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tv   Senate Appropriations Subcommittee Hearing on FAA Oversight  CSPAN  July 31, 2019 5:05pm-7:02pm EDT

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announcer: now, federal aviation administration officials testify on the boeing 737 max accidents and subsequent investigations. this appropriations transportation subcommittee hearing is just under two hours. >> the committee will come to order. today, our subcommittee is holding an oversight hearing on the federal aviation administration. i'm very pleased to be joined by senator jack reed, the subcommittee's ranking member, senator caputo is here right from the start, and i'm sure we will be joined by others. the faa is a $17 billion agency
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with 44,000 employees who are responsible for virtually every aspect of aviation in our country, including the safety of commercial airlines, general aviation, and cargo aircraft. every day, faa's air traffic controllers are responsible for more than 44,000 flights and 2.7 million airline passengers across more than 29 million square miles of airspace. over the last year, much-needed attention has been focused on the crashes of lion air flight 610 and ethiopian air flight 302.
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serious questions have been raised about the effectiveness of the faa's regulatory framework. for the sake of the 346 victims and their families, we need to ensure that these accidents are thoroughly investigated, their causes identified, and their solutions implemented. unfortunately, at this point, we do not yet have the conclusive results of the two crash investigations and cannot say definitively why these terrible accidents occurred. for these types of catastrophic events, however, there is rarely just one cause, there is almost always a cascade of errors or failures that lead to an airplane crash. nevertheless, since the second crash in march, we continued to hear of more problems with faa's certification of the 737 max aircraft.
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a new york times article over the weekend shed additional light on some of the problems with faa's organizational, designation, authorization, or oda program. in particular, the press story details instances in which faa managers appeared to be more concerned with boeing's production timeline rather than the safety recommendations of its own engineers. these stories are particularly damaging for the leadership of faa safety oversight. safety oversight. the ongoing investigations by the inspector general and the national transportation safety board are looking at all aspects of the max aircraft, including the certification of the mcas, the installation of the
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angle-of-attack sensors, the pilot training, the level of automation in the aircraft, and the human factors related to the design of the cockpit. while the max aircraft accidents deserve much of our attention this year, it is critical that the faa continues to make progress in improving air travel in our nation's congested airspace. our nation's airspace continues to become more complex with new players in the aviation industry, such as commercial space operators and unmanned aircraft systems, or drones. during the last two years, this subcommittee has provided substantial funding to improve safety, increase the efficiency of air travel, and modernize the infrastructure at our nation's
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airports, and i look forward to hearing from our witnesses on how these investments have improved air travel for the public. the next-gen programs, like performance-based navigation and time-based flow management, will improve air travel by reducing flight times. planes are burning less fuel, emitting fewer emissions, and creating less noise through other next-gen improvements. by january 1st of next year, all commercial aircraft and most general aviation will be equipped with automatic dependent surveillance broadcast, or adsp, allowing us adsb, allowing us to transition away from ground-based radar to more precise gps tracking.
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with adsb, pilots can see other aircraft in the sky, pinpoint hazardous weather, and terrain and receive important flight information. adsb will also improve the efficiency of our skies by allowing planes to fly safely with reduced separation and also enhanced safety on the tarmac by reducing the risk of runway incursions. turning to our nation's airports, i would point to the $1.5 billion in additional funding that this subcommittee has provided for our nation's airports over the last two years. this funding has been particularly in beneficial for small, rural airports, such as those in such as the one in rangeley, maine, which was awarded an $11 million grant for a runway extension project with a longer runway life flight of maine an air ambulance system
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will be able to bring its twin turboprop aircraft to provide air medical services for communities in an area that has access to a few medical providers. i look forward to hearing from our witnesses on all of these key issues this morning, but particularly the issues of safety. let me now turn to senator reid for his opening remarks. >> thank you, chairman collins. this is a timely hearing giving the unresolved safety issues that have led to two fatal airline crashes and the grounding of the boeing 737 max -- max. every possible measure must be taken to enter the aircraft is safe before it returns to the skies. it is critical that boeing and the faa get this right therder to restore confidence in both the aircraft and the certification oversight
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-- oversight process. failure to do so will jeopardize continued us leadership in the aviation sector and faa standing as the gold standard for safety . as the chairman indicated new york times investigative report released last week describes in their words a broken regulatory process that effectively nuded the oversight authority of the faa you can see the deference granite industry reflected plainly in a joint industry faa product certification guide published in 2017 which highlights quote how an applicant and the faa can begin a transition to a state where there's progressively less direct involvement in the faa engineer summit had little power even when they raise concerns. these allegations are grave and speak to a need of a culture
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change that rebalance his relationship between regulator. it extends beyond the faa's certification program. the dod inspector general is raising alarms on the faa oversight of the air carrier means program, specifically the ig raised concerns that the faa has shifted its safety strategy from emphasizing enforcement actions to a more relaxed compliance assistance model to help carriers address the root causes for non-compliance of safety regulations. current so, the faa's guidance allows inspectors to close compliance actions for validating. to add to the many challenges, there are very few technologies that are developed as rapidly as unmanned aviation systems, or
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jones. -- drones. drones are changing the way we do business in helping farmers mantra of crops and improving railroads and revolutionizing the delivery of goods in this country. these are exciting developments, but there is growing concern about the incidents being reported in the news. whether it is a drone flying dangerous a close to a passenger airplane or a camera flying over someone's private property. the faa needs to establish clear rules of the air to safely integrate the technology into our airspace. uas technology is evolving so quickly and we need to know that the faa is keeping up and responding strategically. i look forward to hearing about your progress in this issue. onnow the blue-ribbon panel ua is litigation -- on uas mitigation and airports internal report was just released and i'm interested to hear your reactions. the faa is facing many
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challenges. i am hopeful with your leadership we will sustain the leadership with the u.s. and the safest, most efficient aviation system in the world. >> thank you, senator reid. i know want to turn to our panel of witnesses, all of home are senior career officials of the faa. we are joined today by carl burlison, the acting deputy administrator of the faa. ally bahrami, the associate administrator for aviation something -- aviation safety. the deputy associate administrator for airports, and angela stubblefield, the deputy administrator for security and hazardous materials. mr. burlison, we will start with the. -- with you. >> thank you, chairman collins.
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thank you for inviting us all to speak with you today to update aviatione federal administrations were to fulfill themission to provide safest airspace in the world. advancingmitted to the infrastructure and maintaining american leadership and innovation while ensuring safety and access for all users in the national airspace is -- in the national airspace system. the chairman just noted innovation is reshaping the nas s. it is nothing short of amazing considering we have approximately 1.4 million drums registered in less than four years. are in anis experiment of design or testing phases with major aerospace
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companies. we have proposed a new rules to remove the red tape and streamline, the testing process for any -- a new generation of civil supersonic aircraft, and civilian space pioneers getting ready to take supportable -- excursions offered by start up space companies. these whiletroduce harmonizingly national airspace and maintaining safety and access for all users? diligently to accomplish the directive set forth in the appropriations act with congress. safe integration and commercial space operations are a key priority for the faa without compromising safety. we are taking concrete steps to fulfill this mission. we have deployed the prototype
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low altitude authorization and notification capability, or nearly 300 air traffic facilities covering about 500 airports and more than a hundred contract towers. operators tou.s. gain airspace authorization in a matter of seconds compared to weeks previously. lance is a good first step as we progressed towards automated air traffic management for drones. we took another concrete step for commercial space integration by opening the challenger room inside the air traffic control system command center, where joint space operations group assess proposed launch and reentry operations that have an impact on the nation's airspace area this operational visibility coupled with space data integrators we are developing will allow us to develop -- safely reduce the amount of airspace that must be closed to other users during launch and reentry. -- uas,ion to uas operationalizing
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next-jen technologies including adsb.- roughly 80% of the u.s. airline fleet and more than 60,000 journal aviation aircraft have been equipped. we expect to start operational training -- .perational testing this summer this will allow us to build a virtual departure queue at airports. both flights can wait at the gate with their engines off until they have a direct route to the runway. i moving electronic data exchange, it will also save time for our controllers in a tower cap by eliminating certain manual processes. we are also working to make sure generations of americans are ready to enter the aerospace workforce. when of the highest priorities -- one of the highest priorities
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is to bring well-trained women and men into the aviation system. we have established a committee pipeline of young people interested in aviation careers, enhancing the proficiency of training and targeting skills we need in the future, and partnering with academia to achieve these outcomes. the men and women of the faa are committed to ensuring the united rates is the gold standard in aviation safety. i will be the first work knowledge we are not part for -- we are not perfect, but the safety inspector helping to educate the next generation of pilots in florida or a controller working traffic in chicago, the employees are not complacent about their mission. they work every day to ensure the safety of the american traveling public. that is why we are confident with the support of this committee and the robust engagement of our stakeholders that we can safely achieve innovation necessary to continue america's global leadership.
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thank you. bahrami. >> i appreciate the opportunity to address the faa's top priority safety. flightopean airlines three of two and lion air flight 610 accidents were tragic events that seared the safety conscience of the entire aviation community. learning from and recovering from these accidents is our primary focus within the aviation safety organization along with maintaining the continued operational safety of the national airspace system. with respect to returning the service, the faa is following a thorough process, not a prescribed timeline. we continue to evaluate boeing's
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software modification to the mcas. in addition, we are developing necessary training groups to support various investigations and audits on the way. the jointking through authorities, or chatter to conduct apprehensive review of the 737 max's flight control system certification. we have also initiated multi agency technical advisory board seviews of boeing's mca software update and system safety assessment. let me emphasize that despite the strong spotlight, that we are under, we welcome this britney, as it will make a stronger. -- this scrutiny, as it will make a stronger. our data driven risk-based
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and oversight forms the backbone of the proven quantifiable safety record that inhave come to expect commercial aviation. in the past 10 years, u.s. carriers have transported more than 7 billion passengers with to -- withy, -- 15 one fatality, but one fatality is far too many. know a healthy safety culture requires commitment to continuous improvement. your new strategic plan, we are aligning our safety culture to be responsive to the new challenges we face, including new entrance, the fastest of which is unmanned aircraft systems, or uas. our focus onened
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the safety of all aircraft operations and we worked on a number of initiatives to support integration. we are using existing rules to enable operations where we can and focusing on safety enabling evern ever-expanding -- an universe of operations and capabilities. i would like to emphasize that in our quest for continuous safety improvement, we welcome external review of our systems and processes, and we remain committed to making commercial and general aviation even safer. thank you. >> thank you. >> chairman collins, ranking member and members of the subcommittee, thank you for the opportunity to speak with you today.
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the office of airports works with more than 5000 airports across the country and more thatfically, 3300 airports are part of the national plan of integrated airport systems. we also work closely with the ,irline general aviation pilots state aviation professionals, neighboring communities, local governments, and any other stakeholders. our top priority is always the safety of the traveling public while optimizing capacity efficiency -- capacity, efficiency, and the security of our nation's airports. we also ensure environmental responsibility and financial accountability. we are deeply grateful to the united states congress and particularly this committee for the trust that you place in us. the needs far exceed the available resources, but the funds that you provide are crucial to keeping our nation's airports as safe as the airways
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that connect them. the nationwide system of airports that we help maintain represents a critical safety net which is part of why the united states has the safest air transportation system in the world. they are also crucial to our national, regional, and local economies, understanding the importance of infrastructure to our nation's economic well-being , we work closely with airport operators and their planning and development programs. in 2018, we issued a total of $3.46 billion in airport improvement funding, including a portion of the fiscal year 2018 supplemental funds. far, we have9, so processed more than $2.4 billion in grants, including additional funds from the fiscal year 2018 supplemental program.
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continue to improve safety through inspections of certificated airports through site visits and through our latest initiative, the runway incursion mitigation program. through construction, procedures, and signage and marking changes, we are able to reduce runway incursions at 39 we could by 93%, but knock on work without our highly skilled professional workforce. they too depend on the resources that allow them to perform their daily function such as helping develop runway extensions and remote areas. how tolp figure out optimize safety and capacity at constrained airports. they help determine how to justify a runway extension with a balance between community, environmental concerns, and the system capacity and safety needs. our compliance experts and sure aviation related revenues were
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used for-- are aviation related purposes, which is critical to the functionality of our system. our people work closely with other parts of the faa as well as other federal, state, and local agencies. we are dedicated to working with that weour stakeholders serve to help solve problems and ensure that we have the safest and most efficient airport system. thank sen. collins: thank you. chairman:, representative reed, and members of the committee, thank you for meeting to address how the faa is -- safe and secure integration of you a.s. into the national airspace system cannot be achieved without addressing the risks posed by malicious or errant usa operations. just as the u.s. government has built a strong foundation of
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aviation facility to support manned operations, we are focused on a holistic regime that includes the ability to prevent, deter, protect, and when necessary, respond to unauthorized you a.s. operations. the prevention efforts include public outreach and education and support to law enforcement and public safety education. noncompliantst operations are committed by the clueless and careless with no malicious intent. wedeter reckless operators, are providing instructional resources and investigative support to law enforcement which also enables the civil enforcement. we are punishing -- the ability to remotely identify you a.s. and their operators in flight is crucial to locating
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and taking appropriate action operators posing a safety or security risk. criticalnce is to safety, security, and integration. the faa's providing information to sponsors to make informed decisions about you detection airports. at turning to respond, the faa is coordinating with the departments of defense, energy, justice, and homeland security to ensure counter you a.s. .echnologies -- uas for domestic airports, several unique challenges in the airport environment require more evaluation and development of counter uas technologies. as directed in the faa authorization, we are testing mitigation systems at several airports. we share concerns about the potential impact of a drone
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disrupting operations and are closely coordinating with federal security partners to federalize a national federal response plan to deploy authorities and technologies to address a persistent disruption at a major u.s. airport ensuring the u.s. government is ready to respond to an event similar to the uas disruption at uk's gatwick airport in december 2018. working together to prevent, deter, detect and respond to uas risks, the faa, security and law enforcement, and critical infrastructure owners will enable the u.s. to complete and you -- continue leading the way in innovation while maintaining the safest, most secure and most efficient airspace in the world. sen. collins: thank you. burlison, i want to start with you today. and your testimony, you say the faa prioritizes safety above all
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else, which is what we would want and expect. when one reads the "new york times" story and the "wall street journal" story that came question, one has to comes out of that commitment whether research, shortages, that cause the agency to be deferential to the aircraft manufacturer, and whether it is really wise in the have allowedg to the company to certify 96% of its own work. more disturbing, the new york recounts case after case where safety concerns seems to be placed second to concerns about boeing being able to meet
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its own timelines. would you comment on why the faa would give apparently more consideration to an aircraft manufacturer's production to safety concerns that were raised? burleson: thank you for the question. let me start with foundation. the core principle is safety. i think you see that as we are working through all the challenges of coming to a place where we feel comfortable on grounding the max step-by-step. we constantly say there is no timeline, the issue is safety. in terms of the newspaper
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reports, i think that again, they offer a perspective, but i would say the professionals who are working this day in and day out have an incredible commitment to trying to get it right. they are often times, and ahrami canmr. b testify to this, he has more knowledge of the details of the i willring process, but say we do not and never have allowed self certification of whether it is boeing or any other project. we are fundamentally involved at the beginning of a certification project. the boeing aircraft that the max took five years to certify. we were in the beginning phases of deciding what was more routine and what could be delegated and what the key technologies and risks that have to be addressed.
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think we have been fully knowledgeable in dealing with the development of that plane that the process of delegation is long-standing and has been a critical part of producing the safety record we have in the united states. i would say it doesn't mean it's perfect, it doesn't mean each decision we have made has always been perfect, but i do think the fundamental process of how we went about certifying the max was sound and i think the other positive here is as mr. bahram : mentioned in his testimony, we have a number of views ongoing looking at what we did in the past. we are certainly committed to improvements and changes we need to make. . if there needs to be a different balance, we are willing and
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ready to take those recommendations. there are also committees that are looking at the future to begin -- airplanes are not going to be less computer centric going forward. whate looking at recommendations might come in terms of improving future certification project -- process. sen. collins: i have many questions, but i know senator reid is on a tight schedule, so. >> thank you, madam chairman. me,bahrami, it seems to that a pilot who flies on a day to day basis, should be involved in the certification process. if you were involved in finding additional flight control software issue when they were given access, going forward,
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justthe faa reconsider not test pilots playing a greater role? mr. bahrami: thank you for that question -- pilots are engaged in certification and they have always been involved. what you recently heard with respect to the recent findings, the issue was a review of the and wesafety assessment, found out there was a particular failure which was extremely , and we acknowledge that and understood that, and based on what we learned from the two accidents, we decided that we need to actually verify the assumptions. that is where the pilots got involved to infect verify that that particular situation, if it
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occurs, is recoverable. in that particular case, several pilots were able to recover, but there was one or so they could not recover successfully. and because of that, they said the change needs to occur. the pilots are engaged. sen. reed: with the question is, will they be formally engaged going forward, not just informally, but officially? mr. bahrami: absolutely. sen. reed: thank you. onay, there was a comment the situation. one of the comments was that the faa's early goal after the first crash was to get something out immediately and then mandate something more permanent. specifically, the faa analysis would bethe warning about 10 months to design and implement changes according to a
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person close to the manufacturer. boeing had planned to complete the changes by april within the 10 month period. this information appears to contradict the earlier statements by the faa. thoughtosely notification would be sufficient. is this accurate, the report , did the faa have a short-term warning knowing that boeing needed something more significant to fix the plane? mr. bahrami: one of the most important roles we play is for safety. on a daily basis, we get reports from the fleet with respect to events, occurrences, difficulties, whether it is operational or technical on a regular basis. all of those are reviewed by engineers and specialists to determine, first of all, are there serious safety risks? what do we need to do? in the interim, and also
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action?m this is a normal practice. in that case, based on the data and information that we see, we recognize that in the lion air case, pilot action played a significant role. and because of that, we felt the most important and urgent thing to do until we have the most appropriate fixes in place, to provide pilots with appropriate procedures to focus on, and going forward while we develop this, the interim measures, and the final fix was at a later time. that is normal practice. there are numerous examples that we have done that. sen. reed: but the implication was that this pilot change would be sufficient to provide airworthiness and there was no real mention of improvements and necessary changes in the system, leading most people to conclude
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that there was no long-term issue with the mcas. iat lack of transparency think is not appropriate. mr. bahrami: when we got involved in an investigation, it is for two reasons. number one, to support the ntsb with technical knowledge and information. number two is to make sure we understand what we need to do to protect the fleet based on real-time information we got. onpart of the requirement the agreement with the ntsb is we do not disclose information or any indication what may have gone wrong in that particular place -- case, and that is a delicate balance for us to play. we wanted to basically resolve the issue without having the disclosed information.
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the safety perspective, we felt strongly that what we did was basedate and that on discussions with airlines, our operators, the review of the data we have obtained from our operators and canadian operators. we thought it was sufficient. knowing what we know today, maybe we have to look at that based on the reviews that come out, we will definitely make adjustments. is. reed: but of concern there are various equities, companies don't want their because it would interfere with profitability, operations. the inspectors want to conduct an inspection and isolate as much as possible from the public. but the faa, we expect you to the entity that
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stands up and says this aircraft is completely safe to fly, there are no further corrections necessary, or if there are, they are being undertaken. that does not appear to be the case in this situation. thank you. .en. collins: thank you senator durbin. sen. durbin: thank you. during the federal shutdown which president trump initiated earlier this year, i made a point of meeting air traffic controllers in st. louis and chicago. i learned over 3000 aviation safety professionals had been furloughed during the president's shutdown and another 15,000 controllers and aviation safety professionals worked without pay, many working long shifts to make up the difference. it has been six months since the government reopened and we are still feeling the impacts of the shutdown on the air traffic control system. the air traffic controllers union reports that the shutdown led to early retirements and
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delayed classes at the faa academy, causing some students to drop out. for an organization already experiencing worker shortage and for air traffic controllers who are first to work longer -- forced to work longer for too long, the shutdown caused serious damage. the faa has reportedly had to lower its hiring target for controllers from 1400 this year to 900. affected the implementation of new safety systems including the arrival prediction alert system, the safety system that can alert a pilot if they are landing on the wrong runway or need to circle the airport. six months after president trump's shutdown, can you give us an update on the size and scale of the impacts it had on control?ic how much ground did we lose when it comes to air traffic controller hiring and safety of dates? -- updates?
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mr. burleson: thank you for that question. i just want to say i appreciate your acknowledgment of what the faa did. it was pretty extraordinary. i have been at the agency for 30 years. i will say this is one of our finest hours. for five weeks, the system ran .erfectly, safely, efficiently then, a good portion of workforce was sitting home and the rest was working without pay. sen. durbin: bless you and bless the controllers, but this was totally unnecessary would. . you tell me today where we stand? mr. burleson: today, i think the good news is we have made great progress. again, like any large organization if you shut it down for five weeks, there will be impact.
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is slightlyclass lower, but in terms of overall targets, what we are trying to achieve, we sent our staffing plan to congress. you will see we are still on track in terms of getting to around 14,000 controllers. the composition is a little different in terms of 3500 trainees as part of that. again, there was some delay at the academy, but the classes have restarted and we certainly are not concerned making sure we have the right level of controllers in the system. we did have delays in the implementation of the number of nexgen projects. if you shut down an organization, that will happen. the good news is we are working to schedule waterfalls of how we get different parts of the next gen systems out in the system, coordinating schedules for controllers and technicians.
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there has been some delay. able toident we will be address those issues over the next year and get that work back on track. i think more than anything, the words safety and the faa are almost synonymous. that is your reason for being. and that i hope i made i reinforced is that government shutdown compromise to the safety of our aviation system, at least threatened to compromise the safety. it wasn't until the air traffic controllers announced they would start slowing down traffic at airports that this government shutdown finally came to an end. what you're telling me as well is that many projects that congress has asked for and you have initiated to make the aviation system even safer have been delayed because of the government shutdown. earlier that the faa is
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reportedly lowering the targets for air traffic controllers from 1400 to 900. we have received that information from you. is that the case? mr. burleson: yes. the class-size this time went down. but in terms of what we need for filling controllers on the overall target, it will not have an appreciable impact. let me come back to you, i have to fundamentally disagree. at no time in the five weeks was the aviation system in the u.s. unsafe. we would not have allowed -- sen. durbin: i think it was not unsafe because air traffic controllers still on the job or working long hours to make up the difference. despite many of them facing the reality of no pay. i can tell you specific stories of the air traffic controllers that i met with and the sacrifices and pressure they were under because of the shutdown. i would like to believe an air traffic controllers working a
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normal shift without that kind of pressure and family pressure with no paycheck and doing their job and doing it professionally. i don't think we made it any easier with the government shutdown. let me ask you point-blank. do you? do you think the shutdown made their job easier? mr. burleson: no, sir. it did not make the controller'' jobs easier, the airports or the safety folks. all i want to say is because of the commitment, and this is what i said in my statement -- the men and women of the faa have an amazing commitment to the safety of the aviation system and this is what you see in the suspect shut down. they reported to work, they did their work as the government issues.out its our focus is not that. our focus is making sure the system runs safe every day for american. sen. durbin: if you can also give me a report on secondary
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cockpit area or -- barrier. i would appreciate that. sen. collins: senator manchin. sen. manchin: thank you. i'm going to get right to the 737 max 8. , this will bahrami mostly be for you. it seems like every few months, we are learning something new about the problem. first the mcas system. the pilots manual. second, changes were made to the system late in the design process that made it more powerful, allowing it to push it nose-down more aggressively. even so, it relied on a single sensor and had no redundancy. faad, we learned of the never performed its own assessments and the system had delegated oversight to the boeing company. we are still in a position to be helpful. we want to be helpful. we need to get planes moving again. at last count, i have 389 planes that are grounded, 200 built and
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not delivered. what does that do for the safety of the system if we are running planes that should be timed out or grounded? are we running planes longer than they should be? are we losing flights, which is a tremendous economic hurt to all areas of the country? basically what our role is for federal oversight, making sure the skies are safe, the planes are going in the skies are safe, people are trained properly, tank indicator, things of this sort. it is unbelievable we got to understandingand it was driven by the industry who did not want to go through a retraining process. i you can talk to that -- know you started out with the 737 max 8 then went back to the private sector, then back to the
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faa. if you can claim to be how we got this position. mr. bahrami: thank you for the question. you have multiple questions. let's just put things in the proper perspective and i will defer to you to tell me where i need to explain. first of all, let me talk about myself. i have 40 years in aviation. .ll a bit involves transport i was a designee of the company. to be ahat it is designee. it is a badge of honor. the greatest safety organization in the world tells you that you are trusted to do work on my behalf in terms of data , that is probably the highlight of an individual career. i would say it that when we talk about delegation, delegation, over the years, we have been able to prove it and get better
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at it by shifting from individual designee to organizational delegations and to the point that we are today, it is supposed to be the most comprehensive, and in terms of oversight, system oversight. that is our focus. reason i went back to the industry, i spent 25 years at charge oftern -- in large transports. --. manchin: if i can just because of time -- this was a complex plane. software system was not even mentioned in the pilots manual. it wasn't even mentioned. agreed pilots only needed one hour of ipad training to get up. that is incomprehensible to me
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to be in that position when we did a complete makeover, and we changed the dynamics of the plane to perform differently. mr. bahrami: that's a great question of the pilot training decision is not made by one individual or one inspector or pilot in the faa. it is done through a process called a flight standardization board. sen. manchin: is that under the faa? here the other thing on that, the biggest selling point for the max was it would require minimum pilot training. boeing promised southwest millions in rebates if the max required simulating trainer -- training. you eliminated the training to adhere to the southwest demands. ,r. bahrami: if i may finish what i wanted to point out was that when we have a new design, whether it is a derivative or a new model, the pilots, including line pilots for the airline,
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they get together as part of the group and see what changes are made to the flight deck. they compare it to the previous model. then they go through the training and make a decision whether it is what type of training is needed. it was a decision of that body that said they mcas training, computer-based, is sufficient. i'm not a pilot, but i can tell ,ou that from the perspective you want to make sure you provide the pilots with sufficient information to be able to control the aircraft, but you don't want to overwhelm with all kinds of information that may not be relevant. the mcas system is supposed to be a system that works in the background and it should be transparent. that was the logic. knowing what we know today and
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what the acting administrator has said, we should have included more description in the computer-based training in order to explain what mcas is and what we do. what we should be focusing on, and i'm going to do that, and that is what the team is doing, is a better appreciation and understanding of system safety assessments plan indications of failures. sen. manchin: are we doing investigation into the agency that has oversight of a training?i'm a pilot. so anything i know is i have to override the autopilot and i have a couple switches to flip, and that is the first thing i learned. if i go back to pilot training, the same thing i am being basically trained in case of an emergency. i already know how to fly the plane paired i want to know what happens if i have to try and fly in an emergency. for some reason, i guess these pilots had no idea they could turn the system off? mr. bahrami: thank you very
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much. that is a very important point you are making. in our business and the business of safety, you want to be focused on the issues that you need to focus on and help make things better. i do not to pass judgment on the qualifications of the pilots that were on those flights, but i will say a review of the flight data recorder and preliminary information and what we know, the actions they took were inconsistent with what you would think. supplement and let me just say -- thank you for being kind, madame chairman, but i want to wrap up by saying we have relied on the industry more than we should have to do the job we should do to make sure the american public is safe. i would say for the 737 max to get back into the air, every boeing official should be plying -- flying that plane for one month to make sure we have the confidence for a passenger to get back on the plane. i'm not giving -- getting on the 737 max until i see that boeing
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and all of their associates get on the plane first for any substantial amount of time. mr. bahrami: we agree that it is necessary for us to do everything we can to gain the confidence of the public. that i havee you talked to airline authorities, labor unions, to make sure that we understandere, how we got to where we are and what we have done is the right safety action. sen. collins: thank you, senator. senator bozeman. thank you, madam chair for holding the hearing. i would like to talk about a few things that are important.
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not that these others aren't. that is the nice thing about having you all, we can talk about a variety of issues. some things that are really important to all of our states and commerce. one of that is the contract hire program. , i think it's one of the most successful government industry partnerships we have had. know, a very strong bipartisan, bicameral support in congress and validated numerous times from the department of transportation inspector general. the program continues to provide high-quality, cost-effective and critical air traffic control services to over 250 smaller airports in our nation's transportation system including five in arkansas. given the critical importance of airports, at smaller what steps are the department and the faa taking to work
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collaboratively to ensure the continued success of rule airports that depend on contract powers? mr. burleson: thank you for the question. at the faa, we agreed this is an incredibly important and efficient program in terms of providing air traffic services to large parts of the country. , in the budget going forward, we have $169 million for contract towers from the assessment and appears to cover the existing contract towers in the program as well as it appears to cover what the new applicants that are coming our way. in terms of the steps we have taken recently, in june of this year, we'd reopened the application for contract powers and currently have six new applicants going through the process review.
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congressionalthe direction, we are doing cost-benefit analysis required for the new entrance and the cost share powers. those would be accomplished by september of this year. i know there's also an issue we are seeing in terms of staffing challenges. part of it is because a lot of , we arerollers recruiting them and it is potentially creating challenges for some of the vendors. our air traffic organization is holding discussions to see if there are ways we can try to address and help this area. april 9, 2019 the department of transportation signed and implementing 807 known aser 13 framework. decision . it signals a continued ephesus
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by the trump administration on expediting infrastructure project reviews by requiring improved coordination among all federal agencies within a single process. understanding this is a relatively new framework, has the one federal decision had an impact on streamlining approvals thus far? mr. burleson: thank you for the question. differi would actually to winsome lenfert, who has a lot more experience in the environmental world. sen. boozman:. she looks like she knows the answer. ms. lenfert: thank you for that question. i would actually like to recognize that the office of airports and the overall entire fa has actually been working very hard to streamline environmental processes for many years -- faa has actually been working very hard to streamline environmental processes for many years. increases governmentwide
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emphasis on streamlining. we have don a lot of planning upfront in the project and working closely with the airport sponsor to ensure we are implementing the environmental requirements and executive order. we also have to strike a balance and make sure we are following environmental due diligence in a thorough review of the project while ensuring we are implementing our infrastructure projects. sen. boozman: very good. so things are moving forward. you are having some success. important. debt, thee with the deficit. this is an area that actually would save a lot of money. to shortchange any of the environmental considerations or anything else for safety considerations, but we want to make sure we work together. it is -- are there any improvements we can help with as
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far as helping in that regard? ms. lenfert: not at this time. i think one of the things approved in a recent reauthorization is section 163, which allows us to look at her project and make a determination that there is minimal federal impact required, especially on non-aeronautical development on an airport. we have been very successful with this program. so far, there have been about 25 projects throughout the country with minimal review and airports are going forward and putting the projects in place without minimal environmental and federal oversight. some of the project examples are indiana.tte, they were able to go forward and put in an industrial research park with minimal federal oversight and environmental review. spokane, washington is another one we recently did. sen. collins: thank you. senator hogan.
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sen. hoeven: thank you, madam chair. you and i had a conversation last week and i appreciate that. ,e are working on some things the northern plains test site in grand forks, north dakota. work hardse we on was beyond visual line of sight. milestones a list of or specifics that we would need in order to approve the beyond flightsine of sight plains?trace have we gotten to those specifics? we have worked on those diligently and put a tremendous amount of resources in place. we need to know what is required to fix that up.
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thank you you, senator. i want to thank you for the opportunity to talk to you about this. as i sat on the phone the other have a very strong partnership with north dakota, the test site. they are supporting us in so many different ways, numerous projects. know, they are engaged in the integration pilot program. they are engaged in supporting us for operations beyond visual line of sight. on -- as iso working committed to you and with regional lineond of sight, specifically the company, i commit to you we will have this resolved and changes made by the end of this week.
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i was informed actually this morning that we made progress and we will be communicating that to the test site. with this decision, they will be observersiminate the of the aspects of that. that is one issue i was told resolved the which issues they had. with spit to the no trace of, work and is coordination between several air-traffic centers. today, there is a meeting taking with to talk about that the test site officials, and they will follow a discussion on general economics. what i'm trying to point out is
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i would be happy to provide you a list of all of the projects, but frankly, these are the most important ones that were brought to our attention and we have already taken actions on those. hoeven: that's good the key is understanding the timeline. i want to take the opportunity to thank not only yourself, but the others for the relationship we have with the faa. we just want to make sure we understand what the requirements are and that we have timelines we can set to achieve them. i mr. bahrami: may say one important thing in honoring your partnership, it is to keep commitments. i understand that. the appreciation of our mission, which is safety and making sure andalance safety appropriately, that is where we need to input data and expertise
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that they will bring to us and we welcome that. sen. hoeven: ms. stubblefield, thank you for traveling to see our u.s. operations. i guess the questions i would have for you in regard to when do you expect to complete the current rulemaking process on remote identification? ms. stubblefield: thank you for that. i appreciate the trip to north dakota. the remote identification rule is the top priority for the faa uasou a.s. -- mr. burleson rulemaking. there are several other pieces we are working on. we are working hard to publish that rule this year. what it is important to remember
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a couple things as we talk about some of your frustration with the timeline. when is the fact that up until october of last year, the faa did not have the authority over all uas operators in the airspace. we are grateful to congress for restoring the faa authority over all uas operators, and recreationale operators. once we had the authority, we were able to move forward and really build out the rule, but there are two other facets that have to come together to enable remote identification implementation in the airspace. one is standards. there are several industry groups the faa is supporting. industry standards that will be
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necessary to execute the rule. on top of that is the infrastructure piece. out that requirement is there, how will the information be transmitted, how will it be communicated to law enforcement? out.will have to be built we had an rfi on the street in december to get a cadre of industry to work on that. the goal is when the rule comes out, we have the standards we need and infrastructure in place to execute those altogether. also, in that, we are june, the drone advisory committee is seeking input on the 90 day timeframe to have the members who are industry, state and local law enforcement and local government, other aviation industry players coming together to talk about how we can incentivize early quit pitch of remote identification to take advantage of that as quickly as
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possible. >> are we going to have another round? sen. collins: erp thank you. senator murray. sen. murray: thank you chairman collins and ranking member reed. i do want to note my top priority here is the safety of the flying community, and i know the faa is working to revise the many safety challenges we are facing including recertification and oversight efforts ongoing with the boeing 737 max plains. i understand the work of the technical advisory board is well underway and i look forward to their findings as well as those of the faa. i would ask all of you to continue to work as transparently as possible to keep members of congress in the loop wit if new information becomes available so we can prevent future tragedies.
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i know it's already been talked about here, but i just want to know that we are following closely the question i did want to ask is the issue of sexual assault on airplanes. this is an issue i have been working on for a long time, because i heard from constituents who were sexually assaulted during flights and experienced a complete lack of information as to how to respond or who to report to, what would happen next? both the fy 18 appropriations bill and faa reauthorization act required dot to work with relevant federal agencies and other stakeholders, including sexual assault survivors themselves and representatives from the flight attendants, airports, and air carriers to establish a task force that would address sexual on airplanes. task force has started its work and i hope it will work with all of the stakeholders to recommend swift, action.e
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i wanted to ask you today, how is the faa working with d.o.t. and office of the secretary on the task force? mr. burleson: thank you again for raising this question because it is an important issue. certainly no one should be exposed to the risk of sexual assault taking a flight. as you noted, the congress has set up provisions where the office of the secretary is leading the effort. . faa is cooperating. again, we are waiting for the outcome of the task force to decide how we can best adopt the recommendations both in terms of ineral prescriptions, and know the attorney general is working across agencies to decide how best to do the metrics. we stand by to -- based on the recommendations that come out to figure out how best to adopt that in the aviation system.
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at. murray: i know the faa bish -- issues advises all related to cabin safety. outside of waiting for the task force to complete work, are you undertaking any efforts to deal with this issue? know we have i collected some basic data to try and help provide information, but again, there has been at least one meeting already of the task force. again, i know it is working and pace, so we are waiting to see what we can do. as flights happen in the system, we again worked closely with the normal law enforcement community as issues are reported to try and do as much as we can to ensure that law enforcement officials are -- meet the plane, things are dealt with. in terms of the larger strategic effort, we are awaiting recommendations.
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sen. murray: ok, well this is a critical issue and waiting means someone will have an issue between now and when the task force comes back so i encourage you to keep this top of mind. let me pivot quickly. there are seven contract towers in my home state of washington. the otherrs like all contract towers in the country support a wide array of critical aviation operations like scheduled passenger and cargo airline service. military,devac, aerial firefighting, aircraft .anufacturing, a wide range of things. i want to ask you given the workforce challenges including the hiring of aircraft understand many contract controllers are being drawn from contract towers at rates high enough to cause challenges for contractors and the program. this has created a growing
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concern in the airports they serve and has led to questions about whether contract towers will be actually fully staffed. i want to ask what steps are being taken by the faa to work collaboratively with contractors and industry to make sure they have full staffing levels. you.urleson: thank as i shared to an earlier question, we are supporters of the contract our program. this issue of staffing has come up. it is of concern to us. sure there ise the right staffing available for vendors that man the towers. organization is having discussions to explore what options we might have in terms of workforce. workforce generally is a very important issue for us. we have taken a number of steps to try and tackle the broader issue of the aviation workforce going forward. you probably have seen the reports that over the next 20
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years, we need 6000 pilots. skill sets. we held a summit last september with industry and academia unions to start tackling the issue. faa has formed a task force inside the agency. we are working to figure out how of theeen the pipeline next generation of men and women. how do we target the right kinds of proficiency and skills in the training process and how do we partner with education and industry to try to make aviation careers attractive? murray: do you have a task force? are you going to be bringing recommendations? are there anything -- are there things we should focus on? mr. burleson: that is what we are working on in terms of how best to do some of these activities.
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going forward, i suspect we will have some recommendations. at this point, we are doing a lot of assessment on how best to deal with some issues in terms of pipelines, proficiencies, and partnerships. this is a top priority because the heart of aviation being successful in america has relied on the workforce. is criticale this for the vitality as well as safety of the system. sen. murray: i appreciate that and look forward to recommendations hopefully sooner rather than later. sen. collins: thank you. to follow-upi want on the line of questioning i began in the first round. i would ask that you bring your so we canle closer hear you more clearly. story i mentioned asserted that at one point in
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the certification process, faa managers conceded that the max did not meet agency guidelines for protecting flight controls, but then the faa considered whether any requested changes would interfere with boeing's timeline. wrote that itere would be impractical at this late point in the program for the company to resolve the issue. i have two questions for you. first, is that accurate? second, should faa managers and engineers be concerned about whengs production timeline making decisions that are related to safety? first of all, that is not correct. in every certification program,
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there is debate, dialogue, exchange with respect to compliance with the specific regulations. as you know, some regulations are very prescriptive. onesly, those are the easy to find compliance with because it is either this or not. there are others that are very ,ubjective, and in some cases those regulations often are debated and discussed tremendously in the. of the one or two year timeframe. in my experience, i have seen those situations occur. that is why we put in place processes. that's why we put in place processes where appropriate people get together to discuss the facts and information. in that case you are referring
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to, there was a prior discussion as part of the process that the document system of that access was taken. several folks were not happy. that issue was elevated and went through a prototype we put in place. after that, managers made the wassion and the decision made, not necessarily to the liking of one or two individuals. that's what i get paid for. to look at the data and information and make decisions. those are tough issues we need to deal with. in my view, the process was followed, and i will look forward to all these different reviews being conducted, for them to take a look at them to
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see if they have -- could do anything differently. sen. collins: so is your test testimony that pressure for a manufacturer to meet deadlines for production has no impact at all on the decisions that you make with regard to safety? to bahrami: when it comes safety, absolutely, safety is number one. that's what we focus on. sen. collins: let me follow up on senator reid's question about the article in "the wall street journal" this morning. according to this account, after crash,iopian air the faa internal analysis found mcasnderlying risks of the thatunacceptably high and they exceeded internal faa
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safety standards. past, whether faa has found that an aircraft poses an unacceptably high safety risk, it has mandated equipment changes, inspections, or training. case, what faa appears to have done is simply to issue a reminder to pilots on how to respond to an mcas malfunction. faa gave boeing many months to fix the underlying issue. what troubles me about this is if the agency's own analysis found mcas to be an unacceptable faa not take the immediate action to address
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those risks? mr. bahrami: i want to make sure, a clarification. the eventoncerning after the lion air, not the european airline. we understand what happened in that case and we kept the data and information. system --on air situation, when you say there was a notification to the flight we do what is directed. what is directed our laws. they are not just reminders. they have to comply. in casey what happens, of a procedure or a change or focus on a particular process, a copy put into the flight book for the pilot, so they know this is something they need to be
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mindful of. notification. a it is there for them to act upon should they encounter that issue. that was an interim action. we know the eventual solution would have modifications. based on the risk, we felt we had sufficient time to do modification and get the final fix. typically, we refer action. closing closing action basically eliminates all the interim action, remove that particular piece of paper from the flight manual, and then the mcas modifications are incorporated. those processes are what we use and we did the same in this particular case. sen. collins: of course i will yield to senator reid, but one issue here about what senator
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manchin mentioned is that the mcas was not in the original manual, which seems strange. very much,thank you ms. chairman. you are aware of department of transportation ig is conducting a review of certain air carriers management and maintenance programs. we understand they developed a systemic concerned that faa is transitioning from a strategy that emphasizes enforcement to one that is more relaxed in terms of compliance, and they have also indicated questions agency'se about the abilities to effectively document maintenance issues and identify problems occurring over time as a result of the new approach. as i indicated in my opening statement, they contained -- close outspections to
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without ensuring the corrective action has been implemented and is effective. given these comments, can you how the faa is mitigating safety risks and holding air carriers accountable ? you, senator for the question. what i would like to do is set a larger historical context to let specificgue talk about issues with the ig report. where we have arrived today in the compliance program is all risk?where do we identify it's not relaxed enforcement grade we still take enforcement. if you can't comply with will takewe appropriate action. this is a process that has been developed over two decades.
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been so long at the faa, i remember in the 1990's when we were facing significant challenge with the growth of air traffic. potentially we were going to face an accident every other week. for would not be acceptable the aviation industry. this is what has developed, all whole process of working closely to find information from industry. congress was a critical part of that. this is how we have developed the commercial aviation safety team, this process of being able to access information that was not disclosed to us and being able to take action for compliance. that does not mean that we do not take enforcement when there is in greek -- and egregious behavior. when you look at the accident rates in the 1990's versus where
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we are today -- we had one , 7ality over 10 years billion passengers. that's quite extraordinary. i would say the approach that we started in the 1990's and gradually developed has been quite successful. that said, it does not mean that there are not improvements. we continue to work. >> i just want to give you a number. that number is 23,000. from 2015, when the compliance program went into effect until recently, these are the number of compliance actions that have been identified. that it'sre you
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virtually impossible for any number ofget to that finding throughout the system because no matter what we do, we go out and look at areas, we have traditionally found problems. if you look at the iceberg analogy, what we did in the past , we only saw the tip of the iceberg. what we are doing with the we arence program, actually getting below the waterline and we are getting into areas we have not necessarily been able to get the or do not have knowledge to be able to understand because a lot of those issues come through operational understanding and the details of operations. complianceve a program has been very effective and will continue to be
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effective. the other point i want to point -- thanksvery thing for the recommendation that came ism the ig and gal conducting a review of effectiveness of the compliance program. conducting a review of the effectiveness of the compliance program. we are revisiting our training because in certain sectors of pa, wen, specifically have to get better. sen. reed: i think our committee would be well-informed if you indicatingack to us what corrective action you have taken, response, and any issues you have had. when it comes to safety, you can't do enough. misst want to thank
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lanford. thank you for your help. as you have learned, you will be rewarded with more work. we will be back. thank you. >> thank you -- sen. collins: thank you. apito.r c capito: thank you. i apologize for being late. we had a report from the or airport. i see nodding heads. collapse.illside it wiped out our overrun area and we had to literally do an act of congress so we were able to secure the grants to replace. we just had the final ribbon-cutting which will allow for a lot of safety issues, and
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if you have thrown into yeager, you know it's on top of three i -- three mountains actually and it is critically important to have bigger planes coming in. so i just want to thank you all for all the work you did with our offices to make sure that happened. i do want to ask a question. since i missed a lot of the testimony, i apologize if this is been covered. but on the last hearing of the committeeommunity -- i asked about pilot training in airworthiness between lion air and the epo be an air -- ethiopian air crashes. guess i am hoping that more stringent simulator training is a been a fight another software issue. maybe this is not the best for him to ask a question, but
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hindsight is always really great. when you look at the lion air crash and then the subsequent crash, would more simulator or more simulator exercises after lion air have been able to have been shown some of these things to lights? i am just throwing that question out because i always wondered -- different than one and if you had been more aggressive and gone all out after the first crash, would we maybe have had better information? thank you for that question, senator. first, i want to go back to the comment about it was through this -- through the simulator for testing that we found out the other anomalies. that's not correct.
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let me tell you why. was through the system safety assessment and because of the accident, and all the work that we are doing today , we have canadians and brazilian colleagues supporting us, and based on the data from .he preliminary accident report that some of the actions these flight crews took was inconsistent with what we assumed, which is a function of airman ship. what you read about, we identified a very remote failure case, and at that time, we said, you know, knowing what we know,
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we really need to go back and , can flightoccurs crews recover. and that is where we ended up with the simulator, to model that particular scenario, and see other pilots react. once we did that, we recognized the decision with our test pilots, the level of proficiency that is required to recover from , andevent is exceptional because of that, we could not leave the decision to leave it as it is and not make the changes. that is why we are making the design changes. so, the simulator is not the one that identifies the issue. safetyual system
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assessment that we had to verify as part of our flight simulator testing. sen. capito: so then it goes into the simulator as a scenario? mr. bahrami: that's correct. the difference between the -- you simulator and the have the flexibility to actually .hange certain systems so, we have a lot of latitude and we exercise those. that on the decision to verify the assumption was the information being gathered by the two accidents. thank you. -- sen. capito: thank you. sen. collins: thank you.
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senator bozeman, did 2 -- boozman, did you have any questions? senator durbin? durbin: the city of been tort -- bismarck wants relocate the radar to a suitable location. i know you are not purchasing more, but will you work with us in order to accommodate that commercial growth and expansion? particular subject, mr. burlison would be better to handle that.
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senator durbin: i would minister that -- i will direct that to senator burlison. eson. mr. burl mr. burleson: we had challenges. at one time, we thought about replacing this, but the needs of changed. if the airport is interested in moving its, we have a number of agreements across the country which we have entered into with airport authorities. since we don't have an operational need, we really can't pay for it. but we are more than willing to work with the airport if they are willing to pay for the move. it will create a challenge with temporary radar, but i have talked to air traffic folks. they are willing to explore our -- options if there is a willingness to pay for the move
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to work out a temporary solution for the radar while we move the sr eight. durbin: at the university of north dakota, we have one of the 25 busiest airports in the country because of the university. the students have over 100,000 hours at the airport last year alone. they have a master plan they are working on. the faa willw if work with the grand forks airport to make sure that this is finalized and the expansion project is green lit so they can continue to not only conduct the flights, but to
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is this one you want to take? for the question, senator. we are working very closely with the grand forks airport. i am very familiar with this project. i met with the director and representatives from the university of north dakota. we went through the whole project. planpe to have the layout approved and signed. sen. hoeven: that's pre-quick. >> yeah. that's pretty quick. >> yeah. they've done their homework. sen. hoeven: tomorrow's good. >> we hope. we will do the environmental review once the ale pms to plan is approved and we will work on a potential funding plan once we get past that. sen. hoeven: i am glad i direct
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did that question to you. start theve we will's design in august and once funding is complete, we will begin actual construction after that point. >> thank you very much. sen. collins: thank you. we will do one final round of questions. ito has onetor cap additional. sen. capito: thank you. have one additional question. two schools with aviation schools. i guess they are called the cti schools? in our hiring reform act, we did say you could hire out of giving schoolszation to the
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for air traffic controllers. what is the faa doing? we always hear about how difficult that is. what are you doing to help schools stand up these college training initiatives, or in general, what kind of help can we do to address these challenges to schools that are just beginning? thank you for the question. we have staff talking with congress on the act legislation and we certainly want to quite right with you because we do think it could be helpful. i think you missed earlier -- i made remarks to frame a larger issue that the aviation workforce, broadly, not just controllers, but pilots, technicians, we are very concerned. sen. capito: talk more about the pilots. mr. burleson: we are very
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concerned about the future workforce. we are taking steps to broaden the pipeline of young people into the workforce as well as improve proficiency and training . diligentlying very to try to lay out frameworks. haveegional administrators been doing a lot of outreach. i think we have increased fourfold the number of to increase future aviation professionals. we are very interested in this area and certainly would be glad to talk with you and your staff as a follow up. thank you. -- sen. capito: thank you. thank you. sen. collins: thank you. i am going to switch to issues maine.fect the state of ms. langford, this question is for you. at the budget hearing and march,
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i described an accident that an airport in northern maine where a commuter airplane hit the ground, injured numerous times, three individuals, terrified everyone on the plane, and the plane itself sustained substantial damage. the secretary committed with us to working to improve the safety at the airport. i know you have been instrumental in helping the funds for secure equipment removal, snow removal. problem when you have a severe weather condition in this small airport like this. could you provide us with an
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update on what else faa is exploring to improve the safety of this regional airports. thank you, senator. satellite --ade procedures atlite the airport. we are continuing our investigation of this incident, to determine what were the this it's not just one incident that causes the accident. in the meantime, we are providing -- preparing to work with the airport. we work with them to procure additional snow removal
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equipment. once the final investigation is completed, we will continue to work with them to make sure they have a safe and efficient operation. sen. collins: thank you very much. thank you for your assistance in that matter. mr. burleson. and if this question should not be direct to do you, feel free to pass it on to one of your colleagues. i am hearing a lot of complaints from my constituents and south portland about increased noise from airport landings, often 6000 to 1000 feet. while most aircraft use the harbor visual approach over daytime, during the they cannot rely on visual ground references at nighttime,
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and instead, they have to fly directly over the city. the portland jet ports has requestd to the faa a for a new required navigational performance or rnp approach to option forther incoming flights that would roots atte the visual nighttime. thefaa claims very few of aircraft coming into portland have the equipment to be able to it -- but if you take into consideration the fact that only commercial aircraft are causing the noise complaints that nights , more than 21% of the aircraft would be able to be used -- to
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use this new approach. aam seeking from you commitment to take a hard look at this in to consider working with the portland jet board to approved asapproach quickly as possible. or if that is not the right answer, up was come up with the right answer to deal with this noise problem for the residents of south portland. senator, i am glad to make that commitment. i was provided the same information. i will say, i understand that our work ethic folks have gone back to the round table with another proposal, which is to change waypoints on existing procedures to see if that might
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also address noise, but we beognize aircraft noise can considerable problem with local communities. we are taking a lot of steps nationally. increasing technology, better roundtables, trying to take advantage of next technologies to reduce noise. glad to commit to work with the roundtable to see what might be possible. sen. collins: thank you. the jet port tells me that when look, the number that could use this new approaches 21%, so that could make a significant difference, but you have a lot a expertise in that area and very much appreciate your commitment to work with the community and the jet port. ?enator reed
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to. reed: i sibley want point out that you can stop at tf green international air work -- i simply want to point out that you can stop at tf green international airport. madam, thank you. certainlins: i will be to submit several questions to the record for you. drones and the integration of them into the work -- into the airspace, and also, the issue of isnter drones and why faa not enthusiastic about that approach, or so it appears. we will do that and i know that willetter -- senator reed have additional questions for
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the record. i want to thank each of you for being here today. i want to follow up on a senator durbin made earlier about the shutdown. of theto apply the work faa during the shutdown. that was a difficult time and the faa really rose to the .hallenge so, i want to thank you for that. the faa did not cause the shutdown. the shutdown never should have occurred. goodowns never produce results and they are never worthwhile. i, for one, appreciate how hard your agency work to get us through that difficult time. did set back one of gencontracts for the next by, i believe, around seven months and that is the unseen consequence. those are the unseen
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consequences of government shutdowns. it prevents agencies from going needed and the irony is, we end up spending more in many cases than if government had remained open. commentsnted to add my on that. i appreciate each of you being here today and candidly answering our questions. we will know more after the investigations are finished. i know that you are committed to finding out exactly what happened with the max and making sure that we have for seizures and staff and resources in place to prevent such an accident from ever happening again and claiming not only 346 lives, but
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also causing tremendous heartache for the families and friends of those who were killed. this hearing record will remain next this hearing is now adjourned. thank you. [pounds gavel] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] >> this weekend, we will show you last night's cnn
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democratic debate in detroit. that's this weekend on c-span. an intellectual. he's an intellectual. he is comfortable with ideas. he understands the power of ideas, and with that kind of foundation, intellectual foundation, a political leader can do all kinds of marvelous things. author and historian lee edwards will be our guest on " from noon to 2y p.m. eastern. he is the author of "just right." depth" with author lee edwards sunday from noon until 2 p.m. eastern. and be sure to watch our coverage of the national book festival on c-span2. >> i live the country where
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there's no public tonsportation, and a woman leave her house, to do anything in her life, she means a car. and to have a car, she meets a man. "daring to drive" a book about challenging the ban on women drivers. an act of civil disobedience. a woman is not supposed to drive. we show we are capable of driving and being in the driver seat of our own destiny by doing this act of civil disobedience. watch sunday at 8 p.m. eastern on c-span. saturday, comparisons of
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abraham lincoln and andrew johnson on the constitution. >> if you look at the whole cartoon, it's very different and what people thought of a time -- not even the defender. he did not understand the constitution. it was above his ability. he was acting in unconstitutional ways. artifacts," an preview of an exhibit at the american archives. >> when new jersey became a state, the new jersey constitution made no mention of sex when discussing voting qualifications. so women who owned enough robert e, primarily widows and single inen could and did vote
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elections at the local, state, and national level. >> and at 8 p.m., author john farrell talks about nixon's early life and career. >> he campaigned for the marshall plan. crowd thatevery would take him. he told them he owed them his best judgment, not his obedience. and so richard nixon did not just when the republican nomination. democratic nomination. he waged everything. >> explore our nations passed on american history tv every weekend on c-span3. and envoy for the u.s.-backed


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