the union once they should keep the union ones of because at least they wanted to like unite the country . the world. a part of at least they wanted to unite the world. take them down and bring in peace. host: william in oregon. it's your turn. caller: yes. i just wanted to say earlier in your program you gave some good points. some good reasons for keeping the statues.
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why they were put there in the first place. was not actually from racist reasons back in 1918 or whatever. it was to commemorate the lives that were lost. it wasn't really a political thing back then. as it was explained. , ihink what has happened now think the point president trump is missing is now the statues after charlottesville virginia incident, it has now become a rallying point for the racist bigots to use this to go around each of the cities and have a big rally and beat a bunch of people up. around the statues. i think they should be taken down as they were in baltimore. in baltimore they took them down i think as a result of the charlottesville incident. host: yes. within days.
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and in the middle of the night. right. i think the mayor did that in baltimore not necessarily because it was something that made black people feel bad to look at that because now because is really theened racists are using this as a rallying point. because of that i don't think that's -- the statues will just have to come down or put someplace where the racists can't have a big rally around that. up.use it to be people that's all i wanted to say. thank you very much. host: james in tallahassee, florida. caller: good morning. they should bek
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left up and or it should be up to the citizens and the cities. the human disabilities. i don't think it should be done in the dark. i don't think they should be vandalized or anything like that. i understand that a lot of people want to whitewash the history literally. and democrats were on the wrong side of that war. there were the ones that were for not abolition. there's too many people that died during that war. i am a mixed family. i am part of american indian norwegian trade my husband is black. black children. black lives matter and all of these people talk about killing white people. and my children go, that's my family. people are not paying attention to everything and i think it's the media and the politicians .hat fuel all this
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along with hateful people that do all their craziness. collectively, just a few people should demolish all of our history. the democrats didn't mind all these years. all of a sudden they mind now. now they want them to have actually had been there for 30 some years. they were on the wrong side of history and i wish everybody did read his three. and really did find out. i'm not even represented at all as far in congress in any way. american indian. i don't have any issues with it. they are just stones. commemorateused to paid in fullied, for that. we're the only country on this entire planet that actually turned itself inside out and
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against itself in order to host: do the right thing. host: i'm going to leave it there. pamela what is joining us from baltimore. she is a politics reporter with .he baltimore sun explain what monuments are there in baltimore and that the arguments are for and against and what actions city officials have taken. guest: good morning. just good in baltimore and central maryland we have had several monuments with confederate ties taken down over the course of the past week or so. in the city of baltimore there were four monuments that were taken down without notice in the middle of the night. was to a former supreme court justice who authored the dred scott decision that upheld slavery. that was taken down. theell as one that was
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confederate general robert e and stonewall jackson. there is a confederate soldiers memorial that was taken down and baltimore. a couple days later there was a justice taunting statue on the ground of the maryland state house in annapolis that was removed. this week there was one in the suburb of ellicott city. their courthouse had a confederate memorial to local soldiers that also was taken away in the middle of the night. host: let's talk about the former supreme court chief justice. the dred scott decision that he wrote in 1857 that gives and what heificance wrote was neither the class of persons who have been imported as slaves nor their descendents whether they were free or not who had for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order and
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altogether unfit to associate with the white race either in social or political relations and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect and that the negro might justly -- the connection talk about the dred scott decision. it upheld slavery. it ruled that black americans have no human rights whatsoever. compared slaves to merchandise. it is largely regarded as the worst supreme court opinion ever written. it is been controversial for years. there have been multiple attempts to remove his statue from the state house. it took on new significance after the events in charlottesville. there is a public safety concern that this statute could become a flashpoint as the statue in charlottesville did. host: what is next for the city and surrounding areas?
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now a bunch ofe pedestals with no monuments on them. there has to be a discussion in the community of what comes next. should there be something to replace these monuments. also the matter of what to do with the ones that have been removed. most of them are in storage right now. howard county confederate memorial is going to go to a museum that has an exhibit called a divided county that talks about both sides of the civil war. that one has a home. the rest of them don't have homes. there's empty pedestals. i think that's the next step to figure out. what should be honored in our public squares. the fate will decide of those statues and what they? are replaced with? guest: that's going to be up to the government. in a necklace the statehouse there is a group that makes
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decisions on what happens inside the building on the grounds around it. top officials and state government will make that decision. they take it very seriously. it's the oldest statehouse still in legislative use in the country. it is somewhat of a living museum. host: pamela wood, baltimore sun political reporter. guest: thank you for having me. host: we are at the top of the hour on "the washington journal." we will continue getting your thoughts about what should be done with these confederate monuments, getting reports from political reporters across the country where the debate is happening. shouldthey remain or they be put in a museum or cemetery, taken down? in the situation in baltimore, many of them are in storage until the city can decide what to do next.
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let's go to stand in billings, montana. good morning. caller: good morning, greta. i was wondering, where you public schooled like i was? host: what is your point? caller: my point is this -- when we came out of public school we thought that the north and south in the civil war was all about slavery and only about slavery. i contend that if it was about slavery and only about slavery, it would not have happened. here is my point. should we tear down arlington national cemetery? that is the biggest monument we have got. down, should not tear it but whose family owned arlington house? and the land that the cemetery is now on? the family lineage of robert e lee, they owned it.
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it was taken away from them. that is when they started to bury the dead there. my point is this. the civil war was fought over states' rights, which slavery was only a part of the whole picture. when lincoln contacted general garibaldi, the italian general who led successfully put down two civil war's, garibaldi told him, you are going to lose because you do not have a moral victory. the south will defeat you. moraln't i have the south victory? he said because states' rights always, anything you got unless you talk about slavery. if you turn this into slavery, you will have the moral victors and your chances of winning will
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be much greater. so what it started out as is not what it ended up to be. host: can i get your opinion 's great great grandson thecondemned charlottesville violence and told cnn -- "eventually someone is going to have to make a decision. if that is the local lawmakers, so be it, but we have to be able to have that conversation without the hatred and violence and if they choose to take those statues down, fine. maybe it is appropriate to have them in museums or put them in historical context in that regard." caller: again, do you want to tear down arlington? that is where you will eventually go. host: patricia and lords valley, pennsylvania. -- i think if we
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keep drawing the line between black and white we keep pointing out our differences. thisis point in time after country elected a black man twice, two terms, we still cannot get over it. it seems instead of bringing us together it has divided us again. for baltimore to go in the middle of the night and take down statues is a scary thing, a very scary thing. it is reminiscent of lynching. , baltimore, to do is the statues you took down, i suggest may be brought to the new african american history museum in washington, d.c., to stand outside as a guard to protect that part of american is, but shameful as it to bring the attention of all of us that it is behind us. host: for those that believe the
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symbolism represents hate, what kind of message with that send to have them outside of the african american museum here in washington? caller: that hate is learned and hate, because it is learned can be unlearned. those that shed their blood on both sides can stand together as they do in a foxhole in vietnam. it does not matter what color skin you have. the human species needs to survive for the sake of humanity, put it behind us and stand together to do it. in athens, alabama, what do you think? caller: them monuments should come down, the northern and the southern. in all reality, go way back to the constitution because it is all predicated on hatred and white supremacy and the
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confederate monuments are no better or worse as the president said, then george washington and the founding fathers who were espousing freedom and rights for rich, white male slave owners and property owners. lack of people have never been a part of this country from the inception. andmonuments of the south the monuments of the north, i do not draw a distinction between them. if you really want to be honest and truthful, it all needs to be torn down and go right back to the constitution, and rebuild the system of government that is truly equal and fair to everyone that is citizens of this country . until you go back to the constitution and look in it and see we are not considered as human beings or people, what does it matter what uniform generals war in a fight to
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uphold slavery? because the founding fathers owned slaves as well. people don't want to deal with it because it will eventually come around to some truth and reconciliation like germany had to do, take south africa had to do, like earlier callers, we are afraid to address that issue. it could wind up allowing black reple to be reppo rated -- arated. there is ways to pay back 400 years of slavery, but because no one wants to really deal with it , we still have these monuments that is an affront to black people, including the union once. host: kenny, piedmont, south carolina. share your thoughts with us. heard thehaven't terminology used yet.
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these people were criminals that were fighting for the south. statues for criminals, something is wrong. any other country in the world -- there would be no heritage. to keep blaming heritage is stupid. they should have dealt with them then and we would not be having this problem now. host: venus and holly, pennsylvania. caller: i have been listening for a good hour or so about the monument in south carolina, monuments all of the world, and history and constitution and what people believe to be the constitution. basicallytution is listed today as done by government. we were founded on a democratic ,onstitution as we the people
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and if people want to talk about slavery, where are the monuments for the trail of tears? where are the monuments for the actual people, the indians that we took the united states from? as peoplehis country from everywhere across the world. yes, the blacks were enslaved and i agree with the person who said on the history this was not about slavery. this was about the government and slaving all people -- blacks, whites, mexicans, who ever lived here, italians. i am classified as white. i did my history, that little dna test. i am a mixed race from every part of this world, including part black, part jewish, raised catholic, it does not matter.
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unless we stand as a union, a , not government, because we are run by the government. that is who runs this place, the government. we have to come together as human beings, as all races. host: that is venus in pennsylvania. what should be done about confederate monuments? we will continue on the washington journal until the end of the program around 10:00 a.m. eastern time, so continue calling in, give us your thoughts. what is the debate like where you live? news, this is a tweet from an investigative reporter for the new york times -- interior inspector general confirms it is investigating apparent failed effort to pressure senator murkowski to vote yes on obama
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care repeal. the secretary says he is responding to their letter and concerns about a phone call made and mikulski. you requested that the office of inspector general for doi investigate this matter. that from eric lipton this morning. newspapers,o in the every county but one has obama care options for 2018. notionthe president's that the system is imploding. customers in every u.s. county except for one will have at least one insurer on their web-based exchanges set up by the 2010 affordable care act.
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it is a stark turnaround from earlier this year when nearly seven dozen counties at some point face the prospect of having zero options next year, fueling president trump's claimed the law was imploding and needed to be replaced. the new york times says this on the situation in yemen -- a slow death. after two and a half years of war, little is functioning. repeated bombings have crippled bridges, hospitals, and factories. doctors and civil servants have gone unpaid for years. malnutrition has made the country vulnerable to disease most of the world has confined to history books. colorado has killed nearly 2000 people and infected morally -- nearly half a million, one of the largest outbreaks in the past 50 years. the front page of the new york times. republicans are taking their tax reform pitch to fortune 500
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companies. the speaker of the house paul ryan in oregon yesterday talking to intel and the ways and means committee chairman is helping lead the push on taxes and talked up the efforts on wednesday at an at&t town hall in dulles, have -- dallas, after speaking at a ups site in kentucky. arguing cases in the knighted, immigrant says he was booted illegally. a federal judge will rule us in as next week whether to allow the first dreamer deported under the trump administration to return to the united states that border agents ousted him illegally. the judge indicated he would him to return to southern california to testify in a trial that will determine whether he voluntarily left the country or
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was improperly expelled in february. that is a case to watch, from usa today. a story on senator robert menendez of new jersey, he has been denied reprieve from his corruption trial to cast senate votes in september when congress returns. his lawyers made three requests todelay the trial, agreed postpone the trial on days when a key vote would be taking place, or if the judge informed the jury he could not be in court because of washington. the judge dismissed all three requests. that would have added to its length. should mr. menendez be found guilty and removed from the senate, his replacement would be appointed by the sitting governor. if that happens before january 17, governor chris christie would most likely appoint a member of his party, tipping the senate one more vote in the republicans' favor.
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should extend beyond his tenure, the next governor, potentially philip murphy, a democrat who is leading in the polls would make the appointment. jury selection ended on wednesday with a panel of six men and women that to decide whether mr. menendez excepted rives as part of a scheme to trade political favors and influence for luxury vacations and campaign donations. let's go to ed in winchester, virginia. what do you think about this debate? caller: i don't think we should remove the statues. making this an issue now, we are giving the what we nazishe alt-right but the and kkk and people who just hate other people, we have given them something to hold onto.
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if you listen to what they were saying on their ticket george march friday night, they were torch marchki friday night, they were saying down with jews. these are nazis. i blame the governor of the state and the mayor of charlottesville. host: why? what could they have done? caller: you don't have an organization like that plan a rally. torches. carrying tiki they were not wound up with cloth and stuck in kerosene. torchese carrying tiki and you do not just go into home depot on friday and by all of those and that fuel. this is a well organized thing. we know if there is going to be
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a rally like this there is going to be opposition. we should have had the national aard there, we should've had parade route laid out for these people to let them constitutionally gather and speak what is on their mind. we don't like it but we have to let them do it because we have a constitution that gives them the right. we should have separated the two groups with their caves and national guard and that never would have happened. that young girl never would have happened -- have been killed if our governor -- doesn't matter if he is a democrat or republican -- had stopped this. he should have been ready for this. the march on friday night was not a planned march where they applied for a permit. they broke the law. they should have had their permit revoked friday and stopped before the march even started on saturday and all of that. host: carol, shepherdsville,
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kentucky, it is your turn to tell us what you think about these confederate monuments. caller: yes, hi. i really don't believe they should come down. i mean, where does this all stop? our country was young. we went through forming this country and by the way, my background is part of all of it. the north and the south during the civil war, my family was on both sides. -- north and south. they both fought. i did not know any of them. i just know i came from them. thiso argue about any of and have these hate groups and
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president trump was right, on both sides there is hate, and i don't understand it because i don't hate anybody. host: history.com says this about how the u.s. got so many confederate monuments. while every statue in every town has a different origin, taken together the roughly 700 confederate monuments in the united states tell a national story. many of these commemorations of those on the losing side of the civil war are a lot newer than one might think. according to the southern poverty law center, these monuments are spread over 31 states plus the district of the 11a, far exceeding confederate states that seceded at the outset of the civil war. most modern humans did not go up immediately after the end of the war. confederate marketers -- markers tended to be markers of soldiers
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who died. professor said eventually, they started to build confederate monuments. the vast majority were built in the 1890's and 1950's, which matches up with the era of jim crow segregation. the biggest bike was between 1900 and the 1920's. in contrast to the earlier memorials that mourned dead soldiers, these tended to glorify leaders of the confederacy like generally, ,efferson davis -- general lee jefferson davis, and stonewall jackson. the memorials were there to teach values to the person. the values these monuments stood for included a glorification of the cause of the civil war and white women were instrumental in raising funds to build these confederate monuments. united daughters of the
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confederacy in the 1890's was probably most important and influential group. anthony in butler, pennsylvania. what do you think of the debate? caller: i was on facebook and it really sickens me that the monuments that they were tearing down, breaking them, demolishing them, i could see them taking them down and put them in museums but i also see them leaving them up because it is a part of our kids' history of learning in school. now, is so much involved and the united states has to get it together and wake up. we are going to fall apart and that is just what they want, for us to go against each other, fight against each other. these people, the hate groups are doing, they want to be over
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here because they want that allowedbut we are not to have it. it is about the money, the money talks. host: jerry in dalton, georgia, good morning. .aller: good morning i am from the south, groep in the south and have been living in the south my whole life. they absolutely should go away. they are focal points to keep blacks and whites separated, and that needs to be dealt with. i think 50 to 100 years from now thank blackk -- americans for pushing to get rid of these monuments because they are focal points to keep a separated. it reminds me of what lyndon johnson -- i don't know if i have this quote correct -- a white man will give you his last
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dime to make himself feel better than a black person, and i think shat is what these old geezer in the south, they cannot get over it. this is an example of them giving that last dime to keep blacks and whites separate. host: what do you think about stone mountain in georgia? caller: i hope i can live long enough to see it come off of their. they defaced a natural monument and it should never have been done. i think they should -- it should be done away with. host: have you ever visited? caller: yes, i have, when i was a child i did. host: what about the tourist attraction? many people go there. caller: it has other things, it has the lift and other things that would be an attraction. host: what would you replace it with? caller: i hope they can just stand and off. it will always be marred forever
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but i wish they could make it look natural again, is what i would like. i don't know what all these other monuments, what they should do with them. if they want to hold onto that and put them in museums. destroying them would be fine with me, that putting them in museums if they have got to have that, when be fine. host: we are going to go now to atlanta, georgia, great bluestein is joining us, political reporter with the .tlanta georgia constitution explain the significance and physical scale of stone mountain in georgia. guest: it is huge, the biggest monument to the confederate war in the nation. the carving is even bigger than mount rushmore. it took something like, decades to finish with a lot of starts and stops and was not formally finished until the 1970's.
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it is a state owned monument and that complicates things. the state of georgia owns it and operates it with an entertainment company that runs it as an attraction. they turn it into snow mountain in the winter so people can sled down another part of the site. it is one of george's top tourist sites but also this giant homage to the confederate war dead. jefferson davis, general lee, and stonewall jackson, it measures three acres, towers 400 feet above the ground, measures 90 by 190 feet and is recessed 42 feet into the mountains. guest: every single time we have
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debates about confederate symbols, you cannot help but look at stone mountain. georgia has the second-most number of confederate monuments outside of virginia. atlanta and savannah have most of them. stone mountain is its own unique debate, and this year we have a democrat candidate for senator who is the former house and horny leader, calling for the removal of the carving. it has incited a debate -- house minority leader, calling for the removal of the carving. needs to be put in context and they need to have more articles about slavery and the true cause of the civil war. republicans have all condemned stacy abrams' call to remove these carvings. there are some petitions out. inflamed early
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goings of the georgia race for governor. host: explain the history of this mountain and its ties to the ku klux klan. guest: it is where the kkk was reborn in the early 1900s. they would have cross burnings and rallies on top of the mountain. it was owned by a prominent segregationist in georgia with ties to the kkk movement. it has long been a very complicated, vexing issue in georgia. recently over the last few decades, the area has become lots more african-american and elected its first black mayor a few decades ago. now three or four residents living in the city of stone mountain are african-american. if you go to the site on an average day, you will see an unbelievably diverse crowd -- blacks, whites, asians, hispanics, people going picnicking and hiking.
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it is beautiful. you see a sort of cornucopia of folks out there enjoying the site, and most nights in the summer they have a laser show on the side of the mountain over the carving. they play "whistling dixie," and it isgod bless america." a very bizarre scene that many of us who grew up in georgia grew up going to. debate likes the right now for what will happen? early georgia law, in the 2000, there was a compact, a to whense agreed georgia tried to take his rebel emblem off its state flag. lawmakers also put in a statute that said essentially that all confederate memorials are protected under law in georgia. there was a specific provision
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rejecting and safeguarding stone mountain from changes so there has to be a change in state law in order to make any changes to stone mountain, or really any other civil war era monument around the state. there is debate about revisiting that. the governor and republican lawmakers and many democrats have little appetite for going and trying to sandblast or explode the carvings off stone mountain, but there is a broader debate that will unfold next year when the legislature comes back in session about revisiting the other part of the law and allowing local governments more control over their monument in their backyards. right now, they are safeguarded by state law. talk about the expense and undertaking of trying to sandblast stone mountain. guest: we have this long story about that the other day. essentially, it could take years.
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it is not as easy as getting a giant sandblaster and blasting it off. it would likely take a lot of explosives, environmental studies, and time. it has been done before. there was an earlier version of a carving that one of the artists did not like so he exploded it off and restart it. it has been done before where limited use of explosives have removed the face from stone withain, but it this time that big of a carving it would take a lot of time, money, and effort. bluestein, reporter with the atlanta journal-constitution. you can follow the debate over stone mountain. thank you very much. guest: thank you for having me. host: let's go back to jerry and dalton, georgia. did you learn anything? can tell he wants to
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have it both ways, i think. it did take a lot of money to put it up there, but let's spend a lot of money to take it down. i think it will be worth it in the future for black and white of georgia. host: i read in one story today that the stone mountain cost $2 million at the time, to put up. caller: i would be willing to spend whatever it takes to get it off that natural monolith, which i think is the largest in the world. host: bill in chicago, good morning. what do you think of this discussion? what are your thoughts? should these confederate monuments stay or go? them inwe can recall museums, and to continue to celebrate them with building monuments to them, that is ridiculous.
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and i am not an chart -- child of a soldier. put them in museums. it is all about history. learn from hurricane and all the flags and guns will not save you. , you oughtstatutes to put up the world war ii ziserans who fought the na and if you want to see a
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monument, go see crazy horse's monument. host: michael, st. louis, missouri. caller: i just kind of wanted to speak a minute on lincoln. at the end of one of his final speeches he said that there should be charity to all and malice towards non--- nine, and no one cares about that -- none, and no one cares about that. host: mark in san diego, what are your thoughts? are a capitalist country and unfortunately a bunch of capitalists have gotten their hands on this whole discussion. because they have, we have been pitted one against the other. if you will want to see your nation truly survive and get back to what it should be, our forefathers, they set a goal for
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us. they said something for us to reach to, not something to dwell on in the past. forever been and are thought man unless you folks can take your heads out of your po -poes and vote third or fourth party. are voting for somebody that belongs to the republican or democrat party, you are not voting for yourself. it does not matter how good the person is because they have to please the party. for god's sake, folks, take a deep breath, take a step back, quick being -- quit being victimized by our own propaganda and act like we are headed for a future. we should be kind and loving each other, and if you want to at up a monument, put up monument to man's ignorance and make it absolutely clear. host: what should be done about
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confederate arguments question -- monuments? lori in pueblo, colorado. caller: i was a democrat but after that last call, i don't know. i may change my party. i think they never should have been put up to begin with. they are a sore reminder of what people went through and years from now, college professors will be pointing to them and saying, look how foolish and students will be laughing and saying, i can't believe it in this country. alabama.d, huntsville, what do you have to say? caller: i decided to call in on this because it wasn't about politics or anything. i am saving that for five months and giving trump a chance. people, just try to live our lives. try to live and be the best we can be. the statues are there.
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if you want to monitor them and watch them, do it. if you don't, don't. there are more important things in life than the statues. in bowie, maryland. what are your thoughts on the debate? caller: basically, when i noticed is, being from virginia and going back to monument avenue i noticed that the statues, i thought they were created before the 1920's but i realize now they were created as part of an inspiration by the wilsonpresident woodrow who inspired the rise of the nation, torth of the pretty much inspire people in the south that the south will rise again. and basically that was the beginning of a lot of torturous
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times for african-americans. that being said, we ought to move those statues to david duke's backyard or the confederate museum of richmond where they employ a lot of people. you do not have to destroy the statues, move them. they should not involve taxpayers' funds or the state of virginia to take care of them, clean them, and maintain them. host: what do you think about renaming of schools? 109 political -- public schools confederate icons. schools, nearly 25% have a student body that is primarily black while almost a 10th of the schools have a student body that is more than 90% black. caller: as the population has schools, andhose their parents and people in the school committees, to make a
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determination to change the names of those schools to support people who supported the freedom of the ancestors of those students. basically, why should we celebrate robert e lee? why should my child be in that classroom or go to a school where he or she is reminded of something negative in terms of the impact on his or her ancestors? that is not correct. they should have an opportunity to change the name to support their heritage. host: where the 700 statutes and monuments -- statues and monuments are located, more than 25% are in virginia and georgia alone. texas, south carolina, alabama, and mississippi take up 30%. nearly 77% were built or dedicated before 1950 while 6% were built or read dedicated
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during the era of the civil rights movement. 4% were built or dedicated after the year 2000. anna from las vegas. caller: thank you for taking my call. my feeling with these infederate statues are that kind of agree with jerry and the last caller. , as taxpayers, have to provide the money for the statues and my question to you, politico was talking about the percentage. what about the percentage of the states that celebrate confederate holidays? host: give us a little bit more, anna. what are you referring to? caller: i lived in texas for a short time. the confederate holidays, they actually have a confederate day. statues being
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removed and the confederate holiday, and the year that i lived in texas they also had marching around with the kkk. ifonestly feel that somebody's parents or ancestors were raped, torn apart from their families, and slaved, beaten, and you walk by these, i don't think a lot of our younger generation are really into the history. not that our history books are all correct at all, but the confederate, they were against the fact that black people should be free. host: our producer found on sink progress' website, eight states have holidays celebrating the confederacy. politico, from
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jefferson davis highway in san diego, california, nearly 500 roads, memorials, and bridges memorialize the confederacy. , lee county,exas north carolina among others. richard, elkland, new jersey. caller: how are you today? host: good morning. caller: listen, let's get back to the beginning. the british were the first ones to bring slaves here. let's get back to the constitution, all men are created equal. these statues, they should just scrap them, build them down and get a little money back under scrap. they all should go and they never should have gone up. god bless america. host: robert is in fort worth, texas, watching us there. caller: good morning.
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little like to show a perspective in this and i'm going to try to make a point. a question is, not to be a rhetorical question, if knocking down all of these statues -- and i'm not for all of these statues -- if knocking them down, will prejudice and hatred go away? 1974, myme to texas in father got a transfer. we were living in the houston area. i heard nothing but horrible things. i was from new jersey. i was this, that, a dam yankee. person.ike, i am a bad aen i get a job working in predominately black run hospital district in houston and i heard all kinds of things. i was called cracker, white guy, and other things. i am thinking, here i am getting
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it from both sides. fast forward to now. learned behavior. well knocking down all of these things, will it work? will it stop people from hating each other? what next, what a regal into knock down next? it goes around and around. host: what about the argument that having the statues that were, many of them in directed during the jim crow segregation, having them on state grounds or public squares of firms for for peopleffirms like white nationalists that having the statue there is an affirmation for them, and for african-americans it is a reminder of slavery and that there was an effort by some in
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this country to keep them in bondage, what about that? are you there? caller: i am here. yes. maybe this will answer your question. when i was a very young child, all of these wonderful statues were poured. i thought statues were put up for good people who do good things. ,eople who do bad things statues should not be erected for these people. , theymany in world war ii completely erased everything about the third reich. .he third reich was terrible i was watching the shows on netflix about world war ii. the pattern of warfare that went on back then, it continues. ands like there is a book people committing war are
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.eading the same playbook it does not seem to stop. downtake the statues because people were down who did those horrible things. host: more of your calls coming up, but first, president trump's relationship with congress and those in his party, on tuesday at a rally in arizona the president said shut down the government if i do not get my funding for the wall. trump congress conflict escalates, the wall may upend a difficult gop agenda. threatss counter his over a shutdown and the democrats are saying there is no way they will agree to a funding of the wall. when the house and senate return next month, they have 12 legislative days they are in session to get a budget done before the new fiscal year starts october 1. threatts blast trump's
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of shutdown for a wall, rum us to stand firm on no funding for a fence. president trump tweeted out -- i requested that mitch m. and paul ryan tithe a debt ceiling legislation into the popular v.a. bill which just passed, for easy approval. day did not do it so now we have a big deal with dems holding them up on the debt ceiling approval. could have been so easy, now a mess. another legislative item congress needs to deal with because the treasury is running out of money to pay our debts, so congress will need to act to lift that the four october. all of those debates to look october.o in in san diego, that to our conversation on confederate margate -- monuments, what is your take? caller: i think monuments were
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about history but i can understand if they really hurt people and i can understand people really being hurt by them. what really bothers me is why it is so easy to do things. we talk about stupid monuments. when i lived in detroit, i can hardly find a small business ran by black men. it was all people who barely speak english -- and i have nothing against pete -- immigrants -- but why are these small business loans not giving more money to white people and black people? they are from everywhere but america. i do not understand why more blacks are not given small business loans. host: tom in hardeeville, california -- south carolina. caller: on these confederate monuments, i think we need to step back and look at them in the context of the civil war and
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the times that these individuals lived in. the united states was a far different country than it is today. if you study the history, people identified with their states first and the country second. the civil war changed all of that, where we now consider ourselves americans first or south carolinians. i grew up in illinois. you consider yourself an american first. i think it is a great time to start looking into the history of the civil war, teaching at a lot more, and using the monuments, saying if we continue doing certain things this is going to be a possible result. it tore the country apart. you can use all these monuments to say, we cannot treat our citizens differently. or colorjudge by race or creed or religion because this is what the result becomes
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ultimately. that, doorder to do you have to take these monuments out of the public square, away from the state capitals, and put them next to other statues in a museum or cemetery and give them context and equality and prominence with other people from that era? having themink that in public places might not be the greatest thing, but it also puts them in the public eye and makes people think about it. if you have to go to a museum specifically to look at one of these things, what are your chances of doing that as opposed to, like here in savanna which is close to where i live, have a large confederate monument to the confederate war debt. it makes you think about it every time you walk by and say, you know, this might not have been the best cause.
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world, andged the these people were people of their time. , theyidn't think like us didn't act like us, and we cannot really understand based on our perspective, what their thought process and life was like. but we do know one thing, if we continue doing what we are doing we are going to tear ourselves apart. these are visual symbols of, if we continue doing it, this is what is going to happen or could happen. host: kevin in california, kevin, good morning. caller: good morning, greta. how are you? host: doing well. caller: throughout history, many other countries around the world had slavery so nothing is new necessarily about slavery. however, american slavery was particularly cruel for several reasons. slaves were brought here with
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just from thousands of miles away with no chance of getting back to their families. their children were turned into slaves and had no chance of freedom. these statues stand as a reminder for the black man and woman today, americans, that this is what happened to their family in the past and there is no reason at all that you can tell me that there should be something in the public where our brothers and sisters walk by and remind them of the way their families were treated. host: eric, self employed, new jersey. what -- new jersey. what do you think about confederate monuments? caller: you can't fight racism. it is a terrible thing and i feel for those people, but you have to think like, these were american boys. these are statues of american
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boys, soldiers. they had extreme courage to do what they did and fight for their rights, their state rights. they believed their government was committing tyranny and that shaved a lot of our policies as a country today. we don't stand for a government that commits tyranny or tries to break the constitution, so i just think that tearing them down is on american -- un -american. you are tearing down a veterans monument and i think it is wrong. politicale noted, reports that of the 700 confederate monuments in this country, most of them reside in virginia, georgia, and other southern states. there is one confederate monument in the state of massachusetts. joining us on the phone as a reporter with the boston globe. history of give us a this confederate monument in boston. it wasessentially,
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erected in 1963 during the civil by thetennial, put up united daughters of the confederacy but a branch in boston that is now defunct. it is behind a visitor center on an island in boston's harbor outside the national historic monument called fort warren where thousands of confederate soldiers were imprisoned. the monument only remembers 13 soldiers that died and it has a confederate feel, has their wars, and calls civil between the states. it has been there since 1963 and has not been noticed by a lot of people. it is kind of subtle. host: can you see it today? it is there but as of june 13 it has been boarded up because of the governor, charlie baker said we don't want a monument that does not stand for
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the liberty and equality of all people in massachusetts. the mass historical commission and the department of conservation and recreation is trying to figure out what to do with it essentially. host: can massachusetts take it down? can the government take it down? guest: they can take it down but apparently from what i understand when i wrote my story, this came after new orleans took down their confederate monuments, four of them. a letter was sent from the dcr to the historical commissions asking, how do we do this? they said submit a form and tell us what you are intending to do with it, your preferred method of removing it and where should we put it? they are looking at museums and there is a lot of discussion but now it is at a standstill. host: governor charlie baker, a republican, said this. he believes we should refrain from the display
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of symbols, especially in our public parks, that do not support liberty and equality for the people of massachusetts, quoted in the boston globe. what has it been like in massachusetts? guest: it has been very interesting. andas been reported before people did not know we had a udc chapter here. when i reached out to udc they did not respond. unlike monuments that were constructed after the civil war or the turn-of-the-century or commissioned back then, this was only 1963 in the middle of the black power movement. the civil rights movement was gaining strength. a lot of monuments that honor the confederacy came up at that time shortly after jim crow, so there is the sense that these monuments were put up to intimidate and to remember history in a false narrative. they asked the question to me,
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what do we want to remember? while others would say it is a part of history and maybe we should relocate it because it should not have a place of legitimacy in a national historic landmark, but put it in a museum in proper context of what the confederacy took -- stood for. host: what is next in this debate? guest: i called them yesterday. i am following it and am hopeful that we will hear something within a few weeks. necessary, the form is needed so the historical commission can review it and then it is relocation. right now, nobody can see it in before when you could see it, most people did not notice it and there had not been requests to remove it. host: to follow what is next for this confederate monument in boston you can go to boston globe.com or twitter at boston globe.
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announcer: tonight at 8:30 p.m. ,astern, science in the soul the scientific way of thinking prejudice.g on >> it can help you enormously and thinking about what to do. you can identify logical inconsistencies in your moral position. >> a former slave became the first african-american captain of an army ship and went on to survive terms in congress. and was fascinated by him the idea that i never heard of him. i had done through my work at national geographic and smithsonian and new york times civil war blog had read a lot of
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stories about the civil war and was amazed to find he was not a venerated figure. announcer: on afterwards, george the role inibes shaping america, interviewed why the financial times. supported the federal exchange act, again, with the idea that this would stabilize money at that point. local banks could issue money against gold they supposedly had in their faults. they created a national currency. ,he journalist reported that but in the 1920's begin have second thoughts. announcer: for more on this weeks in schedule, go to book tv.org. the national hurricane center has announced that hurricane harvey is now a tropical storm.
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the gulf state area is in the midst of a catastrophic flooding event that could bring as much as 20 more inches of brain to regions in texas and elsewhere along the gulf. texas senator ted cruz tweeted out this message, "houston is on flood alert with flooding on major highways. please avoid driving on flooded roads." , governor greg abbott held a briefing to talk about conditions in his state and services provided by the state and federal governments.

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