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tv   Washington Journal - David Hume Kennerly Marvin Kalb  CSPAN  August 25, 2018 10:48pm-12:22am EDT

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people are helping themselves and not serving the public. i also think this is connected pretty strongly to the russian investigation at large and you know, that is a situation in which it seems to be accelerating getting closer and closer to the president. that issue i think candidates, people should talk about what's happening in washington. i think the russian investigation is an important one. it is about what happened with our democracy. i think it is vital and obviously the mueller investigation seems to be picking up speed as well. >> you can watch that entire interview tomorrow at 10:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. eastern. ere on c-span. >> chicago, illinois. the convention of the democratic party. nominating tonight its candidate for the presidency.
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that man will be vice president hubert humphrey. right now, speeches are being made for senator mccoverpb and then we will have nominations seconding speech for the rev rent mr. channing phillips of washington, d.c. a favorite son, candidate of the black caucus. candidate of the bs convention, 212 delegates here -- negro delegates here. here in the amphitheater, new york, holding a caucus right now discussing violence downtown. [applause] >> you are wasting valuable time. several hundred of mccarthy supporters and others have gathered into the caucus room
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here, number one, to hear proposals that all of these -- all of those opposed to the action in the convention, the actions of police and other security agents against the delegates as they gathered together at the end of the speech and go forth and present their objections and be permitted to present a resolution and not permitted, they say they will not return to the convention tomorrow. the proposal is not that they will walk out tonight that they will not come back tomorrow. one delegate said we are going to bring to a grinding halt this entire convention, and he was a rousing round of applause by standing delegates who applauded here in the caucus room. suggestioneen any that delegates attend the party
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meeting at the hotel and a new party is calling? >> the question of a new party so far has not come up but these people are very angry about reports they are seeing about the way that delegates are being treated. just going to walk out of this meeting. >> thank you. -- of the so-called new party forming an old party. reserved a bank it -- banquet room. he expects 200 delegates to attend the meeting. >> washington journal continues. host: our thanks to cbs news for that fitted from 1968. we look back at 1968, america in turmoil, the role of the media.
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about 1968 and cbs news and nbc news. what role did he play? >> big-time. when it began in january of 58, and the economist seemed for a week or two to be in the ascendancy and victors in the thought he could no longer sit as the anchorman in new york. see what was happening. he was a very old-fashioned reporter in that respect and he cbs, can president of he go? they did not want to send an anchorman but he insisted and he went and he spent a brief time there but absorbed a great deal. he realized while he was there that the war could not be won.
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when he went back to new york, he said, i have got to do something which expresses my opinion. he said, i do not want your opinion or you are the news man. tell me what happened. he said i have got to tell you what it means. and he argued with him but walter went on the air and he had an extraordinary line, we are a great country and did whatever we could for the vietnamese people, but it is now up to them and this war is deadlocked. it is a stalemate. lyndon johnson was watching that with two of his very close aides at the time. said, whent that and i have lost walter cronkite, i lost middle america. he meant he had lost his basic support. was that significant and take us back to where the media was in 1968.
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we did not have cable or twitter. there were no websites. guest: a young david at 21. and for me,tions, what really affected me the most andre service photographs, i think if you look at the biggest photo of the year, it shooting adam's photo the suspect in the head, it was on the front pages of every newspaper in the world. forward to, flashing watching the president of south holdingd north korea hands and stepping over the line, there was one particular image from the back, those kinds of images stay with you and those kinds of images affected everyone's life.
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did not have the torrent of information you're getting now. those things really locked into your psyche. of lyndonstory johnson watching, some people say he was on a plane and not watching at the moment. my understanding is he was at the white house, bill was with him, chris, his spokesman, was with him. those two guys were with him. they remembered bill has talked about it since that time, they were in his office, he was watching it, he saw walter and walter said what he said and he said, i have lost middle america. host: let's talk about the larger role of what was happening in vietnam, the television war. what were americans seeing at home and how significant was that as the war was unfolding? really thethat was beginning of my career as a newsman, and i grew up in a little town in oregon and i went
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to portland to work on the newspaper and down to l.a. at that point, i had not been to vietnam. before i came on today, i was four ofback, there were my classmates from the high school and earned -- in oregon, who were killed in the vietnam war. in 1968, bobas clarke was 21 years old, dale, these were all guys i went to school with. there was a profound effect for me. i was just getting it from knowing my friends were getting bumped off in vietnam, and then i wanted to go over there, but all you had to do was go on was living in l.a. at the time.
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i cover all of the adjoining areas and you could see the rising tide of people protesting the war. is from a cbs radio ad, who is this gentleman? i mention that because you are also the author of, the year i was peter the great, my question is what where we so concerned about with the soviet union? why was this a fear in the government and by the american people? guest: we were still caught up in what was called the cold war. an existential quarrel, with thegument communist world. the entire world itself was divided up by the cold war. warnam was the pivotal which really turned the whole cold war around in my judgment. than in any other year, it seemed as if the united states had lost its innocence in
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the war. the media had lost its innocence in 1968 as well. we had been, there was a credibility gap, very famous, where the people in vietnam, the officers and majors and colonels, they would tell us what it is we had covered that day. it had nothing to do with what we had seen and heard. there was a credibility gap. the lyndon johnson the ministration was up against it and it was a reason the president felt he had to get out and that is what he did march 31. -- het he no longer had he made up his mind that could no longer leave the country, that the war had captured and in effect brought him down. lyndon johnson was a very proud man. he had done in my opinion great things on the legislative front
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and the domestic front, a great society, but then the war was always there, pulling him down and ultimately, it tried him down and the american people had to face, in a sense, the loss of a president, the loss of innocence, the media itself, my god, our own government was lying to us, i was in moscow correspondent. i had assumed the russians would like to me. but i had never assumed up until that point that my own government was going to lie to me. that was a big growing up moment for me and for many other reporters at the time. host: other things were happening at the home front. i want to show our audience, you are based on the west coast, escaped convicts, and explain what you saw and what you
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reflect on 50 years later. >> i lived in manhattan beach, california and got a radio report, there was a guy hold up in a little hotel motel, fairly close to where i live. thened over there, and went into the driveway and the cops were talking to the guy through a window and it turned out, his name was arthur glenn jones and they tried to talk him out and there was a cbs cameraman, a local guy, the two standing in the driveway, i do not know how i did not get kills, and were there other pictures? just the one? ok. all of a sudden, there was an -- an explosion and they set up dynamite in the room. the cops started climbing out of the window and started shooting and i kept taking pictures and
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the cbs cameraman kept rolling in the and it up crawling over to where he is right there. the guy came over but it was i sat there and i shot the whole thing and that was right after lbj announced he was not going to run. these pictures were all on the paper. myad a lot of close calls in experience but that was one of them. 62.5 million americans in 1968 received a newspaper paper in the morning or afternoon. you can see pew research, the number was down by 20 million and the most recent, just over 40 million received a daily newspaper. what does it tell you about the press? world of newspapers was big and alive back then. it has been supplanted by
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television and radio and internet. it is amazing to me there were as many newspapers as there are functioning. live in a world that is completely different than in 19 68. the moreed upon limited group of people. because youegative have got the slant of only those people, but they were highly experienced professional reporters and today, people do reporters as professional or they regard them as propagandists. that is a horrible change to second-place but it is true. joining us here is david hume kennerly and marvin kalb.
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our line for democrats -- >> thank you for being on. and thank you for having me. get yournted to comments or we were just talking to teachthose years, my grandchildren that we survived those years and no matter the conflicts we have, nine -- 9/11 and so forth, that the country will hang together and survive. i also want your comic about the fact that the vietnam war ended -- will end and 68, but it until 1975 and
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america until 1973 and became nick's war. thank you for taking my call and i will listen to your comments off-line. >> thank you for the call from texas. do you want to respond? >> it is a good point that it did not and when johnson left. a 20 euros in 1968, i could vote for the first time. believed richard nixon when he said he would end the war in vietnam -- the anon. that had a direct impact on me. up --in college but ended i went into the army for six months, the national guard, i did basic training and all of that. richard nixon, i do not know exact numbers but during the administration, just about as were killed when
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richard nixon was president. >> right. it was about 50-50. 1971 afterietnam in he had won his pulitzer prize and all the pictures had been taken. on and i wason and there toward the end of the vietnam war. i was in the war -- in the room when he pulled the plug on it. >> from connecticut, republican line, good morning. good morning. >> reporters described free and open access to combat scenes. they were able to see the fighting as it occurred. ted came along and the pentagon papers came along and they were just there were great surprises at how would you guys reconcile access,between the free and missing the main facts of the war? will have you answer the
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question and also explain how your thesis came back to the u.s. in the days before satellite transition -- admission, it was live. >> in those days, you had a camera crew in television, it consisted of a cameraman, light and sound and i have to quickly add i did most of the coverage of the vietnam war from washington. cbsrother covered it from but what i know is you would go out with the team, there was no censorship. you covered what it is you saw and you brought it back. then had to be shipped up to japan and then shipped to new york and in other words, you did lies an instantaneous coverage. commentary is something you could do a day or two later. you would lay in over the footage, but you will not have a live commentary. it made all the difference in
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the world. let me try and explain when you're doing a live story now, you have to go and immediately know what you will be saying. or 40 years ago, we had an opportunity, and it sounds funny now, but we had an opportunity to actually think about what it is you wanted to say. you have the opportunity to spend a day or two checking with people. you have the footage, that is what you saw, but what did it really mean? ago, we20 or 30 years might have had a richer diet of news than we have today. question, theis press was reporting things were going well. i'm not sure what he meant on -- when the pentagon papers came out, what you found was duplicitous activity in the white house, but the reporters
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were constantly talking about how things were not going well from there. washe time, the right wing blaming the press for us losing the war when it was really the government who should not have been there in the first place there,y, but having been almost over two years spent there, i thought the reporting was good and it was true that we could go anywhere at any time and all of that. i never really bought into the idea that somehow, we lost the war for the u.s. that is not true. also in the coverage at least at cbs and other networks, you had the coverage from vietnam but also you had coverage of the war as seen from the nation's capital. and you look at the capitol building now and you realize that at the time, the war was
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being fought in this country as well. the country was split. it lester maddox a, almost violently split into between those people who supported the government and wanted it to continue, and the people by the hundreds of thousands who were out in the street objecting to the war. there were two angles of vision on the war. where it happened and the impact it had on the country. you capture that in some of your photographs. >> i tried. another thing about covering the war, i was compelled. it was about a 50-50 split and two of my buddies from hice -- from high school were killed during johnson and two during nixon. explain the photograph and the blood on the face of that
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demonstrator. that college was partially antiwar and partially -- that is what route -- that reflects what was going on at the time. i got beat up by both cops and demonstrators. it was equal opportunity. vietnam, soldiers loved it when someone like me showed up, and outsider who did not have to be there. contrary to what you may hear, we had an incredible -- incredible relation with gis and officers in everybody. they wanted to tell their story. it was important to them. this was another facet of what i did when i was there. on the media in particular in 1968. daniel is joining us from pennsylvania, in line. good morning.
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>> good morning. i'd could not tell in 1968 whether a journalist was liberal or conservative. today, it seems more flagrant. that is more of a comment than anything else. flagrant that the journalism today is more liberal. back then, you could not tell whether they were liberal or conservative. for me, photographers, speaking for myself, we really do not take sides. i was brought up that way. where the lines have blurred is between commentators, people like sean hannity, they are deathly not journalists. and the people who are true reporters, those are the kinds of people i have always worked with. i think that is part of the problem. you do not know why they are
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saying what they are saying. normally, a reporter will give you -- you're right about the impression p are a lot of people do think, i don't personally believe it is true in cases of real people in the news business. host: let's talk about a couple of photographs you have an significant players. how about the governor of california, ronald reagan? >> the picture of the fairly young reagan at the time, that was 1968 and ronald reagan was governor of california, he had been a democrat and became a republican. i have had a long history with him because he was governor there and then he ran against my boss, ford, when i was the white house photographer. they had a showdown at the republican convention in 1976.
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then of course, reagan went on to become president. i covered the first four years of his administration. one of the beautiful things about my career, seeing people progress through it from the beginning to the end. in 68.s ronald reagan i covered his funeral. these are people i got to know. ronald reagan and the influence he had that year. >> in 1968, i do not think reagan influenced on the war and on the domestic events, was all that great. i think it was later that reagan picked up steam. at the time, he was still a young politician on the rise. he had not yet become the governor of california. he was governor at the time. a young governor. he did deal at the time with student unrest.
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he became associated with the government cracking down on student demonstrators. a lot of people felt reagan had and one reason he developed a following among the right wing of the republican party was just reasons like that here he was capable of ordering a crackdown on young gem -- young demonstrators. >> i believe they had helicopters going over uc berkeley and i have -- i have a son there now and i think i it -- i'm glad things have come down for his sake. but governor reagan was law and had cops definitely cracking down on universities and demonstrations. host: center you -- eugene significant another player. >> that was during the campaign. the first mainline
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politician to rise up against lbj. back to phone calls, thomas joining us from maryland, democrats line. >> good morning. i find it interesting in the conversation the journalists are having. they are coming across to me, in a white world, a white supremacists world, with perks come whether you were liberal or conservative, it was still white supremacy. but i noticed you were talking about reagan and you showed that first clip of cronkite. you are talking about what was addressed to white people, for white people and by white people. you haven't talked about the south or anything that deals with people who are minorities and the great suffering that was really going on internally in the country. white supremacy was, at the roots of reagan, johnson, they
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were forced to accept a black people as people. let's be real. you are a renowned journalist and photographer. in the dirt,n let's say, and be real about what happened in america. it was not all about white people. all your pictures show white students and the police, just like they are today, crushing people's schools, under command of a white supremacists. and maybe they weren't white supremacists, but under command of a white person. let's be real about what is really going on. host: thank you for the call. in a previousthat installment and this is a nine part series. today, we're focusing on the media. good point.s a we obviously cannot cover the most tumultuous year in american history and get it all in there, thefrank -- quite friendly, photographs taken by my
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colleagues, particularly of civil rights unrest and martin luther king, really, made a big impact on all of that. we were telling those stories. i think he has a good point, you know, as a young white person fa oregon,hite part of that's what i knew growing up. i have certainly come a long way , and you did cover that in a previous segment as you mentioned. host: how powerful were these pictures as americans were watching walter cronkite on nbc and they saw the body backs of the servicemen being carried out? guest: in my opinion, television came of age in the 1960's. when we got in 1968, beginning
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with the tet offensive in vietnam followed by lyndon johnson's statement that he is not going to run for president, followed by the killing of martin luther king in early april of 1968 and then the killing of robert kennedy in june of 1960, then the effort to try to wind down the war, then that democratic convention in chicago. at the beginning you are showing cronkite and his coverage. of one in the midst then of the great years in american history that touched every aspect of our lives, the war, peace, the extraordinary downfall the president, the killing of a black leader. not athese things great deal to a lot of people. television was one of the ways most people found out about this
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country, found out about what was going on, and it had an enormous impact on people. television absolutely came of age in 1968. i also believe that if it was tv that brought the war into your living room's, the still pictures still took it a little further into your heart and soul. adams, aat eddie little girl running down the napalmed,r being name the indelible images of vietnam were principally coming at you from still photographers, many of whom were killed to take those photographs. host: would you agree with this time magazine special edition, it did shape a generation, 1968? guest: it did. there was a lance morrow piece in there.
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it was really good. having lived through it, the one thing about california. lot.ornia gets neglected a you are away from the center of power in washington and new york. it seems to me i got every element of the vietnam war, civil unrest, being in california. 1968, iyear-old in really got to see the show. host: one of the photographs in time magazine, the streets of chicago after the assassination of dr. king. guest: these pictures were taken by very brave photographers who wanted to tell the story. host: frank in new orleans, democrats line. caller: hello. this is frank. i appreciate the two journalists that are there, what they are writing about. i live to that as a black soldier -- lived that as a black
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soldier drafted in 1966 through 1968. coming home at the end of 1967, , andring for riot control now i have to back off grounds of writers after kings -- ri oters after king's assassination. in the streets. americans playing the country would later get amnesty while the poor died overseas. host: as you answer that, david hume kennerly you are talking about photographs the day after dr. king's assassination. guest: you make a great point about coming back from the war and then having to stand off
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demonstrators, people who were protesting the war you were in. such sympathy for people like that, the african-americans who came back to the same old problems, racism and having to beings a soldier castigated by people when you were in a war you had nothing to do about it it was not about the warriors, it was about the war. i spent a lot of time with black ,nd white soldiers in vietnam and everyone was going through the same thing. it was not good. host: from maryland. republican line. caller: good morning. . wanted to make a comment
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it is an absolute disgrace in my eyes. the trouble today we have no respect. we do not talk right about our leaders. we should. around the world we are made a joke of because this would never be allowed anywhere else. as far as 1968, my dad was a diplomat. girl when a young president kennedy got shot, which i remember how it affected my father and mother. it touched my heart. i grew up with a passion to stop this bigotry and hate. i became president of the international club in college. say today i think the trouble is that we have no respect. adults need to grow up. people are not living and showing a good example to their children, which scares me.
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i am now a grandmother. that the me to think change does not happen to where we show respect for our leaders and each other. i don't know what will happen. all i know is mark luther king's dream has become a nightmare. host: thank you for the call. have we lost that? guest: i think with the lady was just saying touches to the very heart of the central problem that now exists in this country, and that is that there appears to be what some people call a culture war, which is not necessarily just political, but it is a belief on the part of any number of people that their control of the world, of their country has been taken out of their hands. it is in the hands of strangers, put quites it is often. they wanted to be reconstituted.
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one of the reasons that president trump's slogan about making america great again makes people feel that they want to go back to a time when they felt more comfortable living in this country, and this country since 1968, great year in american history, now they have plus, we are still living with the consequences of 1968 the way the country was literally torn apart in that year by assassinations, mass demonstrations, students being killed on college campuses , bible was going on in vietnam and questions that were raised at that time, is that war worthwhile? even in the senate, right across the street here, the argument was intense in the senate at that time led by arkansas senator fulbright. there were people who argued passionately that this war was
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immoral and had to end. on the other side, people like goldwater, on the republican side, who would argue that we were facing global communism, and it had to be stopped. nobody could really argue that point sensibly been. we still can't argue those points today. i hear people say we may be facing in this country another civil war. i think that is overstating it. a reflection of the frustration of being able to deal with radical change within period of time. host: you mentioned some of the iconic photographs from that time period. this is one of them. give us the back story. how did this come about, and why was it so significant? guest: that photograph was taken in the chinese section of saigon.
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this was at the height of the here the viet, w cong had come into saigon, and they had taken over the u.s. embassy. they tried to. they got right to the edge. it was pretty rough. general on the left just had d in veryis guys kille heavy streetfighting around that area. they arrested this vc suspect. film of an nvc -- nbc this happening. this photograph is one of the most powerful pictures ever taken, obviously. they brought back i over, and -- general over, and
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luan shot him right there. he was a reviled character after that. he lived right across the way in arlington after the war. eddie was always torn by this photo. he said two lives were ruined that day, certainly the vc who was killed and the general who was subject to repulsion every day after that. war isthe cruelty of the what comes up in that photograph. there is a cold dispensing of life. is no feeling. this guy is on the opposite side. move on. there are three photographs taken by ap photographers. iwo jima photograph is the
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exact opposite of that. it showed marines raising the flag, red, white, and blue, honor and glory. this is the dark underbelly of it all. this is really what war is about. this is what i saw. bloo and violenced. 1968, america in turmoil. our guests are david hume kennerly, bullets are prize-winning photographer, our conversation with -- pulitzer prize winning photographer. carmen is joining us from new york. caller: good morning. great show. my question is for either gentleman. less than a year into the vietnam war, president johnson was given a report from our military that the incident in in asulf of tonk
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reported never happened. i wanted to know, did the media at the time know of this report? the answer to that question is at the time we did not know about that report. that particular incident is the one that moved the united states very dramatically into the vietnam war. it happened on august 2 and august 4 of 1964. there were two attacks against an american destroyer right off the shores of north vietnam, and the first attack actually did take place. lyndon johnson did not take retaliatory action after that first attack. when the second attack took place on august 4, he did, but it turned out at that time we knew that it did not take place. it was bad reporting from the ship's captain of the destroyer. it was badew
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reporting. he knew the attack did not take place. lyndon johnson new it. johnson went on the air and declared that the attack had taken place, and therefore the u.s. was going to bomb north vietnam. that started the whole idea that the u.s. would be using air power to go directly against north vietnam. that started with the gulf of tonkin resolution passed in congress. at that time is set that the id that the- it sa president of the united states to take any action anywhere in the defense of america's interests against the communists. that was a big statement. most of the reporters, did not, i am sorry to say, take that up. the people at cbs and the washington post did. host: the tet offensive in
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1968, the chinese new year, proved the u.s. government was lying to the american people. why? guest: at that time, remember, it was already 25,000 american deaths into the war. we had been experiencing over a period of three years what it was like to fight that war and to realize that you could take a mountaintop and lose 100 marines doing so. and that night willingly pull out from that mountaintop. the question was, why did you take it in the first place? questions about strategy came up. the credibility gap came up. the american people were beginning to realize when the people who were dying, when the man who spoke to us a couple of callers before, when you talk about the war, remember that most of the people who were dying on the american side were
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poor kids from poor families picked up from poor neighborhoods who had no way of saying they were going to college and did not have to be drafted. they were drafted. they were the people being killed. that had a big impact on minority communities in this country that led eventually in 1960 after the tet offensive to these nationwide demonstrations. host: why did people listen to walter cronkite? guest: he was a man who had come through world war ii. he was a great correspondent. he had a great background. i knew walter really well, not as well as marvin did. i went with walter to hanoi to watch the last american pows released. about a personal story
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how that, there is no way around it, voice and demeanor, straightahead manner of walter cronkite, when we got to where they were housing u.s. prisoners, a place called the plantation, not the hanoi hilton, where mccain and the early prisoners were released two weeks before, they were in these p.o.w. pajamas and all that. i heard one of them saying i did not think they were really going to let us go until i saw walter cronkite there. then i knew it was true. that was the impact walter had. host: i want to go back to the convention in 1968. this is walter cronkite's reporting of the demonstrations taking place outside as the democrats are about to nominate hubert humphrey in 1968. [video clip] >> as we reported earlier, and
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this is not live, this is on film, had happened some time ago. 45 minutes to an hour ago. the demonstrators did get into .he lobby of the hilton hotel national guard was called. we do not see national guard in this scene. i assume this film is even longer ago than the last videotape we saw. this was before the national guard was called apparently. that would put it at two and a half hours ago. >> wisconsin. most delegates of this convention do not know that thousands of young people are being beaten in the streets of chicago. reason and that reason alone, i request a suspension of the rules for the purpose of adjournment for two .eeks
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to relocate the convention in another city of the choosing of the democratic national committee and the presidential candidates. >> wisconsin is not recognized for that purpose! that is the speaker of the house. guest: i did not know he got so twisted up. that was interesting to see that. host: the convention was in late lyndonto be timed with johnson's birthday. he was not the nominee. you heard that exchange where they said to move into mid-september. guest: first of all, that was wonderful footage illustrating how torn apart not only the whole country, but the political party was torn apart. outside the convention center, reporters were being beaten up by mayor daley's police because
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they were simply doing their job. you asked me about cronkite and why. walter cronkite in the late 1960's was regarded by 83% of the american people as the most trusted man in america. not the most trusted anchorman, the most trusted man. he would end every broadcast "and that's the way it is." and people would believe that is the way it is. guest: he was calm. he is explaining what is going on. he was not interjecting his opinion. guest: he was not interjecting his opinion, but he was emotionally very moved that dan rather and other reporters were being manhandled by the police on the floor of the convention. going back to other
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political figures you covered at that time, richard nixon was also nominated in 1968 for the second time after losing in 1960. guest: when i first photographed him, it was at the mission bay at the republican convention where they came out in san diego . i got a picture of him and spiro agnew looking really chummy. he did not know spiro agnew. this is one of my favorite shots because of the men on the right, agnew ended up in the white house because gerald ford replaced him. that is how i became the white house photographer. randy is joining us from florida. good morning. caller: yes, hello.
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i wanted to respond to a couple of the black callers because they were saying white supremacy and all this other stuff. if you remember, starting when we only had three tv channels anchors, they would not tellyou that the democratic ones who were the segregationists, the ku klux them.like 95% of compared to the
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republican conservatives who were offering opportunity, but the democrats were saying that they hate you and don't want you to succed. -- sexy. s-- succeed. host: we are going to get a response. guest: it is a fact that most of the southern states after world war ii were represented by democrats in congress. at the time, there were some of the most antiblack writing and lynching taken place. one became associated with the other. to democrats go line. caller: good morning. i am a frequent caller. i have been saving my every six
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week phone call to try to say something positive instead of something negative. i was a democrat for many years. i did leave after this most recent election and became independent. i want to thank these gentlemen here. photojournalism is something that seems to be on the wayside now. it is so important. ishm a little sophomore- photographer myself. i was a sophomore in 1968. we would sit in the morning and listen to announcements. we lost two classmates from the class of 1968 in vietnam. then we thought cap state, and kent state, and we were preparing to go to college. i think my generation suffers from ptsd from this.
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this just draws so much for me. i want to thank you both for your work and all the photos you have done. i think they are great for being here after what the press is going through. i want to say one more thing, for the black gentleman that have called, i think it is very difficult for any white person to understand. we can say i am not prejudiced. we will never have any idea of what the black people have gone through. we did not experience it. we will never know. my daughter had a friend who used to say to her you have no idea what it is like to go through a revolving door and have a white mother pull her daughter away from you as if you are going to contaminate her in some way. thank you. way, ken burns' pa rtner behind that vietnam war cap miniseries will be with us.
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guest: i would say to photojournalism done by the wayside, it has not. there are still photographers on the front lines of history every single day. and example i used earlier was the meeting of north and south, going back and forth across the line on the dmz in korea. there is a good example of an image. photographers are out shining light in the corners of the world that people need to see. delusion be some because everybody is a photographer now, but not everybody is a professional photographer. not everyone is taking risks, putting their lives on the line to report the truth, which is the way i look at it. i think it is alive and well. as you were saying, it is a different world from your newspapers or television.
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you can get it from a lot of different angles. host: marvin kalb, your reaction to the cover story of life , 1968,e, june 14 following the assassination of robert kennedy. what does this image tell you? guest: that image, photo by bill that init says to me family,e poor kennedy which in the 1960's was like a everyone, not everyone, but a lot of people were excited about john kennedy and the way in which he governed . then he was killed. then robert kennedy comes along and becomes a senator, and he is going to run in 1968 and take on lyndon johnson, a guy he really did not like, but a member of his own party.
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then robert kennedy is killed. you look at a picture like that of someone skipping off across a beach, it is two things, the excitement of being alone on a beach and running, and at the same time the end of a major chapter in the kennedy clan. host: we have photographs from the ambassador hotel that evening. senator kennedy winning the california primary. tell us what happened. guest: very quickly, to go back to the photograph, the photographer who did that life cover on an oregon beach, and that is where i come from, and when i first photographed robert kennedy was in 1966, and i had never seen a big political figure like that. there was a photographer at the edge of this very crowded room, and he looked like he was traveling with that group, and i went over to him, and i said how
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do you get through these crowds? he said, hang on to my coat, kid. he took me through. he said, here is your photo. you will see the crowd in the background and the senator in the foreground. that was bill average who took that photograph for life magazine helping out a 19-year-old kid. flashforward, i was at the ambassador hotel that night covering for upi, after he had been declared the victor of the california primary. primary thehe organ week for that. this is the moment, this is the little v. ron bennett was the other upi photographer in the room. he went off the stage. when i heard the senator had been shot, i ran outside and got this photograph of ethel in the ambulance. it was one of the worst nights
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in american history. it was one of the worst nights for me because i had met and talk to robert kennedy come in fact that area of the -- that very evening. this was his secret service agent. there was nothing he could do. that guy popped out of the crowd and shot the senator. when robert kennedy's body was being put on a plane, former first lady jacqueline kennedy at the airport. this is a woman who has experienced this tragedy before. these are all pictures i took as a young guy photographing history and watching a nightmare unfold. host: we should point out that ethel kennedy just turned 90 years old. her daughter was with us a few weeks ago. back to your phone calls, jenny in hawaii, democrats line. andare with marvin kalb
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david hume kennerly. caller: good morning. thank you, david and margaret. -- marvin. i have to wonder about you guys. you have not mentioned bob dylan. he inspired our generation. in 1968, he was in woodstock. we were suffering some kind of separation anxiety. on fm radio, his songs were playing every 15 minutes. nobody could escape awareness of what he had to say about american militarism beginning in 1962. in 1964 and 1965 you have not figured it out yet, none of us had. guest: i was still in high school. caller: i hope you will stop to think about this. i wrote a book about this subject.
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emphasizing dylan use of enigma to teach ethics. the title is singing in the christian era. he is a prophet. host: thank you. guest: bob dylan is one of the great ones, of course, but i would just point out that we cannot mention everybody who had anything to do with the year of 1968. she is right. that is why he was awarded the nobel prize. he is a great poet and put things into perspective and is still at it. texas, jerry is next. republican line. caller: thank you for taking my call. i remember the 1960's very distinctly. i am 82 years old. i lost a brother-in-law during the tet offensive. my brother served in recount afterwards. the 1964 democratic convention i
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remember very well. they would get up and make a speech. what the a big joke person said at the podium and what they took from the reporter were very different. we laughed at it at work how much difference there was. i had a neighbor who got so upset watching it that he threw shoes at the television. the protests during the 1960's were financed by the kgb. this came out after the soviet union collapsed. host: you are laughing. guest: i'm sorry. i don't believe that. no. host: let me turn to the story that you did cover in 1968, the invasion of czechoslovakia. set the stage. what was happening in the cold war?
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what were our relations like in the soviet union. why would this be a significant element? ahead a968 rocked number of things in the cold war. brought to a head a number of things in the cold war. everyone in the west assumed that because the russians had a very major force in eastern europe, it was there to threaten the west but not actually did ,ake action against the west but on october 20, 1968, the intoans moved tanks product, the capital of czechoslovakia. prague, the capital of czechoslovakia. i got a call that morning from walter cronkite. he said, did you hear the news? the russians have moved into czechoslovakia.
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i said, ooh. he said ooh is right. we want you back here tonight. you are going to be the lead of the program. take as much time as you like, that explained why the russians would move west at this point. takew that he did not mean as much time as you like. that was sort of one minute 20 tops. i was thinking on the drive to new york what i was going to say. was that that the idea the american president in the russian mind was sold sort in the vietnam war that we in europe, communists in europe have got to move west and take advantage of the american preoccupation with the war in vietnam. that is one of the major reasons they moved. there were others. i wrote this up. i handed it in about 1:00 in the afternoon. walter thought it was terrific.
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in those days, you had to get in front of the camera, do it. the film had to be processed and all of that. :45 thatabout 5; afternoon, he called me to his office. sorry to tell you. we just got footage of a fire in new orleans. we really want to run that footage of a fire. i knew there was no point in arguing with him. i said, how much time are you going to give me? he said, can you explain why the russians moved into czechoslovakia in 45 seconds? i said, sure. it was sort of silly, but that was the nature of the news then. if you have footage of the great fire in new orleans, you are going to run that footage. that was on the day that the russians moved in. were you still believe? -- the lead? yeah, but it was 45
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seconds. host: let's go to robert in missouri. good morning. caller: i am enjoying this program this morning. as a black american, i remember president kennedy. [indiscernible] he decided that he was going to take black citizens in this country dignity. i remember lyndon johnson said we were going to give minorities human rights, civil rights, voting rights. that caused a lot of seven democrats to leave the democratic party for the republican party. [indiscernible]
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over to the republican party. they took their hatred and bigotry to the republican party. from that point on, every republican president from nixon to the present time who has run -- hatred andhas bigotry [indiscernible] . host: thank you for the call. we wanted to talk about that kerner commission report, which toert was referring generally. let me share what this report concluded in 1968. e have found a significant imbalance between what actually happened in our cities and what newspaper, radio, and television
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coverage told us. the news media have failed to analyze and report adequately on racial problems in the united states and the knee grows 'sgitimate -- negro legitimate expectations in journalism. his organizations have failed to mitigate the black and white audiences a sense of the problems america faces." your reaction. guest: i think they were right. i will admit as a young , inographer at that time 1968, i did not cover any race riots in l.a. so i don't have first-hand experience of how that went other than what i was reading in the paper. margaret might have a better beat on that. guest: at that time i was covering foreign affairs, but
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that is not the point. the point is the caller makes a number of very poignant points. they ought to be taken very seriously. thatould make the argument the kind of coverage required to deal with the issue of racism in the united states is so profound and so deep and would require almost constant coverage to be able to get to the heart of the problem, i think, in fairness to the press, that it has done a remarkable job of moving toward a solution of that problem. what it is that the coroner commission -- kerner commission said about the failings of the then and areght right today. it would be foolish to ignore this, there has been enormous progress.
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the number of active americans who are reporting today as anchors, key people of the three newscasts in the evening, one of them is an african-american. it is not as if these issues are ignored or shelved. it is being addressed, but it is so profound that it still needs more coverage. 19 68, c-span3, american history tv, special coverage here on "washington journal." in california.us bakersfield. go ahead. to comment oned that timeframe, 1968, once robert kennedy passed away and pretty much for the heart out of re theerican beliefs -- to heart out of the american beliefs in truth. david touched on it earlier of what we believed journalists do,
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which is to bring the truth out. they should have more influence, and congress should listen to them. has pretty much caused the concerns and believes iefs that we don't trust the government. when remember in 1970 nixon, 12 of us sat down with our envelopes from the military, shot, anduted with a we all open to them at the same time to see what our draft number was. i lived in detroit. i grew up through that era. there was a definite not trusting the government. we are seeing that now as then. host: thank you. the book ends of this period, the vietnam war and watergate. now whereergate to
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you have the relentless attack on the first amendment and the on the first amendment and the press, i cannot tell you how deeply offensive that is to me having gone through first-hand experience of this with my colleagues being killed in the line of duty, not reporting fake news, that is for sure. forrgate really rippled people. it took gerald ford, a fairly mild-mannered congressman, a world war ii hero, whose office was right across the hall from jfk's, they were both veterans from the navy in the pacific. he brought it back into perspective. donald rumsfeld, was the chief of staff for gerald ford, has a new book coming out in a couple weeks called the center hi
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ll. ind had been a center football. he held the line against the rip in the fabric caused by watergate. it was a great testimony to our system. i -- can survive that, as we can survive anything. host: he will be sitting down with vice president dick cheney early next month. guest: dick cheney had to transcribe all of his notes of his conversations with the president. the book is his memos that he wrote at the time. it is a good book. host: we hope you tune into that. let's go back to your calls. john in illinois. good morning. caller: good morning. i was talking about photographs. marched inn king chicago, we all still marched -- also marched on the side.
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i made the local newspaper on the front page. that photograph changed my life. in 1968, i was 18 years old. me and my gang went downtown to beat up hippies and protesters. that is what mayor daley was telling us to do. that changed my outlook on the demonstrators and all of that. said thecame by and .ar is full of baloney three months later i was talking my buddies into joining up the marine corps. vietnam,s leaving for a korean war veteran said when you call for help, you don't care who comes. it could be tall or short, black or brown, green, it does not matter. those things changed my life. i fight every day not to be prejudiced. i hope america is learning not to be prejudiced. guest: i love you.
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[laughter] host: i want to go back to another piece of film from the democratic convention. what was show that, happening on the republican side? but davidasn't there, duncan did an incredible photo essay inside with net and. -- nixon. nixon in the pacific when he was in the navy. convention.e the it is a fantastic photo book. all i know is what i saw from those photographs, and it was a the more orderly than democrats, which is probably one
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of the reasons nixon. host: here is walter cronkite. [video clip] >> chairman bailey downtown. delayre going to be any in this convention has a result of what is going on downtown? >> i have been watching television. i understand there is some trouble. 60 people were arrested. >> there has been a fairly large disturbance downtown. not to come back tomorrow, because of what they call the police state tactics being used around the convention hall and downtown. >> i assume the people here making sure there are no interruptions to the convention itself. this is a very serious convention. we're going to nominate the next
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president of the united states. >> the charge is undue force being used by police and national guard. >> i know nothing about. i am here in the convention. >> you see no delay in the convention? >> i sure the candidate for president will be nominated tonight and tomorrow the vice president. >> thank you mr. bailey. john bailey, chairman of the democratic party. reporters attending to ask him what is going on at the convention and all the reports of undue force being used by chicago police. he was reading a news report and looked rather amazed and interested. marvin kalb, it is important to point out that this is pre-cable, the networks airing these conventions almost gavel to gavel. guest: it was a very exciting experience to watch. it was a great example of mr.
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bailey engaging in what was called the credibility gap. a claims he knew nothing about the police whacking reporters over the head. it was on television. you just have to open your eyes. job.s just doing his that is nonsense. the american people watching that knew it because they had seen what was going on outside and inside the convention. this is one of these things that when people look back on 1968 and try to answer questions today about a lack of faith in the u.s. government, why don't we believe what it is that our president says or senator says? i'm not saying if you want back to 1968, would get all the answers, but you would get some of the answers. that is where it was spawned. that is where this whole idea of power talking lies to people rather than journalists finding
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out what is going on and telling it as truthfully as they could. carolina, jack, republican line. caller: good morning. about 50 years ago in june, my wife and i were married. the day we were married, i listened to teddy kennedy's eulogy on his brother. i thought it was the best speech i had ever heard. that is it. guest: congratulations for 50 years. that is a real landmark. host: that speech that senator kennedy delivered in new york at st. patrick's cathedral. guest: it was one of the great speeches that teddy kennedy ever gave. he was capable of doing great speeches, and i think the american people over the years learned about this great skill he had, which was something in the kennedy genes.
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at that time, people realized that ted kennedy had taken on himself the responsibility of being the leader of the kennedy clan. people in the political world also recognize that. kennedy himself changed at that point. it was the chappaquiddick incident after that. a full person and a full politician when he suddenly realized that there were none of his brothers around any longer. he was the kid called upon to be the senior member of the clan. i think, as a senator, most everybody right and left would agree that ted kennedy was an extraordinary senator after that time. host: the next call is william from new york city. welcome to the conversation. go ahead. caller: i would just like to say kennedy lostd that
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-- yes, i would just like to correct the record that kennedy lost the primary in oregon. that was the first time that kennedy had ever lost an election. i am very surprised that neither of your commentators knew that. guest: you know, he is right. that was my mistake. as a native oregonian, i like to think everybody comes away a winner from oregon. you are totally correct. that.ccarthy won kennedy recovered intel point. good catch. host: good morning, independent line. caller: good morning. i appreciate c-span's programming in terms of having the courage to examine the media's role in america today.
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i think c-span is doing a great job and making sure that we have balanced coverage. this question is for marvin. i have watched your work and appreciate the intellectual approach you take and the objective approach you take to examining stories. you did mention that the media has done a good job in moving america forward in terms of racial progress. i agree with that, but i am curious, do you think the local press is doing enough to make sure they are not putting negative images before the american people, such as latinos and african-americans in a very negative light, and causing primarily what americans to look at them from a very negative perspective? i just don't think that the intellectual growth and analysis that you put into your stories
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are taking place locally, and that is what drives a lot of the dissension and anger in this country. i will hang up and listen for your response. guest: you are absolutely right in that a lot of the current polling data indicates that most americans get their news from local news, and mostly local television news. that is absolutely right. that puts a huge responsibility on the people who run local news as to what they put on the air. if there is an imbalance, if they put too much negative associated with one group, that is wrong. that is bad journalism, and it simply is not true. at the same time, if it is a fact that something negative is associated with african-american communities, you have got to report that. that is also part of the news.
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my own feeling is that for the most part, exceptions taken into ms.unt, for the most part, people locally and on network level try to do the best job they can. host: what did walter cronkite of richard nixon in 1960? -- 1968? guest: there were two walter cronkite's. there was the one on the air that was objective. he always had a feeling that -- i don't know how he voted, but if i had to guess, i would say cronkite was a reluctant democrat in that his instincts would go to the liberal side on domestic affairs, but he was very tough on foreign affairs. it was very difficult for him to say that the war in vietnam was meantated, because that the united states was not winning.
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that is something the inside of walter cronkite rebelled agai nst. he loved the idea of america being first and winning. guest: he was a world war ii guy. guest: absolutely. host: we are still a year away from you are strong walking on the moon. -- neil armstrong walking on the. is apollo program flourishing. guest: it was a big story. the russians were doing remarkable things at that time. i remember when the united states was sending one of its first rockets to the moon, i was called back from moscow to go to cape canaveral to help report that story with walter. that was story because he knew the entire story. i did not. the idea was that space was open to both superpowers at that time. there was a recognition in our therage that we understood
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russians would also play a major role. host: let me share with you this photograph from christmas eve, 1968. a capstone to a very tumultuous year. i think you can see the view of earth from space. -- also all , pueblo, new mexico. when thatan diego group came off the airplane. they were playing the lonely bull, which was the theme song of that crew. that was one of the most emotional things i have ever seen. flash forward to possible e breaking out on the korean peninsula.
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i will never forget what christmas. 1968 host: our last call. caller: i am a student of history. i have a degree in history. i have studied 1968. todayorry that the media is not close to what you guys were in the 1960's because i see a lot of terminology being thefined where it skews discussion. we are talking illegal aliens, but we say undocumented workers. we hear radical right all the time, but never about the radical left in the media. host: i am going to stop you there. guest: radical left, radical
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right, these terms that are used to distract, located processes, i find it very difficult most of the time to look at the reporter , are you a democrat or republican? i don't have a clue. i don't care. so long as you freshly do your job, which you do so well, from that point, that is all that is important. that is the key. look at a result of what a reporter does. at the end of the day, if you think that reporter has done as good a job as a human being can do, that is enough. host: i was going to give you one minute 20,, but i will leave you 45 seconds. what are the lessons when it comes to the media? guest: i was glad to get out of it alive. i think we have come a long way. i have been doing it so long, and i am still doing it. i work for cnn now covering politics.
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i love my colleagues. i think we are still a band of brothers and sisters out there telling the truth and our professional. photographer, if you put something into a photo or take it out, you get fired. you have to know that the new york times and the wire services and the networks, all these people really hold the line of integrity. host: marvin kalb, you get the last word. guest: i think journalism in 1968 learned one huge lesson, the government of the united states when it with two would lie. would lie wished to to the american people using the press.
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host: your signature red tie. now with cnn, to both with arizona senator john mccain has died at the age of 81. he was first a lot did to congress in 1980 two serving four years in the house of representatives before becoming a senator, a position he held for the last three decades. he ran for president twice, 2000 and two thousand eight becoming the republican nominee. prior to his political career, he spent more than 20 years with the u.s. navy before retiring in 1980 one as a captain. his service included bombing missions during the vietnam war where he faced captivity.
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as a prisoner of four in his early 30's, it john mccain was subjected to torture and solitary confinement while being held in various prison camps including one commonly referred to as the hanoi hilton. he was released five-and-a-half years later. condolences are pouring in from around the country including messages from the president and first lady, the vice president and mrs. pence, former presidents, cabinet officials and his colleagues in the house and senate. >> c-span's "washington journal" live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. sunday morning, christian science monitor correspondent and white house correspondent john gibby will discuss the future of the crop presidency. and then the rand corporation's researcher rebecca zimmerman
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discusses the future of afghanistan. the sure to watch c-span's "washington journal" at 7:00 eastern. join the discussion. [chanting] the mostone of qualified nominees ever picked for the supreme court and he has contributed a great deal to his community and the legal profession besides being an the d cing judge on circuit court of appeals. >> judge kavanaugh has a special obligation to make his views on this topic clear. that he would only appoint judges who would overturn roe. on that obligation, judge kavanaugh failed spectacularly. >> i look forward to watching his confirmation hearing. and i am confident that judge
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kavanaugh will be an addition to our nation's highest court. day one of the senate confirmation hearing for brett kavanaugh. live tuesday, september 4 on anytime ontch c-span.org, or listen on the free c-span radio app. meeting in chicago this weekend, the democratic national committee made changes to the presidential nomination process by voting to reduce the role of superdelegates. before the final vote, there was a debate among committee members that included the dnc chair tom price and former chair don fowler. [applause] >> good morning, everybody. good morning, everybody. i know of emoti

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