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tv   Winston- Salem North Carolina  CSPAN  April 6, 2018 6:43pm-8:02pm EDT

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>> do you have any sign that china may be -- >> stop, guys. >> i'm not going to comment on that. >> take care. see you soon. >> c-span, were history unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america's television companies. we continue to bring you unfiltered coverage of congress, the white house, supreme court and public policy events in washington, d.c. and around the country.
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you by yourought to cable or satellite provider. >> for the next hour, a book tv exclusive. our cities tour visits winston-salem north carolina. for seven years, we traveled u.s. cities bringing the book seen to our viewers. c-span.org.h more a >> winston-salem has its origins when settlers moved here and found the town of winston-salem. in the years to come, it grew to well over 100 people. it became the center of commerce for not only the law kobe district, but all of western
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north carolina. much,ers and so pretty this became a prominent manufacturing settlement in the life of? carolina during colonial days. group and initially it was governed by the church, but by the 1840's, a lot of people were chasing and they did not like that. the prominent uses men in the community who had considerable
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they wanted their own county seat. the church did not want the county seat to be in winston-salem. if you cannot pay your fine they got so many lashes. the long story is, we ended up and a town called winston it was right on top of salem. the other thing didn't like is county seats tend to attract riffraff. they did not want the county seats in salem because they did
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not want the riffraff, but the irony is, the county seat in the being right next to salem. in 1849was established and incorporated as an actual town in 1859. it was very much a small brother to the big brother of salem. what changed is when the railroad came. the railroad was supposed to come to salem. the people backing the road were salem industrialists, but the train was not forgetting. could go to winston accident, winston became the bigger town. andle came, factors came more factories came. growth in winston after the railroad.
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salem wanted to be the purest town. they stayed small and eventually they were overwhelmed. tobacco was always a factor. they called him a tobacconist. factor became a real when the road arrived. there were some tobacco farmers and brokers who moved here to and whatntage of that they realized is they could ship their product cheaper. event is one winston joshua reynolds arrived in 1874.
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he was from patrick county, virginia which is maybe 50 miles north. reynolds was interested in moving here because north carolina was known for growing high-quality tobacco and frankly, he figured this was a good place where he could get quality tobacco. the population grew from 3000 to 10,000 or 12,000 people. it was an incredible rate of growth. salem grew a little bit, but not much. wassee where winston outstripping salem. for only success that tobacco had, it really cost in
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winston-salem when r.j. reynolds bought out camel cigarettes. camel cigarette was wildly successful. they went from selling 500 million the first year to 4,000,000,002 years later to 23 billion 10 years later. cigarette sold in the united states by the 1920's was a camel and that brought an incredible amount of money. i mentioned earlier that salem had a lot of entrepreneurs. that culture remains and a lot of the tobacco money feels the other businesses. money can be traced indirectly to -- hanes clothing brand can be traced to tobacco. a local favorite called texas
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the can be traced back to tobacco. there's been a lot of industries brought forward because of tobacco money. the group and grew and grew, and eventually it became one of the largest banks. tobacco started running into trouble in the 1970's, as early there was-50's rumored that the smoking thing might not be good for you, but by the 70's it was really having to -- started to have an impact on the business and smoking so out of favor, the demand for cigarettes dropped and as the demand dropped, employment dropped and they started closing factories they didn't need. the other thing is the 1980's were a tough time. piedmont airlines had grown to be the nation's eighth largest
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airline and then they merged with u.s. air which was interesting because they did not like each other very much and they tried to erase every mention of piedmont they could find. when the merger happen, 5000 local jobs were lost, at&t had a major presence in winston-salem. they had fully been downsizing, in close their last factory 1988 or 1989. lost.as another 3000 jobs it was a body blow after by blow in the late 80's and a lot of people were wondering what they were going to do. what ended up happening, a radiologist at baptist medical was also concerned about this. he was concerned about the
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viability of the medical school. -- as afraid he made it a personal mission that we need to do something to replace all the manufacturing and of course, technology was herting to come on and so got with the lady named gail anderson who was vice president at the time and the two of them started figuring out what they can do to give winston-salem a research present. that was a 25 year process which is still going on now. we put in place the things we need. i don't know if it will work out yet. one to has never been
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lay back and take it. every proactive. i see it as a continuation of the community. is it going toward? we'll see. >> rj and catherine reynolds were a rather extraordinary couple. r.j. reynolds was the founder of the r.j. reynolds tobacco company and he turned that into one of the top 100 or so corporations in america by the early 20th century created his -- catherine a pretty progressive way for shaping society, so the two of them together, because of their great fortune, because of their commitment to the city and
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because they employed some of people had a tremendous amount of power and influence in winston-salem. 1850reynolds was born in when slavery still existed and his father was the largest slaveholder in patrick county and his father ran a tobacco plantation and a tobacco manufacturing and was also an entrepreneur and investor. r.j. reynolds grew up in a world andlavery and inequality the world in which his family capreally the most powerful part of southern virginia. did not fight in the civil war for the confederacy like his older brother. he stayed home and helped his else in theveryone
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aftermath of the civil war during reconstruction, some of the people who had been owned by the reynolds family did stay on the plantation and help to work the fields, but the family and people weren't pretty tough time -- pretty tough financial times. his father said we will not be able to make it, i don't know what to do. he said we will figure it out and make it happen. his older brother came back from the war and the two of them worked the field, hire rj eventuallyand left and went to baltimore and at aducated in baltimore business school. railroads ranthe
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the economy and he relies if ,ou're going to be a tobacco railroads or the way to take markets,uct to distant as opposed to what he had done as a young man going up and down the valleys of the appalachian mountains. he came back to his family home, or for is that a little more, said the money and realized there were new opportunities, so as a young family to what was winston. salem was the cultured community, middle-class, more elite, full of art in winston
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was much rougher. it was a place where young men had come to and wanted to get on andground of manufacturing he was one of dozens of young men who came from southern to try and make their way here. r.j. reynolds was pretty shrewd. and took advantage of the fact that segregation in the american south meant that african-american men and women wages.red at lower tobacco traditionally had been a largely african-american workforce, so one of the things
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that he was able to take advantage of was this segregated so as r.j. reynolds grew his company, one of the things he did was to go to the rural parts of south carolina and say to african-american sharecroppers and small farmers, who were having a very hard time making it, if you come to winston and work for me, i will be able to give you a wage. and i will pay you every saturday in real money, and we will build schools for your children, and we will have a community here and there will be churches and there will be benevolent societies. and he had his agent going out into the countryside, and really drawing african-american men and women and families to winston.
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company, it probably took about 5, 10 years for his company, with his own brand, to take off. i the 1880's he was doing very the 1880's he- by was doing very well locally and in the north carolina region. the company really didn't become a big company until the 1890's. there was a depression in and whenn 1893, everybody else closed down shop and lost their businesses, r.j.r. went into significant debt to grow his plant even more. ofhad higher scales efficiency to produce more tobacco and send it out to more markets. he took a huge risk. -- the risk was so huge his top officers all left the company, they thought no companyoing to be
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after this. and he ended up taking his brothers to work underneath him, because of this exodus of his employees who did not believe in his vision. the 1890's,time, in that he is growing his plant and taking these risks, james buchanan duke is starting to buy up all the other tobacco companies. buying up all the cigarette companies, buying up all the pipe-tobacco companies. duke had no interest whatsoever in chewing tobacco. he thinks chewing tobacco is not a product for the future, he thinks it is not particularly classy, but by the 1890's, r.j. reynolds has the corner on chewing tobacco in the country. he is the leading chewing tobacco manufacturer. and he is a really wily guy. he realizes duke is maintaining this -- duke is building this
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monopoly, and he realizes he has a lot of competition in town. -- he bodies up to james buddies opted james buchanan duke and says, maybe want to buy my company, because you have this tobacco trust and are buying everything up. now, why would r.j. reynolds one james buchanan duke to buy his company? debt,he got into so much he needed to get out of this debt and needed help. and also, he ended james buchanan duke made a secret deal, that basically duke would allow r.j. reynolds to stay in charge of his company, and give him the bulk of the stock and a let him run everything. so r.j. reynolds was able to get what he wanted, and it looked hee, to everybody else, that
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had fallen under the american tobacco monopoly. that meant that when r.j. up all thes buying competitors and tobacco manufacturers in winston and elsewhere, it looked like duke was doing it, and not r.j. reynolds. 20th century,y 're of -- all of r.j. reynolds are gone, they have been pulled into his company. meanwhile, the u.s. supreme his company. meanwhile, the u.s. supreme court's looking into monopolies, including tobacco, and the supreme court rules that we have to bust these monopolies, and r.j. reynolds gets his company back. meanwhile, he has been experimenting with cigarettes. not anti-tobacco. he is not supposed to do this under duke but he brings in researchers, and is doing it anyway. and he brings in a swiss chemist, and he is trying all caps of flavors, like
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saccharine, so he is all set when the tobacco breakup happens, to take his own products out to market. and it is really bad from 1910, until he dies in 1918, when his company just takes off. the r.j. reynolds had been very successful with cap -- with camel cigarettes through the puttingnd world war i, camel into soldiers backpacks, so the company took off through the 1920's and the depression era, through the 1930's. there is an article and popular magazines in 1930 2, 1933, that says winston-salem has more millionaires per capita than any other town in the country, because of the success of the r.j. reynolds company. r.j. reynolds probably met catherine when catherine was a
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little girl. r.j. reynolds had a first ' first and r.j. reynolds cousin was catherine's father. ,atherine was born in airy north carolina in 1880. we don't know the exact time they met, but his parents and siblings were in virginia and was not that far away. so presumably, there were 30 years apart, they would have met each other when he was a 30-year-old and she was a little child. someso know they had exchanges and that he always paid attention to her as a teenager because she was very precocious, in the sense that she was very smart. but we really don't know much about their relationship until he hires her as one of his four secretaries in the company, for fourte secretaries --
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private secretaries. his other three secretaries were men, which was typical at the time, and catherine comes in as a secretary for him. books she the account kept for him, you can see her handwriting literally appear, and she is keeping his private account books and some things changed along the way. one thing that changed is he is suddenly blind -- suddenly buying clothes. he is suddenly buying curtains. so she is not only changing his computer -- his consumer patterns, she is dressing him up. and something else happens and his account books, and that is he is paying more and more to her every month. she makes $20 a month at first and then she's making $25 and then $30 and then $35 and she is making more money than the men who are the same age. there is something else i can
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see in the account books and that is that she is taking her she is investing it in wall street. she is investing at a time when iny few men are investing wall street and women, virtually none at all. and one thing that happens over the 18 months that she works for r.j. reynolds, is that she takes that salary and turns a couple of hundred dollars, $1000, into $10,000 by the time she marries r.j. reynolds. so catherine, smart, shrewd, very good with money, and the two of them i think have a shadow courtship while she is working for him. and got married in 1905, to europe and about 10 months later they have their first child, in 1906. at that point was probably thinking about his
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legacy. many companies that worked with him were interested in who would be taking over the company, since by now he is in his 50's. and i think there was probably toe pressure on catherine have children in quick succession. she did, she had four children between 1906 and 1912. and she was certainly committed mother and a dedicated wife. but in terms of being involved in the day-to-day operations of the r.j. reynolds company, she was not. catherine had certainly influenced r.j. reynolds' company decision-making. she was very aware of the markets, and was very attentive to advertising. she was the one who had the theonal relationship with advertising head in new york with him she consulted herself about what the packaging should look like, what the language should be on, that went
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out on the ads. so catherine, even though she never had a formal position, she was really the right hand confidant for her husband. and being 30 years younger, i think she had a very good sensibility about consumer trends and how marketing should happen. and she was advising her husband all along. the other thing that she did was she and her husband were living downtown in an old victorian, basically where the public library is today, and she helped renovate that. she directed the renovation for that building, but then she also did something else. she would walk out with her and take the temperature, really, of the land and the farms all around that area.
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and she began to have a vision of her own, a vision of an estate away from the city, away from the hustle and bustle of the city, away from the sanitation challenges and andi's gene -- challenges hygiene challenges at a time when many people in the country were moving out of the neighborhoods and into what would become suburbia. so she looks all around and she begins buying up pieces of property. first few pieces of property were in r.j. reynolds' name, but the bulk of them were in catherines name, and she bought farm after farm after farm. over 100 years, ago, and catherine is amassing land in that way. and really, it was catherine who was behind the big vision of having this estate, that became the reynolds the state, with a
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working farm, a beautiful home, a beautiful water supply with beautiful gardens, that really became catherine's effort. r.j. reynolds died in 1918 of pancreatic cancer. pain andgnificant illness in the two years and catherine, who at that point in her life was really very active in all kinds of women's clubs in winston and throughout the state, and actually was leading the liberty war bond drive in north carolina, had to put aside and the powerful women's leadership roles she had taken on, to tend to her husband. he was so ill he was in hospitals in baltimore and philadelphia. year of her life, she was living in those cities while he was getting the care
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that he needed. ' death inj. reynolds 1918, catherine mourned deeply, her children mourned deeply, but she also at this point had moved into the run all the house -- a house, and was running the estate at that point. and there are lots of ways you can see catherine reynolds having her own company come as it were, with over 100 employees, and being much more powerful than many of the male storeowners and company owners and the rest of winston. 'o even before r.j. reynolds death and through his illness and death, catherine was coming his her own, as managing estate, as creating ancillary businesses. she also continued her investments along the way. she had bought from you stock in
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the r.j. reynolds company, so she was wealthy in her own right, independent from what she and her children would inherit from r.j. reynolds. thing happensting at this time, and that is that even though she was technically on the board at r.j. reynolds, she was closed out of all conversations after that. and the correspondence, when you read between the lines, you can see that the male leadership with r.j. reynolds' death, has closed her out and does not want her expertise, does not appreciate her knowledge, or the fact that she is one of the principal owners of r.j. reynolds stock, at this point. so you see sexism firmly and ' death.h r.j. reynolds it must have been quite a blow to her to have the company leadership squeeze her out and that way. ends upe's life an
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being quite tragic. she dies very young, at the age of 43, 44. r.j. reynolds afterr.j. reynolds -- after r.j. reynolds dies, one of her desires is to set up a school on the r.j. reynolds estate, for her children, for the farmers, and for the people who work on the estate and in that area. so she wants to set up a model school, because they are segregated in this period. and in setting up these model schools, she looks for a principal to lead them. and she looks for a young man who is almost 10 years her junior, who is a world war i veteran and has a davidson education and has experience being a principal. to bee invites him
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principal, and very quickly they fall madly in love and she ends atmarrying this man johnston, she ends up marrying him. and when she had her last child with r.j. reynolds, she was told that she could have no more children. however, she was pretty stubborn and wanted to have a child with her new husband. she is pregnant, the child dies at birth, and then it she is pregnant again in 1923, 1924. she has that baby, she goes to new york to new york hospital to get the best of care. she has the child and johnston telegrams back to the children at the estate that everything is the, their mother is fine, baby is fine, he is a boy, he is named ed johnston junior grade and three days later she dies of an aneurysm. so she does what before her time.
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what might she have done if she lived to be 54 or 64 or 74? she had some progressive ideas. not all her ideas work progressive. would she have kept growing and rethinking and used her wealth knowledgeme and her and her skill set to bring even more progressive change to winston-salem, even faster? when people read my book about catherine and r.j. reynolds, i want them to learn a couple of things. i wanted to understand the ways e and r.j.-- katherin reynolds and r.j. reynolds influenced in the city, but although but -- but also the way the city influenced them. i also want readers to andrstand that katherine r.j. reynolds were complicated, but were also progressive
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leaders for that time in the 20th century south and they also disappoint us terribly, because they did not choose to take and r.j. reynoldsapart the segregaty did not choose to challenge the system of inequity and in many ways the benefited from it. so i would hope that people would see both the limitations of the opportunities that a white woman had in that time and place. >> when i was a boy, we had these longplaying records, there might be some viewers who know what records are. and it was this british actor many cyril richard, who people know for playing captain hawken peter pan, and he was reading this book, "alice's adventures in wonderland." didn't read the book until i was an adult and when i was casting around for a book to collect, i
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thought, i always listened to those records of "alice in wonderland" and wondered if eere was an addition -- an dition. it has been made into films, made into place, it has been an inspiration for artists to paint and also lewis, carroll himself turned out to be a fascinating figure who is involved in so many aspects of the story in life. carroll was a victorian fellow legion -- a victorian theologian. israel name was charles dobson but he published alice's adventures in wonderland under his pseudonym of lewis carroll. he wrote the book in 1862. he took little girls come of the children of his boss, the dean of the college where he worked,
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on a rolling trip up the river thames. it was a lovely day in the summer of july, 1860 two, and they said tell us a story. and he told them the story that became "alice's adventures in wonderland. " lewis carroll said later on when he remembered that day in 1862, when he first told the story of alice's adventures, that he had no idea what to do so he decided to send his heroine straight down the rabbit whole. so it was completely made up. and later that day alice said, i like that story, will you write it down for me? and he gave her this lovely little book in 1864 as a christmas present. but before he gave it to her view showed it around to some of his friends, including george mcdonald the writer. and george mcdonald said, i
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think you should get this published. so after he gave it to alice he almost doubled the size of it, he rewrote it and had it published by macmillan in 1865. carrollt edition, lewis had 2000 copies printed at his own expense, and illustrated. here we see the famous picture of the white rabbit, for chapter one. and when 50 of these copies had been bound up, they realized some of them had been too and some of the was bleeding through onto the illustrations on the other side of the page. so lewis carroll said, we are going to get rid of those pages and start all over again. so immediately, it was a rare book, in 1865. there were only about 50 copies. that true first edition of alice now only exists in about 22
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copies, six are in private hands and i am lucky enough to have one. it is actually in a bank vault, it is not here. but what you are seeing now is almost exact same book, everything is the same except the title page. because what lewis carroll did when he decided that those pages were not printed to a high enough standard, is that he sold them to an american publisher. i think he thought, the americans will be able to tell the difference. so that although this is a rare book, there were 1950 copies of it in 1866 and there are probably still, not anywhere. at but several dozen at least. is exactly what "alice in wonderland" looked like when it was first printed. always tell people, i think you should have the experience of reading one of your favorite books and a first edition. it is really exciting when people who love alice come to visit, and we can go to the bank until the first edition out of
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the vault, and we can sit there and read to them from the very first edition of "alice in wonderland." i don't think it was an instant hit. i think it took time. but by the time the sequel, "through the looking glass," was published, this was a book that had staying power. and soon after that we started to see play adaptations and all thesic coming out, things that make you think, this is a book that is starting to seep into the culture. the time lewis carroll died in 1898 it was an extraordinarily famous book. unitedsuccessful and the kingdom and very successful in the united states, it was translated into several language s at that point, with several more to come. this is actually a reproduction of the original manuscript that he gave to alice liddell in 1862. so it has lewis carroll's own
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illustrations, other than the more famous illustrations. but what is especially special about this volume is that it is inscribed by lewis carroll to one of his children, who were in the play version of alice. the first play was in it 1866, and when the run was finished he inscribed books to all the children who performed in it. most of the roles were played by adults but a few were played by children. this volume has got a lot of playbills and other things associated with the earliest stage productions of alice. this is the playbill from the first professional production. then that production went on to her, and these are some of the playbills from the two are as it went around that the country -- went around the country in 1887. there is correspondence that survives between henry sample clark and lewis carroll.
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get an idea, would he would write clark, and clark would explain why that wasn't the best idea, and lewis carroll would, would say, you are the playwright and you know better. id for. better, i defer. he wrote an extension from the so theand the carpenter, poem in alice about the aloe and the panther is actually longer in the editions of the book after 1880 six, after the play happen. so he did write new material for. -- new material for it. inside this beautiful leather 'sx, we have lewis carroll copy of "the hunting of the snark." he arranged for it to be
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published on april fools' day because he thought it would be funny, because it was a nonsense poem. march 29, that is when he received it from his publisher. he inscribed it to a friend at dinner and he gave him his own copy. and what is interesting about the inscription is that he signed it, cl dobson. it is very unusual for him to sign his real name under a book that is published under the name lewis carroll. "the hunting of the snark" was published in 1886, and it was a fairly successful book, especially for a book that was just one long poem. it went through many printings during lewis carroll's lifetime, and not as successful as alice but certainly more successful in some of his later works. this is lewis carroll's 1888
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hammond typewriter. he mostly used it to entertain his young friends. he would allow them to type what he calls volumes and volumes of poetry. in 1888, toovelty be able to reproduce something that looks like a printed document your desktop. it is actually quite advanced. it has interchangeable intypefaces. you can take these type bars out and have different type faces. he used at least two or three different ones. usedold that j r r tolkien to hammond typewriter in the 20th century because he liked interchangeable typefaces and like to use a different typeface for every language was writing and. -- writing in. was in a market in london i came across this note and lewis carroll's handwriting. and it says the reverend cl dobson will be glad if anybody
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who understands a hammond typewriter would call on his at anytime of the day. i began to do research and i found out he had bought a typewriter in 1888. i learned about what kind of typewriter it was and eventually wrote an article about it for one of the lewis carroll journals. 20 years later friend in london contacted me and said, do you know lewis carroll's typewriter still exists? is coming up for sale at an auction house and a couple of weeks. so i was lucky enough to buy this at auction. its is the lid that covers and he is actually written his name on it, the reverend cl dobson, christ church, oxford. my guess is that he wrote that so when he took it with him to the seaside, while it was in transit, he wanted to have his name on it. these are clay figures from a 1948 animated film. it came out just before the famous walt disney film, and it
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version ofation "alice in wonderland." this is one of the hedgehogs from the croquet game, and the cook is back there amongst the trees. the trees are from the same film as well. this is something i stumbled upon. i knew about the film and had actually seen one of the puppets in somebody else's collection. at ae were in new york vintage toy store, they used to have such things, and i said you have anything about "alice in wonderland?" and he said, you need to go to this store in the village. and we went down and they had all these figurines from the movies, copies of the original poster in mint condition or eat it was just amazing. we were able to buy a few of
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those. these are actually going to australia soon for a big exhibition of alice in film. the walt disney version was released in 1950, very close to the same time. although this was made in 1948 it wasn't released until later. understand, walt disney himself went to a lot of the motion picture providers, people like tech neck collar and that sort of thing, and said, look, don't do that film or you won't get any more disney business, because he was worried about the competition. in fact, they are two very, very beingent films, disney's an animated musical, and this being a stop action thing with a live-action preface, so it is a very different kind of film. it is an odd film but if you are into alice or stop motion photography, it is worth
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checking out. i grew up in a household where books were valued for their content and their physicality. aware of the variety of physical books, but as a model list i write about the ways we connect to the past through physical books. all my novels include some sort of rare book aspect come and i find it fascinating. i find it fascinating the way i can pick up a book and have the same experience reading it that somebody when haven't 50 years ago had, when "alice in wonderland" was first published. i always tell people, when i am on a book to her and they are asking what is so special about rare books, i say, go find your favorite book, go to wait rare book library and find a copy of your favorite book in a rare first edition and just read that first chapter, and experience those words before they were famous, before anybody knew them. it is a really moving experience to me.
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so i think we can really connect through books, not just with the author of the book but with former owners of the book, former readers of the book, we can make these connections to our past in so many different ways. there is a true yearning to respond to the singing river and say the asian,so hispanic, the jew, the african, the native american, the french, the greek, the irish, the rabbi, gay,riest, the shake, the the straight, almost, the teacher, they all hear the speaking of the tree. they hear the first and last three speak to humankind today. come to me here beside the river, plant yourself beside the river, each of you are descendents of some past on
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been paid for,s you, who gave me my first name, awnee, apache, cherokee, desperate for game, starving for gold. you, the turk, the air up, this week, the german, the eskimo the stolen,ought, sold, arriving on a nightmare, preying on a dream. here, route yourself beside me. yourself beside me. i am yours. your passages have been paid. lift up your faces. you have a piercing need for this bright morning, donning for you.
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history, despite its wrenching unlived,not be o but its face, with courage, need not be lived again. -- mayaaia angelou an author, activist, civil rights activists, producer, she was a poet, and if you ever heard her speak, she was an orator. shefor wake forest represents our emphasis on teaching and the development of students as good citizens and good people. famous firsthis for her autobiography, "i know why the caged bird sings," which was published in 1968 and later became a film. she wrote other autobiographies. nocturnally, for the pone for bill clinton's inauguration, on "the pulse of
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mourning, that she recited in 1993. we have the papers that focus on my angelou's film and theater work. her main papers are in new york city but we document her early and before she came to wake forest maya angelou had a long career in television, film and screenwriting, in addition to her writing career. materials from the maia angelou -- maya angelou film and theater collection. this is from the first film she appeared in as a performer, "calypso heat wave" from 1957. there was a calypso craze sweeping the nation. and is her on the poster, she is listed on the cast list. in also did a record album
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which she sang a song called "ms. calypso," in coordination with that. choose 29 when she appeared in the film. that was the beginning of her -- she was 29 when she appeared in the film. that was the beginning of her film career. she worked as an actor, singer, and dancer, and had worked on scripts and worked as a producer, also. this is one of the first full scripts she wrote. this is a movie called "georgia starring diana sands. wrote the script, and these are some of the manuscript pages, her beginnings of writing that script. a lots famous for doing
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of her first drafts on yellow legal pages, she really liked to write everything out a longhand -- out in longhand. in 1970 she published her first memoir, "i know why the caged bird sings." it was a huge success and soon iner, there was interest developing it into a film version, so she began adapting her book into a screenplay. again, some of the earliest drafts of her adapting her memoir into a screenplay. process ofe translating her personal experience into this book, and then taking that book and translating it into the beginnings of the script, to be acted out.
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so it is really interesting to see her process and her edits. that is one of the interesting things about this collection, that it does include some of the -- include all of these paper drafts, which most people don't do anymore. most people tend to compose on board, and here we can see the process of her adapting her work into something different. i know, is her first script adaptation from one of her works, so you can see her kind of learning how to create a screenplay. has a longtimeu connection to wake forest. she first visited the university in 1973 and visited with students, and i think was really inspired by that. some of our african american faculty and african-american students, in addition to others.
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her an honorary degree and in 1982 she was named the reynolds professor hair at hereniversity -- professor at the university, and taught and did many other things here at wake forest. this is from 1982, right after dr. angelou came to teach at wake forest and live in winston-salem. she wrote an article about why afterturned to the south leaving and having lived all over the world, really. why it kind of details was important to her to come back here, what drew hurt to winston-salem -- drew her to winston-salem, and what she hoped to accomplish by being a teacher as well as a performer and a writer. in almost every
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aspect of to the performing arts that you can think of, including producing, and in addition to being a writer and actor, she was a producer. this is the first feature film that she directed. camera,e is kind the and with some of the cast members. i think one of the interesting things about dr. angelou is that today we talked about internet -- we talk about intersection analogy, and as both an african-american and a woman, and having such a very career in the 20 century, it is very important for us to be able to provide it to researchers as well as wake forest students and the public. >> here, on the pulse of this new day? you may look out into your sister's eyes
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and it's your brother's face your country and say simply, and with hope good morning. [applause] >> oftentimes, what you see in literature and the literary community is that elders are people in power presume that popular culture, music, video of that nature, has a direct correlation between deviancy and deviant behavior. and where there might be correlations, it is not one sole predictor as it pertains to juvenile delinquency. i guess it was kind of post 20th
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century, as music, rap music, other genres of music started to take shape, particularly in popular culture, and it started expanding outside urban america into suburbia. he saw people take notice, for and people started noticing in the latter 90's that this new genre of music or this new form of expression was influencing young people, no different than in prior generations when you look a rock 'n roll at things of that nature. when we talk about any genre of music or form of expression, people are concerned about violence. is there going to be violence show, or in my town? violence is a big concern. and secondly, does this lifestyle promote drug abuse?
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lifestyle promote drug abuse? people are going to these functions inebriated. does it promote drug abuse, does it promote cavalier individuals -- cavalier attitudes toward individuals? and then finally, are we teaching young people that it is ok to be disrespectful to young people or objectified young women? so for individuals like myself who straddle both sides of it as a byproduct of the early hip-hop movement, i try to be objective to critical, but i try understand the expression and not be overly critical without understanding the expression. i think at times if you are removed from it, it is easy for a stochastic cast opinions about what they are doing or not. let me give you two examples. one example would be to the west when nwa released their
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outta compton, i understood the energy because i added the struggle. they were speaking about oppression and police violence. but when they came out with the * the police, the powers that be legislatively and otherwise turned it into an anti-police record. so you had young people chanting that sentiment, and being somewhat disobedient and really kind of antagonizing officers in cities are at the country, particularly when nwa would perform. example, and this is not in reference to music, but it has to do with movies. when the movie set it off with queen latifah and gina pinkett,
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pinkett, there was an instance in los angeles where young women were robbing stores. the perception of it was, because of this movie, the influenced work -- the individuals were influenced by and encouraged to do so. and we know that in criminology, sociology, psychology, we tempt to bridge the two, we tempt to explain -- we attempt to explain the behavior. variablesare other that contribute to delinquency and criminality. we can't just say the movie made me do it, the music maybe do it. that just isn't enough. . . ithink for song, they do use as an excuse, or they allow stereotypes. we kind of perpetuate the stereotypes, because of whatever reason, i'm a young person in
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the community, maybe i have finished high school but it didn't go to college, i didn't have any aspirations, and id ,ide to get involved in crime and at the end of the day i may be associated with drug activity or criminality that i was exposed to through music or video. and i think for that, some people use it as an excuse, and don't forget those in power who make these laws and policies to commend our communities, i think if you are looking at the african-american community, the latino community, communities that birthed the hip-hop movement, we are not always represented on the policy front and i think legislators use that as an opportunity to basically state how this music, specific to this community, is a direct result of the criminality across america.
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and i was an unfair accusation -- and that was an unfair accusation to make, using the media to make that sentiment. i remember charles barkley, the nba's charles barkley said, i am no one's role model. he was very aggressive on the and he said i am no one's role model. everyone in ague, position, particularly a media type position, is responsible for what you say, particularly to others. i use myself as an example. i have undergraduates listen to every word i say, so i have a responsibility to them, to convey information that is empirically based, not opinionated.
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because my information is to provide them information and let them decide what to select as far as their ideological framework. the time,people all rappers and artists have a responsibility to the community. now they are going to say, we don't, but the reality is i have a 13 euros son, and if he gets a hold of lyrics that are very derogatory or misogynistic, then deprogram or explain what he was listening to, and explain, and ask why you were listening to this? that is kind of what i did in my book, try to understand these generational gaps in everything. the problem ensues because we don't bridge those gaps. my elders would say, we don't like that rap music, instead of
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asking me, what is it about the music that you like. like to i could say, i music, i like the talk, like the message. but they never asked. so i can kind of tease and be critical of this new genre of rap. i also like jazz and i also like like latin- i also music. engage my students, what is it about this song that you like? and we have conversations like that despite me liking or not the music. as to want to engage the young people because if we don't engage the young people, the problem becomes greater years in positionsey are of power and they are trying to shape the direction of our society. an environment where my mother was incredibly strict towards me and we didn't communicate much. so you try to be different
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parentingwise. colleagues andto friends, i just say, keep the lines of communication. open -- lines of communication open. keep theot agree but lines of communication open because when this young person has an issue, he or she may come to you, and we see that as well as young people continue to take the lives of alarming numbers, and posting it online, posting their concerns online, which is a form of opulent culture that sometimes works. because people do seek help and many of us don't really , and then wee cues are later that someone young has taken the life, which is sad and problematic. >> one of the biggest misconceptions people have is how common stranger abductions
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are. there is a lot of fear about stranger objections, the notion that children are in danger if they are at a park, in a crowd, alone, the fear that strangers break into a home and abducted child. about the lot of fear unknown, that strangers could be lurking everywhere. but what we know statistically is that stranger abductions are incredibly rare, and the number of stranger objections stayed steady over time, possibly 100 or less per year in all country. what is far more common but gets a lot less attention is that children are more likely to be objected by acquaintances, or a parent or family member during a custody dispute. so the danger to children for abduction is much closer to home. but the fear of the stranger abduction really looms large because it can be so devastating when it does happen.
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categorizedre ary, because of a guy -- if a child goes missing, it has to be determined runaway,hat child is a so the decision about whether to issue an amber alert depends runaway, so the on how law enforcement views that child as a possible victim of objection or run away or something like that. and there are cases going very far back, not just when statistics have been kept, but there have been high profile cases of missing children going back to charles lindbergh's missing child decades ago. this was a high-profile crime and that is where we started to see news reports speculating and weaving stories and weaving what happenedund to the child, who is to blame, mistakesis when we see
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in reporting child abductions. andarly cases it varies, what we found is that the statistic remains a steady in terms of how rare child abductions are. but when they are starting to be reported it may be because a high profile person like charles lindbergh is involved, or it may be because the child abduction says something larger about our societal concern. so a child abduction becomes a part of a larger panic that emerges. patz, whof etan disappeared while walking to school alone, was a devastating case for many decades but news reports tapped into fears about urban society, urban culture, pedophiliaa and -- and who could be the perpetrator.
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to gowas very little on and it was all very speculative and it preys on whatever society is vulnerable at the moment. , the 1980's, we saw this plate up into fears of satanic cults. there is a real fear of cults and satanism and the breakdown of family values in the 1980's, and fear mongering around that, and stories of child abduction. there are no cases of children being abducted by satanic else, but there was a tremendous amount of fear mongering and sensationalism around, if a child went missing, could they have been abducted for satanic rituals and that sort of things? and the decisions journalists make, how does that contribute to more fear and playing into those fears? we know is that cases involving young white girls from
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middle to upper class neighborhoods and backgrounds receive more news coverage and more sympathetic news coverage than cases of boys and children of color. those are decisions journalists are making and newsrooms are making about what is newsworthy, who is a victim who is newsworthy of receiving attention. very often, boys don't receive as much news coverage and children of color who may have been abducted don't receive as much news coverage. it comes down to newsrooms making those decisions about whose abduction matters to audiences, what stories can be told, of crime reporting, not just child abductions. there are realities about how crime is committed, who perpetuates crime, who are crime victims, what are crime rates, are they on the rise are not? news coverage very often tells a different story or he did or is an overrepresentation of the rarest form of crime. abductions,n child
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we see in overemphasis on stranger objections, which are very rare, and an under emphasis on the hundreds of thousands of children's objected during custodial disputes or by byntin says -- disputes or acquaintances. when journalists determine what aspects of the story are going to be covered, what is the narrative going to be developed, really does demonstrate unconscious bias. which themer of 2002, news media deemed the summer of the languageon, was as if child abduction were on the rise, as if it were a disease that was spreading, as of child abduction was an epidemic, even though statistically the crimes were not on a rise. this was the summer elizabeth smart, samantha runyan, and other way girls from fairly
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affluent or middle-class backgrounds went missing. their cases where the cases that dominated news coverage that summer. these cases were on 24/7 cable channels, they received round round-the-clock, prominent news coverage, their faces were everywhere, especially elizabeth smart, who was abducted from her home. that same summer and in the years since then, there was a case of a young black girl being abducted and held in a basement. and she actually broke free and escaped and rent for help -- and ran for help. and although she did receive some national mention in news coverage, she did receive very little compared to the other cases i mentioned. there always the case -- there also was the case of a young black boy who went missing in his case did not rise to national prominence at all.
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another case that stands out is sean hornbeck. atn hornbeck went missing the same time and that around the same age as elizabeth smart. but because his case was determined to be possibly a runaway, and we argue, because his family was not as affluent, is case received no national news coverage at all, even though he was missing and his family tried to garner support. his case was completely ignored until four years later, when another boy went missing. and in investigating that case, police found both boys at an apartment. and sean hornbeck had been captive those four years. only at that point did news coverage focus on sean's case, and again, in a very sensational way that involved a lot of victim blaming. the cases of sean hornbeck and elizabeth smart, a stark contrast that shows how decisions are being made to show that some children are really
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victims, worthy of sympathy and worthy of coverage, and other victims are ignored or victim blamed. after we begin to get charges laid against perpetrators, that is when we see sensational, victim blaming coverage were titillating details of sexual assault, torture done to these children, what they may have been thinking or feeling, all of that problematic coverage actually happens after there is no need to cover the induction, after the child is found, after they are deserving of a measure of privacy. and faces aremes already public, news organizations will often include statements that their codes of ethics typically bar them from identifying minor victims of crime. but in this case, they will, because the child's name and face is already known. the door has been opened and they are free to discuss all the
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intimate details of crimes committed against these children, and afford them zero privacy. they are children. and at that point their victims of horrific crimes, so we do argue in the books that they deserve a measure of privacy once they are found, and if they are found alive and they choose to write a book or tell their of course their story should be told and they should be trusted. but the sensationalism should be dialed back. we hope people who read this book will take away that child abductions are horrific but they life,irly rare, you should have as much perspective as possible on actual dangers they face. parents have a tendency to internalize that fear, there the 2002ies done after summer when elizabeth smart case was so prominent, parents began
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changing their parenting approaches, not letting children play outside alone, not letting children play even in their front yards or right there bicycle in a neighborhood. going back in history we see that we can pinpoint with the patz case.-- etan at the point where people are altering their parenting, altering their norms around what children can and should do, based on what is fear of a very wantbable crime, we readers to stop and put these crimes in perspective. they are horrifying, we never discount that. but they are incredibly rare and we can make parenting decisions not dependent on the fear that is being overemphasized in this coverage.
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>> our visit to winston salem north correct -- carolina we introduce you to the c-span cities tour. we have brought the book seem to our viewers. you can watch more of our visit at c-span.org/citiestour. next, c-span's series in 1968, america and turmoil looking at waste -- race relations that year. the 2012 farewell address by whoii senator daniel akaka died earlier today at the age of 93. after that democratic congressman ted deutch holding a town hall on gun violence.
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but first, we take you back to april 4, 1968 when walter natione informed the that martin luther king, junior had been shot and killed in memphis, tennessee. >> good evening. dr. martin luther king, the apostle of civil

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