tv Hearing Examines NASA Research on Solar Eclipse CSPAN October 1, 2017 6:31pm-8:01pm EDT
skewered the truth and as such a fiasco that even having an insurance -- what you are saying needs to being sufficient to provide services, but it has to be good quality care, which most of it is not. >> you as well as anyone would know there have been discussions over the decades in various panels and organizations, how do we have a meaningful, quality outcome as they keep offering new measures, but it is not really implemented and there is no culture of enforcement. that sly i have argued that what we are facing in this country is what amounts to an epidemic of behavioral health malpractice, even if it isn't acknowledged as system.hin the legal that is in part because the reality of malpractice attorneys
is they don't take a case unless someone has died. announcer: watched tonight at 9:00 p.m. eastern on c-span two book tv. announcer: now a house hearing on the research conducted during the total solar eclipse of august 21, and how events like the eclipse can help generate student interest in scientific fields. this is one hour and 20 minutes. rep. comstock: the committee on science, space and technology will come to order. the objection the chair is authorized to declare recessed as a committee at any time. good morning and welcome to today's hearing entitled the great american eclipse to totality and beyond. i recognize myself for an opening statement, but i'm going to submit most of my prepared statement for a record. we need to finish the hearing before votes are called around
10:30 a.m., so apologies for truncating things. we will be inspired by our witnessing today -- witnesses today and harnessing the enthusiasm for the eclipse we saw when people really came together. i know my husband had was with the cereal box doing this. he is a math teacher. he was really excited. so we really are excited to see this whole generation of students who are interested in this and would like to now translate that into stem careers. excited to hear from our witnesses today. i'm going to shorten up and submit my statement for the record and then i'm going to now recognize the ranking member , the gentleman from california, mr. barra. -- dr. bera: the eclipse is absolutely exciting.
to the science center in sacramento. what was great about it was the number of kids that were out there. they had their glasses. and the number of amateur astronomers. me of theds excitement growing up with the apollo program and the generation of scientists that spawned and encouraged people to go into science. we were at goddard with my staff visiting with the helio scientists out there. they were talking about the science program. name, butmember the she was one of the most enthusiastic people i have seen. if we can have more of this enthusiasm and excitement, it will generate a generation of kids wanting to get into science. i will keep my comments short, i will yield -- yield back and i'm excited to hear what you have to say. rep. comstock: i recognize the chairman of the committee for
another statement. >> thank you. in august, millions of americans turned their eyes to the sky to a solara rare event, eclipse. it was a profound experience for anyone fortunate enough to be in the path of totality, and exciting for those who witnessed a partial eclipse. and eclipse is a site that has inspired previous generations and one i hope will inspire a whole new group of young people to study the universe and beyond. it was a 1878 american eclipse that inspired a young inventor, thomas edison. he took a trip to wyoming and viewed the solar eclipse, in an attempt to study the sun's outer atmosphere. the experiment failed, but allowed him to think about the principals of light and power. the very next year invented the -- he invented the incandescent light bulb. who knows what discoveries this year's eclipse will inspire but , but we do know it has already
generated an enthusiasm for astronomy, astrophysics and astrobiology. of nasa, the good work nsf and their partners, that enthusiasm was converted to viewing parties, stem education lessons, and citizen science engaging millions of americans. we have the privilege of hearing from a panel of witnesses who helped make the day a success. i thank our witnesses and look forward seeing their incredible photos and videos. learning what scientific discoveries may come from experiments conducted during the eclipse, and hearing what's next for solar science. it's human nature to seek out the unknown and discover more about the universe around us. we have an extraordinary opportunity to turn enthusiasm for the great american eclipse into a renewal of american physics and astronomy that lasts far beyond the two minutes of totality. we yield back. rep. comstock: thank you. i now recognize the chairman of
the space subcommittee, dr. bauman, for an opening statement. >> thank you. i want to thank our colleagues and witnesses that have come forth in this interesting hearing. something that struck me about this eclipse is the level of excitement that it generated all across the united states. the eclipse was something that really brought us all together in our inspiration and awe. i want to also add that nasa's web traffic during the eclipse skyrocketed. peaked seven- times higher than the previous record. the online viewing audience compare would the audience of the super bowl and even netflix lost 10% of the day's viewership of the eclipse. and schools across the country incorporated the eclipse into their teaching programs. there's no telling how it sparked the imagination of schoolkids and captured their fascination. i thoroughly enjoyed myself showing and explaining to our
schoolchildren in the district, including my own grandchildren, the little cereal boxes that the chairwoman just talked about that we made. they are solar viewer projectors , i think is what the real name is. but it was one of those rare wonderful events that was exciting to the scientific community as it was to the man on the street. was an inspiration to the youth and brings to mind an interesting comparison in a way that the 2017 solar eclipse is almost like a space mission that was brought into our own back yards. i'm very excited about the upcoming 2024 eclipse, which in my opinion, can be even more impressive and awe inspiring. not the least because the path to totality for this eclipse travels right across my home state of texas. i want to thank you all for your testimony and looking forward to it. and i yield back, madam chair. rep. comstock: thank you and i
will now introduce our witnesses. our first witness today is dr. james ulvestad, acting assistant director for mathematical and physical sciences at the national science foundation. prior to the nsf, he was assistant director of the radio astronomy observatory where he over saw the very large array and baseline array radio telescopes. he is also served in various capacities at the nasa jet propulsion laboratory. received his bachelor of arts degree in astronomy from the university of california in los angeles and phd in astronomy from the university of maryland. our second witness today is dr. thomas -- i'm going to let you -- [laughter] he previously served as a professor of space science and aerospace engineering at the
university of -- michigan. he has worked on several nasa missions including ulysses. he earned his master's of sands in physics from the university of bern in switzerland. our third witness is dr. heidi hammel executive vice president , of the university of research and astronomy. that is a group of u.s. 34 universities and institutions that operate world class astronomical observatories, including hubble, the national optical astronomy observatory, the national solar observatory and the gemini observatory. since 2003, she has served as one of six interdisciplinary scientists assisting nasa on the james web space telescope. she received her undergraduate from an i.t. and phd in physics and astronomy from the university of hawaii.
our fourth witness today is dr. matthew penn, astronomer at the national solar observatory in arizona. he is a principal investigator on the citizens continental telescope eclipse experiment or citizen cate. a telescope scientist. specifically he works on the dkist telescope project under construction in hawaii developing infrared science and instrumental requirements. he received his bachelor of science degree and astronomy from cal tech as well as from -- a phd from the university of hawaii. our fifth witness today is miss michelle nichols-yehling director of public observing , the adler planetarium in chicago. she shows programs and events for the guests here she also leads the various telescope
observatory and sky observing efforts. she earned hes bachelor's of science degree in physics and astronomy from the university of illinois and masters of education in curriculum and instruction from national st. louis university. dr. the listed ulvestad for his testimony. thank you. dr. james ulvestad i'm acting : assistant director for mathematical and physical science directors at the national science foundation and thank you for the opportunity to testify today. i want to focus my remarks on the large scale out reach associate would with the eclipse. as you said, august 21 was an exciting day for citizens and scientists alike, as our nation was center stage for the total solar eclipse, the first since
1979 in the continental u.s.. so scientists and spectators , from around the world gathered across this country to witness this extraordinary event. the eclipse was a total solar eclipse, where direct sunlight was blocked for over two minutes when the moon covered the sun. it made its way from oregon to south carolina, eliminating it 70 mile wide path across 14 states. the rest of the continental u.s. experienced a percentage of a partial eclipse during the 90 minute traverse across the country. is the basis for life on earth. it's magnetic field and atmosphere fuel space weather that affects earth's power grids and communications systems. this leads the anna faris -- nsf
to broader research related to our local star. we track the development of sunspots, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. they work to better understand how these phenomena are associate would the magnetic -- with the sun's magnetic field, which influences the space weather events that can wreak havoc on our technology. during the eclipse, the hyatt altitude observatory at the nsf center for atmospheric research in partnership with the harvard smithsonian center for astrophysics flu and airborne infrared spectrometer inside the gulfstream five research aircraft. this instrument collected infrared data to probe the complex magnetic environment of the sun's corona. of course, there are no results yet as they will come out over the next year or two. researchers in general continue to study the behavior of the sun to develop learnings of solar storms that may be coming towards earth. so the global oscillations network group of nsf's national
solar observatory, a network of six solar monitoring telescopes cited worldwide provides , full-time monitoring of the sun and critical element of sports casting models. so let me move to the eclipse and some of the outreach efforts. first, i want to say here that any funding that the federal government put into this was leveraged by a factor of 1000 by ia, high school students, random citizens, and amateur astronomers who engaged with the public. i really want to thank them for that. one of the activities that the chairwoman already mentioned was , continental american telescope eclipse. that included a network of 68 identical telescopes based along of totality, path operated by citizen scientists, high school groups, and
universities. the nsf director, shown on this slide, was pleased to be in wyoming, which i think had a 100,000 increase in population for one day to experience the solar eclipse and participate in citizen cate outreach. you will hear more about this from dr. matt penn. the nsf also funded the astronomical program called solar eclipse across america. this included a mini grant that funded 31 projects in 21 states. now as far as the future goes, by early 2020, nsf's solar telescope, the new center piece of the national solar observatory, will be complete on maui, hawaii. it will provide researchers an unprecedented close-up view of the solar corona without having to wait for a solar eclipse. the enhanced understanding of the sun and the origin of solar storms will undoubtedly contribute to better space weather predictions in the future.
the solar eclipse was a great opportunity for scientific research and it is an engagement in an event that brought a sense of wonder and curiosity to citizens alike. the basic research conducted will revolutionize our understanding of the sun in the future. we're looking forward to the next eclipse in 2024. there will also be an annual eclipse in 2023. so a six month ahead rehearsal and we're pleased to enjoy the support of the public in fulfilling our role. we thank the subcommittee members for their ongoing support of nsf and our efforts to serve the people of the united states. rep. comstock: we now recognize doctors herbage and -- dr. thomas zurbuchen. >> madam chair, members of the subcommittee, i represent the thousands of volunteers, partners and nasa employees who made the 2017 eclipse the biggest media event in nasa. i would like to discuss nasa's experience with the eclipse, our
-- highlight the results of our science and stem efforts and discuss how important heliophysics is for nasa's missions. monday, august 21st, solar clips across the continental u.s. occurred for the first time in almost a century. i will share with you my own vantage point, which was 45,000 feet over the pacific ocean in an aircraft outfitted with experiments to capture before, during, and after the event. it was really breathtaking. watch. [video clip] >> look. incredible! wow! do you see the lines? wow. it's absolutely amazing.
just look at this background. we're in the middle of a dark cloud. so it's popping back out. there it comes. wow. see the ring around it. that's the solar ring. so cool. unbelievable. i've done research on this for 25 years. i've never seen it, you know. dr. thomas zurbuchen: so i was excited, you may be able to tell. i was so excited i mixed up the colors. it's called a diamond ring, not the solar ring. if you want to quote that. anyway our nasa team and , scientists have been planning for this eclipse for many years . with me at the hearing is dr. alex young. our project manager has been a champion for the eclipse and working with the nasa team for over three years. the team focused on key ,riorities -- safety, science
and citizen science education, and public engagement. to accomplish these priorities, we knew we couldn't do it alone. the had entire agency rallied and each of our 10 centers led events,nctions and partnering broadly. the eclipse was the biggest science outreach event in modern science history, working with citizens across 14 states, nearly 7000 libraries 200 , museums, planetary and science centers, 40 challenger centers 20 national parks, zoos and even , baseball stadiums. more than 50 million unique viewers watched across multiple nasa and media platforms and 90 million page views on the eclipse day alone on the nasa website. these numbers exceed previous records by many times over. it was really clear not only professionals were deeply moved by it, but amateurs alike. this is truly moving. that's what nasa science does
for us every day. showing now our views of the solar eclipse from various nasa assets 11 of them were focused , on this unique event as well as three aircraft. in fact, when looking at the eclipse, i could not help myself thinking of the solar probe launching next year, which will travel closer to the sun then which will revolutionize our understanding of the sun, which is really the rosetta stone of understanding of all stars in the universe. additionally, we could take advantage of unique opportunities provided by the eclipse to do science. we will continue to improve after the launching later on our understanding and capabilities
for what is happening to the region at the edge of space. we also want to stress citizen science. i'm going to let matt talk about this. it's valuable to have science done by citizens, not just professionals, and there's true value with this, not just here but elsewhere. with safety a top priority, we published protocols on our websites and partnered with the american astronomical society, nsf, and others to spread the word about eye safety. this proved critical when it was discovered that uncertified solar glasses were making to the market. we owe a debt of gratitude to our partners that help identifying and communicate which glasses were safe. we distributed our 4.3 million glasses. in closing, let me talk about helio physics, or solar and space physics, which protects and improves life on earth. this total solar eclipse provided the unique opportunity
of seeing the source of space, whether with our naked eye. the atmosphere of our magnetic star. this corona impacts the earth through the solar wind explosions on the sun, solar flares, and energetic particles effecting our space assets and technological infrastructure. so we want to make these improvements for better use for noaa and the dod. so i too suggest that we start making plans for the next solar eclipse in the u.s. on april 8, 2024. it's going to be another great opportunity for all of us to learn about the solar system we live in, and i really suggest you get started with hotel reservations. [laughter] they got really expensive for latecomers. thank you so much. rep. comstock: thank you. mel.w recognize dr. ham hammel: madam chair
and members, thank you for the opportunity to testify about the total solar eclipse. on august 21, millions watched as our star disappeared from the sky. at the same time, scientists scramble to gather as much data as possible about the sun's famed corona. the sun's corona is the source of solar storms. the term space weather refers to the effects of these storms on the earth and other planets in our solar system. we live inside the atmosphere of an active star. in 1859, a monster solar storm, the carrington event, stunned the world. telegraph systems world wide went haywire, a meeting sparks that not only shocked the telegraph operators but actually set telegraph paper on fire. it's sobering to imagine the catastrophic social and economic destruction of a carrington-like storm on today's infrastructure
, including gps satellite electricity grids, and communication satellites. that is why understanding the sun and space weather are critical national imperatives. eclipses offer one of the best opportunities to study the sun's active corona. but eclipses are rare. to study the corona without an eclipse, the national solar observatory is building the telescope for the nsf. when completed in 2020, dkist will be the world's most powerful solar telescope. it will yield exquisite observations of the corona and magnetic field. but let me return to the 2017 total solar eclipse, because it too was a unique opportunity to
advance solar science and public engagement. and so began preparing more than five years ago, focusing their efforts on science and safety. claire and her team developed a social media campaign with a variety of content, including monthly webcasts that focused on science and educational engagement. on eclipse day nso participated , in two major solar out reach events. the first was in wyoming. it culminated years of effort to prepare this tiny community of 200 people for this event. the local sheriff's office estimated that 185,000 people descended on tiny glendo, wyoming, including, as you saw, the director of nsf. the second event in salem, oregon focused on high school students.
nso, in partnership with other groups, trained a dozen students, all of whom are minorities underrepresented in the stem fields to be ambassadors of science and on eclipse day the students led the programs for the community. looking to the future, as you heard, another total eclipse will sweep the country from texas to maine, and we are already preparing. we plan to engage with students in underrepresented demographic groups well in advance of the 2024 eclipse to prepare a new set of students to be community leaders and science ambassadors . finally my colleague, matt penn ,, developed an ambitious eclipse program to combine public engagement with science . i'd like to share a video about several young people in dr. penn's citizen cate program. [video clip] >> a native american reservation school in northern montana. they took a road trip with their science teacher to watch and
study the eclipse. >> it's just amazing opportunity for the kids because this is real-life science and it helps them be exposed to what kind of opportunities there might be in the future. >> these students are one of 68 teams nationwide who participated in an amateur science experiment called citizen cate. >> we're trying to get pictures so we can study the corona. reporter: when the moment finally arrived, darkness descended on the town, and the sight they had been waiting for arrived. before they knew it, it was over with. but for these kids from a remote native american reservation, two minutes and 27 seconds will stay with them for a lifetime. just something that you don't forget.
dr. heidi hammel: this eclipse changed their lives. the citizen cate observations may improve everyone's lives. they helped us gather the largest volume of science quality eclipse data ever recorded and i will turn the microphone to dr. matt penn to describe his program. i appreciate your attention and happy to answer any questions. rep. comstock: thank you. we recognize dr. penn. andpenn: madam chair members of the chair committee, thank you for the opportunity. while she was crying tears of joy in wyoming, jack erickson and his students in vale, arizona were close to tears but for a completely different reason. if i could have my first slide, it was raining at their site. jack and his students were really eager to collect data. they had practiced for months. along the way, they had spoken with many newspaper and tv reporters about the program. this media coverage followed many of our cate teams across
the nation. local affiliates would find students, and do stories on them. the students would get recognized not for scoring a touchdown, but for doing a stem project and observing the sun. my colleague that nasa do an excellent job of the zip -- observing the solar corona, but even they have a gap in understanding. a total solar eclipse opens up a window that allows us to study the inner corona and the citizen cate experiment was designed to take advantage of that opportunity. it fills the gap we currently have in our understanding of the corona. specifically, we were trying to measure the solar wind above the north and south poles of the sun as it moves through thin magnetic structures we call polar plumes. just like watching your daughter and watching her drink a milkshake through a transparent straw, you can measure the velocity by tracking features. we can use the cate data to
measure the velocity of the solar wind that way. the winde a milkshake, has important implications for space weather, so it's critical we understand it. on the day of the eclipse, the teams had enormous success. 62 of 68 sites collected images of the corona. joined by to be someone from the space science institute, who returned to alma mater and took data on the 50-yard line in a stadium filled with 5,000 cheering fans. we can see on the third slide that the skies cleared for jack and his team. they were able to capture images with their telescope. on the left, you can see the corona that has been filtered slightly to show it as you might see with your eye, and on the right, a more highly enhanced version of the image that brings out details you can't see with your eyes. each of the images chose the solar atmosphere across the region that is more than one million miles across on each side.
where youne location have two minutes to view the corona, you don't see a lot of when the data is combined, it allows us to see changes across 90 minutes of time. on the next slide, i put together a very rough cut movie. we collected over 45,000 images of the corona that day but in the four weeks i've only been able to process about 300 of them to show you today. if we imagine the moon is a clock face at about the 7:00 position, you can see a system of out flows moving away from the sun. these are traveling about 20 -- and if you look cloche closely -- closely at 5:00, there is a quickening. this is solar wind traveling at something like 200,000 miles per hour or faster. with even just 1% of the data analyzed, we are getting a new view of the solar corona we haven't seen before. a lot of science will follow.
i would like to close by saying this has been an uplifting and humbling experience at the same time. it is uplifting because it teaches us we are smart enough to predict when these will occur. on my next slide, you can see that the next eclipse visible across the u.s. will occur on april 8, 2024. but if we go further and find out when is the next total solar eclipse visible from dallas, texas it will occur 1:57 p.m. in the year 2345 on so mark your saturday, june 30. calendars, please. [laughter] it is also a humbling experience because it teaches us we have no control over the huge planetary bodies that cause eclipses. it reminds us we're just little people sitting on a big rock watching the show. it doesn't matter your nationality, age, or gender, a total solar eclipse is a really moving and human experience. so i'm looking forward to enjoying the next experience in april of 2024 and looking
forward to answering any questions you might have as well. now we will hear from mr. nichols-yehling. ms. nichols-yehling: madam chairwoman and members of the subcommittees, thank you for this opportunity to testify. millions of people across the united states gathered. friends, families and strangers gathered by the hundreds, thousands, or tens of thousands in public spaces. they gathered in small groups or found places to be alone. no matter the size of the group the goal was the same. , look up at the sky at an astronomical spectacle that hadn't been seen for several decades. a solar eclipse. coordination and planning of efforts for public engagement started several years ago. organizations such as the american astronomical society and the astronomical society of the pacific help institutions and groups talk to each other. the american astronomical society and nasa served as clearinghouses of reliable scientific content to help the media, public and educators engage with the eclipse phenomenon. the university at carbondale and
university of missouri in columbia planned extensive public opportunities at many audience engagement levels. institutions like the adler planetarium in chicago organized events for those who could travel to the path of totality month but still wanted to enjoy the partial eclipse. these were massive efforts that reached millions of people across the country. the other planetarium started planning for this eclipse three years ago. we had several goals for our programs. increase the capacity of organizations around the chicago area to host their own eclipse observing events, make residents of chicago, their surrounding suburbs and those in the region aware of what was happening, and empower with the skills and tools to eclipse them schbls. observe eclipse themselves. serve as a trusted source of information for the public and media provide eclipse resources , for those that might not otherwise have access. also reach traditionally
, underserved audiences and get them interested in our universe, even if they had not been interested previously. this was chicago's eclipse to share. our events were free and open to everyone. in addition to our programs in chicago and the surrounding suburbs, we brought our galaxy program to several rural communities in southern illinois. we were also honored to be asked by southern illinois university to assist them with planning and facilitating several events that garnered national and international attention. what were the results of these efforts? we distributed free of charge over 250,000 safe eclipse viewing glasses, including 10,000 given to schools to help students and teachers in the chicago area watch the eclipse during the school day. the chicago public library system and libraries throughout the region held a eclipse viewing activities at dozens of library branches. park district parks held eclipse viewing events.
our partners like the chicago botanic garden, morton arboretum, and wonder works children's museum held viewing opportunities that welcomed thousands more participants. we empowered people who did not have viewing glasses to find safe and easy ways to view the eclipse via other means. the eclipse block party held at the adler planetarium attracted 60,000 people. that is 10 times the highest number we've ever previously recorded for a sky observing event and 10% of our annual attendance. the audience was a cross section of the diverse population of chicago, including participants who had never interacted with the other -- adler planetarium previously. we estimate the number of people directly impacted by the activities to be over half a million. the next logical step to ask is what's next? , how do we leverage the momentum and excitement from this eclipse to carry us forward? this kind of effort is what out of school time institutions like the adler planetarium already do. the adler planetarium exists to
help people become better connected with the universe. the public interest allowed us to scale efforts upward to welcome more people. illinois responded to us with an enthusiasm that was staggering. to the collective inspiration provided by the eclipse, the adler planetarium hopes this incredible experience will also lead to, one, financial and programmatic support for out of school institutions to continue providing science activities to the public, two, support for institutions and organizations to communicate with each other and jointly plan and sustain small and large science programs that have a gradient impacts, and support for institutions to three, bring high-quality science and engaging science activities at low or no cost to underserved populations in urban , suburban, and rural locations. we hold fast to our core belief that making signs welcoming, engaging, and accessible to haul helps to strengthen communities socially, culturally, and
economically. after all, we share a sky above our heads, and everyone observed -- deserves the opportunity to engage with it. thank you. rep. comstock: thank you. i now recognize myself for questions for a five-minute rounds. first of all i need thank all of , you for your role in what was just an incredible sort of universal experience that we all had. i loved watching the plane. well, my husband was with his cereal box, i enjoyed having that bird's eye view and it just was fascinating how all of the communication beforehand to get everyone participating, to get the glasses, to do the cereal boxes, to have large group events. udvardistrict, we had the hazy center. i was trying to tell my daughter
to get over there, but the traffic was incredible. it's worse than normal traffic, but i take that as a great sign of the engagement. so, how do we now captured this in terms of directing this into stem science? it was such a wonderful thing that you made into a real teaching moment, and how going forward can we get engaged in these fields and stem careers? at nasa, we are committed to continuing the discussion and the engagement about science of various types. focus on telling the story, whether it is the discovery of planets elsewhere, whether it is about science of the sun, the earth, everything in between, we want to focus our
activities through a series of .ollaborations we are supporting activities across the country in a variety oncenters that are focused those populations, of certain groups, and also schools and museums to carry the message forward. we do so in partnerships with so many like the organizations represented. rep. comstock: i appreciate the from the children from the indian reservation and how you are engaging them, and the diversity of people who were able to engage. , or two of students my students from my district who were active in doing this, there women acted in my young women's leadership program where we try to focus on science . have kendall and reagan here
and kendall's mom, jean marie, so thank you for bringing them here. let me address a little bit about how you were able to engage everybody in that. so, how can we make this a particular interest of mine? we have to -- we have the inspire women act that passed earlier this year. we are trying to get more women engaged. maybe to our female witnesses how we might do a little bit more of that. >> thank you. we are fortunate in that the universe has granted us a second go around on this eclipse. so the lessons that we've learned from this eclipse about engaging young people as being ambassadors themselves and their communities is a fabulous way to engage young people in science and also into leadership roles. that is what will keep young women and other people engaged in this kind of activity.
we will continue the kinds of programs that we started and i hope we can try to expand those as well. as you know from experience, having young people engaged, involved, and the leaders is a great way to capture them intellectually and emotionally. projects that the adler planetarium had was to give telescopes to libraries and teach teenagers and young people how to use those telescopes. one of the goals is increasing the capacity of communities to provide their own observing opportunities. this was a great test of that, but in the future, we hope to do more of it and work with other , anders of other museums especially those we have not worked with before. this gave us an opportunity to reach other audiences. -- teenagers, young people, and others will be important especially going to , 2024.
rep. comstock: thank you. thank all of you again. it really was incredible. all the work you did, i cannot thank you enough. we have harnessed a lot of that enthusiasm going forward for stem. thank you. i now recognize mr. lipinski for five minutes. thank you.ki: i hate to admit it, but unfortunately i was not in the country the day of the eclipse, who wasd a neighbor telling me his plans about driving from chicago close to st. louis, and they were going to go, waiting for the morning, where they could go, where they could see it. it was something that raised excitement. i remember from my own touted, it was not anything like this a
, total eclipse. i remember that. so it's a great opportunity and it's especially great to know that it's not too long we will have the opportunity again. i wanted to ask ms. nichols-yehling about ways that in you're going to use this to leverage interest in other of your outreach activities and longer-term public engagement in science, because you capture a ,ot of attention and interest and how do you sort of keep that also make sure people are aware of other opportunities. >> exactly. this is basically what the adler planetarium does and what we are proud to do.
the goal in the future, we want to not only reach people broadly, but we want to reach them in depth. so we have several programs, especially those in our teen program areas, that really tried to hook teens, but get them involved in real science. that is one of the goals. not just have people come out and enjoy the eclipse for one day, but give them other opportunities to come back to the planetarium and explore in the community to go in more depth. example is our high altitude ballooning program called far horizons. we have ways for kids to be involved and take real science data, and have teens involved in potentially recovering pieces of meteorites from the floors of lake michigan. these are ways we can really reach people not just
erotically, but trying to really focus on the fact that science is best engaged when it is real. lipinski: thank you. anything else on anything they are working on? >> if i could interrupt, we designed the funding for the cate instrumentation so that groups can keep their telescopes. it's a small network bought network of 68 groups that have their telescopes and the students who were really excited by the eclipse and are now really excited about stem can continue observing with their cate experimentation. rep. lipinski: very good. anyone else have anything to add? ok. anything that we have learned and expect to learn, getting beyond public engagement, about
solar storms, the threat of space weather, what are the expectations from the data that was collected from the eclipse? >> one of the most important for nasa is that we were able, using this unique view, to test space weather models. that weremodels supported by nsf and nasa, and random on the fastest -- ran them on the fastest computers with nasa with days to spare and were making predictions that are now tested and analyzed. it really became a bench mark kind of test of these models so critical for space weather applications. >> if i could add to that, we used our stampede 2 supercomputer for one of those
activities. also, our network of solar telescopes around the world, we used that to help make predictions. those are used operationally by noaa and the air force for space weather prediction. so this gave us a chance to test the models we are using from ande observing telescopes see if what they predict it was close to the truth or not. that will enable us to refine the model and do better in the future. rep. babin: thank you. i now recognize myself. i am sitting in for the subcommittee chairman, ms. comstock. i would like to ask, nasa is launching the parker solar probe to dive into the solar
corona closer than ever before. what technological advancements will allow that to work, and what do we hope to learn? >> this is one of the missions the community has wanted to do since the 1960's when it was clear there is a solar wind. we were trying to figure out how it arose. it's not clear those storms are really affecting our technology -- it is now clear those storms are really affecting our technological society. the technology enabling the solar probe are really an advanced heat shield. if this thing gets really hot in the front end, and in the back you can easily sit. it is room temperature. in the middle is high technology heatshield. the second one is high temperature solar panels. if you took a regular solar panel to make solar energy out there from here, it would not work, because if it gets too hot, the panel is short. the panels developed for that
particular mission were panels that can sustain the temperature. so be down there at that close solar distance and work. so those are the enabling technologies, the ones that stand out in my mind. what we hope to get from it are measurements focused on answering the pivotal question here, which is how does the sun accelerate the solar wind? we actually don't really know the extent of the corona and physics, not only will tell us about space weather, but magnetic stars and channel and we know effects are everywhere. is a pivotal measure we wanted to do for a long time. babin: thank you. hammel, i'm very interested in dr. hammel, i'm very interested -- in the carrington event i read about, i think it was you that mentioned it earlier, how likely do you think another
catastrophic event like this will happen in the next, say, decade? do we have any good predictive models for this? what are we currently doing? one big topic today, our infrastructure, electric grid, whether man-made or some natural disastrous event like this? if you could answer some of those questions and elaborate, i would appreciate it. >> yes. as you heard, one of the activities that took laced during the eclipse was exercising our models, and it is our models we rely on to determine whether an event like the carrington event is likely to have in the future. yesterday we had some discussions about how likely it is, because we are curious, too. there have been studies that have predicted the probability of something like
this happening is like 10% per decade. not everybody agrees with that. that's just one of the models. when you do the math and think about when the carrington event took place, where we are now, how many decades is that? 10% probability we're pretty , close to having another one. there have been in recent months very large scale solar flares that have taken place. fortunately, not directed at the earth. we have escaped for now. -- there is record evidence solar storms have affected things like airplane navigation systems, other kinds of lower-level scale effects. it is real. it will happen soon or later. it is important that we are prepared for that. what are we doing to prepare for
that? a lot of people are thinking about that. every year, there are meetings of people who get together, including a lot of people who are interested in trying to how to set upare, our infrastructure so it is more robust, how to prepare our satellites said that if we know an event will happen what can we , do to power them down so they are not quite as severely ? damaged? i know there are many groups and the government working collaboratively together, not only nasa and nsf, but noaa, fema, the air force all the , groups have been talking actively it about this. it's a subject on people's mind. do any of my colleagues want to add ? i will add for the last -- >> i will add, for the last three years under the national science technology council there's a group called operation
research and mitigation task for us. they produced the space weather plan back in late 2015. that involved, as dr. hammel said, nasa and nsf. it also involves fema, the department of energy. so understanding how to predict solar storms, and then understanding, what is your response? how do the public utilities respond? given the probability of a solar storm of a certain magnitude what do they do? ,that is the question this inter-agency task force is working on. one of the things we have been working on is establishing benchmarks for the level of solar activity that could cause us to recommend certain actions as a government. i think that is ongoing. it is good to see a lot of different agencies working together. of my normal daily life, i would not interact with fema, so it is good we have that
opportunity through this task force. thank you very much. my time is expired, but i want to say that i have been very active with fema. i appreciate your testimony. recognized like to this done amici -- ms. bona mici. >> thank you. i'm from oregon so this was a very big deal in our state. we only have 4 million people in our state. it was significant to our state and inspiring and we had hobbyists and families traveling to my home state. oregon state university in corvallis had thousands of people. they hosted exhibits, educational lectures, and the university also had research projects they initiated on the coast. osuam of students from
lunch table in from the research vessel the pacific storm to capture live video of the eclipse. the balloon investigated the high-altitude temperature and pressure variations. that was exciting. the ocean's observatory initiative used in water oceanicnts to study how zoo plankton responded to the darkness. one hour before the sky started going dark, they started their nighttime feeding temperature, and found that the ocean temperature barely moved even at totality. really an amazing experience. from what i personal felt, and i was at 99% in my own neighborhood, the temperature drop significantly. that was the first thing everybody could feel. a significant drop in the temperature. and as the sky began to turn dark, we saw that we be lines. it was really, really amazing, we-inspiringg -- a
experience. i want to ask dr. pen about citizen cate. what a great way to capture so much as the eclipse moved across the country. can you talk about -- and i read a little bit and heard about your funding challenges along the way. can you talk about the importance of the federal funding from nasa and nsf? i know that was big part. as we set budget priorities here , it is helpful to have yet another example where federal funding made a difference. penm: yes, we -- dr. penn: yes, we started out in 2016 by getting a grant from nasa to do some student training. we packed up a bunch of students with telescopes to go to indonesia to get on the job training for the 2016 eclipse. when they returned, we had
summer programs where they did research with data. most important, they ran training workshops for 2017 volunteers across the country. that was really critical. burden off took the of me to train 68 teams, but they spread out and did training and it empowered them to learn about solar physics and have the experience of the eclipse to start with. then building the implementation program for 2017 was a challenge, but looking back, i am amazed at the cooperation from corporate sponsors. we had filters from day star donating 63 telescopes, and we had other corporate sponsors as well. the national science foundation was able to bring us to a site, looked like we would get 30 sites, bring us up to the full 68 site total. so it was a challenge, but it was a great honor to be involved. my favorite story is color
maker, you may not have heard of them, they make food guide -- fo od dye in california. astronomeran amateur and read about our program and responded with five sites. xep. byrne we started working with libraries to bring telescopes to them. they were able to use them. we intend to keep that program going forward to reach more libraries, institution, schools. we worked with other institutions, including a to teach theirn
staff about eclipses. in trying to connect to their audiences. such as seeing the eclipse shadows through the leaves on trees. >> i'm on the education committee as well as the science committee. i heard a concern some of the schools were planning to close because they were concerned they wouldn't be able to protect students' eyes. it seems like a lost opportunity. we need to prepare ahead for the next eclipse to make sure this is a great wonderful learning opportunity for students and get those glasses and make sure everybody knows. that was a real serious concern in oregon. in my remaining few seconds -- there won't be enough time -- one of the biggest questions about the sun is why the corona is so hotter than the surface and what are we hoping to learn and how will the
experiments in 2017, how will they advance the heating of the coronal area? >> the heating issue is being addressed by several of my colleagues, looking at images and at different temperatures. and we hope to get a handle on that. accelerating winds is another problem and should address that. cracks -- >> chairwoman, in february, 1979, at the time of the eclipse then, "abc news" report at that time said about the world on august 21st, 2017, may the shadow of the moon fall on the world at peace. maybe say thatmaybe say that ab. max i recognize mr. beyer. >> thank you. we called this the great american eclipse. what will we call the next one?
x that's a good question. do you have a suggestion? >> you have to be careful like saying this is my favorite child. >> i know. i worried about it, too. i don't know. i don't have a good idea at this moment. >> we can have a contest. >> we should. i've always been concerned, is it just accidental we look in the sky and the disc of the moon looks about the same size as the disc of the sun. if you look at the nice picture we have, do you figure if the moon were bigger or smaller the eclipse would look the way it was. bigger driving this? >> we live in a fortunate time in that sense. the earth is slowing down due to tidal rotations from the moon. as the earth slows down the moon moves further away. i was curious about your
when the moonking moves away at some centimeters per year when is the moon going , to be too far away to not ever have a total solar eclipse again. it's hundreds of millions of years so we have some time yet. >> rather than accidental? cracks -- x >> if you go into theories why humans appeared on earth at a certain time you could probably come up with something but i don't think there's any scientific reason the moon and the sun happened to be the same angular size right now. >> i think we will recommend to our chairman and chairwoman we will have a hearing on anthropomorphism and invite you back. on the solar probe, how long will this survive? >> i think it will make several
passes, i'm not an expert. several orbits. >> i think it's a 7 year mission duration. hopefully it will survive even longer. it is ranking -- cranking down. eclipse closer and closer. radi.olar >> when the doctor was on the plane looking at the eclipse, he didn't have the glasses on. do you not need the glasses when it's at totality? >> i brought my glasses for this very purpose. actually, once totality has been achieved you can take off the glasses and then you have a fantastic view. you need these glasses when any little piece of the sun is
exposed. i'm so sorry you only saw a 99% eclipse. cracks it was awesome -- >> it was awesome. yeah. >> but it's even awesomer when you can get into the path of totality. the difference between 99% and 100 is literally the difference between day and night. even that tiny little piece of the sun is a million times brighter than the corona. once you have that last bit disappear behind the moon, everything changes, everything changes. i hope for 2024 you make that trek to the totality line. >> as mark twain said the difference between lightning and a lightning bug. i'm struck by the notion the testimony was we gave out 4.3 million glasses and does it mean
we have 161 million people who can expect i damage? >> not at all. we can share glasses. the amount that leads up to totality, when you must have these glasses takes over an hour, takes quite a long time. so you put the glasses on and see the sun chips away by noon. -- by the moon. then you take your glasses off and hang out with family and friends and put them back on again. there is a great deal of sharing that can go on. there are other ways to experience the eclipse. the cereal box is a fabulous way to do it as well and has the advantage of teaching kids a little bit about optics, how a pinhole can act somewhat like a telescope. there's a lot of other things. all of us who were involved in outreach share many days of enjoying the eclipse in addition
to the glasses. one of the lessons we all learned from this eclipse we have to be even more rigorous , ensuring there are many many millions of glasses in the 2024 event. my own experience, i work closely with a teacher in virginia. she was training 500 of her fellow teachers that day, the day of the eclipse. they had ordered their glasses from amazon. then, when this came about they couldn't be sure their glasses were safe, she and i brainstormed on all the other ways the teachers could experience the eclipse. i think we will take the lesson to heart because in 2024, the eclipse is in april and the schools will be in session so we want to be sure that everybody has the opportunity to experience the eclipse and can experience it safely. >> i now recognize mr. veasey.
cracks -- >> thank you, madam chair. i wanted to ask about the days leading up to the eclipse. like you're talking about, there is a lot of confusion about the glasses and amazon actually issued a recall about the glasses in the marketplace. i want to know from you about efforts your agency has spread for information about the glasses. so when we get ready for the next one, we're here having this committee today going into great detail about the eclipse and what it means. in 2024. they will want to know about what glasses to use. anything like that you can talk about? funded the american astronomical society with a web
page of resources and it is fine if you know what to look for on the web page. but we need to be more about marketing that kind of web page and information and pushing out to the public rather than waiting for people to stumble across it because it showed up on their browser. we as a public institution directed people to that webpage as a trusted source of information, and we got our glasses directly for one of the trusted manufacturers. for those folks concerned , pushing other ways to safely view the eclipse. it wasn't necessary to actually
have a pair of glasses. there were many, many other ways to do it keeping people safe. getting all those messages across through social media and and regular traditional media in days coming up. >> you talk about steps you took to get that information out into the public. do you think there's something else you can do when the next to prepare even better? x -- >> i would say get the word out sooner. it was hectic the last few weeks, getting phone calls and e-mail from people concerned every single day, working with our partners and media several months ahead of time. >> i think it's important to recognize not everybody is getting their news the same way.
my children mostly, if they ever see me, it's on instagram, which i don't know, i don't hang out there. basically, really looking at all the communication changes, i -- communication channels i , think what really helped with the glasses is people practicing up front, looking at the glasses and measuring. it was clear, in days ahead these particular glasses were , not safe and thank god for the companies replacing them using all community -- all communication channels relevant. and practicing and making sure we don't take it for granted. >> i now recognize mr. foster information five minutes. -- mr. foster for five minutes. >> thank you, madam chairman. i myself had the pleasure of watching the eclipse with
children at the solar eclipse party at my district and was encouraged to see people from every walk of life taking an interest in science. i'm a scientist and tend to like numbers. i became aware of a nasa funded research project led by dr. john miller of the university of to see how people prepared for the eclipse and how they viewed it. in the months and weeks following, how this affected their scientific engagement. this seemed like precisely the fact-based nasa engagement we -- we should be engaged in. i was thrilled. i'd like to ask unanimous consent to enter into the record preliminary version. the preliminary version.
-- >> thank you. titled, the 2017 a solar eclipse. with that out of the way, one of the things i want to mention , to capture one sentence from this report. during two months prior to the eclipse, millions of adults engaged in a wide array of the acquisitions to understand the forthcoming event. to really understand that, i know dr. miller has an aggressive program to expand this and looking at social media to quantify this. if any of you have specific familiarity, i'd be happy to hear comments. >> this study was funded out of the stem activation parts. we're really excited about it.
both the coverage we managed to get all together, right, not just one source, what i wanted to point out, a lot of studies are still ongoing. i'm really glad you're looking at this initial report but want to make sure we draw your attention to the final report once it's been completed. we feel it's absolutely crucial tool of social sciences to make sure your our research is active. >> always nice to see government doing its job well. to get to scientific things here, how much overlap is there between a preparation and mitigation in emp events caused by nuclear events? is this a separate set of
eparing?n, -- pr i can say a few words about that. i learned about this from my fema colleagues. they have lots of plans. when they start thinking about, ok, what is the result of a space weather event? say, here is what we have that looks like this. pole, probably. don't sort of engage in that activity. they take as a starting point what they already have and
they say, what is different about this solar event from another event we have studied? >> one of the major differences between the two events is the is the geographic extent of the of event. the real worry of the type that dr. hammel outlined earlier, it will be regional in nature. it would overload as a regional type of thing. far less as a local thing, like lightning. there's similarities. the physics with the electric fields going up, how do we react? but there are no differences. with the overall extent of the damage. >> all nuclear created events are not equal, depending orn depending on altitude.
i want to encourage you to share your planning on that. neither of the two events are low probability. dealing with low probability high damage events is something , our democracy does not do that well. i am encouraged to see you are thinking about part of that problem. i yield back. thank you. >> thank you for what you provided to our students and people across the country. i was watching on the plane, seeing the web activity and having all of that captured. and now research going forward, it was exciting to see this in action. i believe we only have nine minutes left for voting. record will remain open for additional comments for two
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a with scottd greenberger. takeslcolm turnbull questions from the australian parliament. atn, jeremy corbyn speaks his party pot fall conference. erence.y's fall conf this week on two and day. scott greenberger -- on q and a. scott greenberger discusses his book, "the unexpected president: the life and times of chester a. arthur." brian: your book, "the unexpected president: the life and times of chester a. arthur.". who is the most interesting character? scott: chester. his