tv Iraq Afghanistan Vietnam War Veterans CSPAN November 11, 2019 10:38pm-11:55pm EST
returns to continue work on chad wilkes nom mags to be an under secretary for homeland idahoty and at 3:00 p.m., rich speak was europe. influence in next, veterans of the iraq, afghanistan and vietnam wars iscuss america's role in those conflicts. by the event hosted nixon library and orange county navy league. >> good evening everyone. coming o thank you for out tonight. just over four years ago, i came to chapman from the history department at west point to drive a brand new graduate
started from the preis up yoegs based on comments from policy makers that we're in an area of enduring war and needed to take a study between and eemed a few hasn't made an indelible impact on who we are and so the ram built start perfected the ission of how society experience war, and perhaps importantly how they deal with consequences.eo6 had lieve the program variable applications in nderstanding implications by in our g conflict that
university and rhode scholar, he lb awarded two am, two commendation medals purple hearts and 10 air medals and authored "matter horn a war" which e vietnam won numerous prizes including award, 2011 book of the year, and marine corps heritage poundation award for fiction.ished he's also authored the book what and a ike to go to war hoffel "deep river" just released in july. malontes.lcome carl eastman how we serve post september 11th.
he served 0 years in the army reserve as an intelligence officer and commander. tarting out perfect being awarded to district economics uniform.wo years of she was ba in political and her mba from vanderbilt t university n2017 selected as one inflew ation's top 25 ensers supporting the military o 0 unity named after the outstanding americans. welcoming her.in oh, my tired u.s. army,
god. i'll stop now. oh. >> my army. >> yes. >> retired. retired u.s. marine. oh, major. service and career spanned ten deployments to over 0 countries world wide from 018 best selling book echo of scott has written articles and scholarly pieces news channel, fox nd the marine core gazette, b and president of
the marines association a veterans and ing active duty marines. me in welcoming him. each of ing to ask panelists to sort of a warm up. we're going to move into general and ions for the panel dialogue. g to have a >> west point is that a prep school? we'll start with you. i t it is like to go to war wanted a medal since looking at my father's from world war ii. it wasn't enough to do her own thing.
it.ad to be recognized for >> can you recognize the allure man?ad young and -- we've got bad feed pack. to get fixed? and y father had medals would never talk about it. it was like, i wonder about i that. you know? and i was 50 my father said they're fighting the battle of the bulge at christmas time, my dad would say, yeah, i was in that. knew, you know?
there is is is like am i as if as my father? it? i do it's a combination. you think about kids in high school. and girls want to be in the right twrup. they want people to know they're in the right group. and have three daughters in an hour, they'd spend an hour getting ready for school and it won't look like anything happened to me. t was clear to them they were in this group. they wanted emto know it. and boys sort of the same thing. jacket.e a letterman's what is that about?
and marines don't go backwards. so you stay there and get slaughtered or to up a hill. something.igure out this is is an out of body experience saying look. very 5 or 8 seconds i aught movement and rolled to shoot what i was assuming was a soldier. and that was the right way to medal. and unfortunately school looked
still has atnam and traft card to this day because his brother went. o they were unhappy but knew that i was doing it for the right reasons. i joined the military after september 11th because of september 11th. i saw what happened on that day our one does that to country. and no one does that to our country. i needed to do something. and i didn't want to sit on a bench. i knew things were going to and president bush said to n american you have continue with your way of life because terrorists are trying to change our way of life. he said something important. is a call to action and we needed a call to action.
and the real and personal us here f what all of deals with rson those are important to share because i have never been a photos and ory events and chronologies that is not what i'm great at. is great at that. he's a historian. what it felt d like to have that happen in your train wreck e huge and's roll through at times and moved fected you that i don't want to hear the stories but i want to hear how you got better through hat and shared those with everybody that reads your work stories or o your
those problems as you get better are vital to e generations ofgh war fighting and culture we've four years d in we're so fortunate to be able to without having to wait four decades. we have a responsibility to do that. is probably a gut wrenching story i have plenty of marines calling me and saying thank you for plane in cry on a front of strange lady, i that is e it but tell.tant to
to inspire young men and years old doing our nation's bidding who have responsibility to ultimately take another human to dohich with order them as commanders have you to understand you need to do that in your absence so my philosophy clear and short. and i said train hard and fight and we'll win. that is it. nd if they couldn't remember that, i did something wrong and envisioned something like this. they both hunkered down and
yyñ confident and that onfidence has to be demonstrated. nd you know, it, you know, if you want to stoop a machine gun to show you know how. a lot. is it builds confidence. authenticity is interesting these kids have -- etectors and you cannot pull the wool over their eyes and you not going to work lieutenants new show up and within a minute, are sealed. it's kids looking and they're going to make judgments whether
300,000 iraqis. and these were people, they weren't collateral damage. husbands and wives. nd sons and daughters and wanted their kids to grow up and play soccer, go to school and university. and they were people. and at times, they took us in. us. fed they gave us chai and when their > lives own lives weren't at risk. unique that that was a experience. 15 years have fought now. and in this generation on how these guys were trained and we issues of d ehumanizing enemies and making kills. i can give a young marine and
bit them go with a little 0 to ining and drive from 60 and attack and kill the enemy. 60 to 0 is a challenge. as a captain with life skills, that is that enemy living next door the same ai< te needed to lled that be killed. but that is a tough challenge in that type of environment. you ask a when question about being intertwined today, i thought that from a different perspective, i thought we're, that isr team as a tough challenge. >> when you asked the question about civilians being intertwined and the conflict today, i thought of it from a different perspective. i thought civilians like the civilians that were on our team as we were going in because that is part of the conversation
especially post-9/11, that is very different about global volunteerism. you would flyime, overseas and there would be just as many defense contractors, government agency workers, state department officials, and it was just unbelievable. so i think about it as, it was a force multiplier but we need to ask the question of the military-industrial complex circa 21st century. if we can't fulfill our foreign-policy commitments with soldiers, sailors, airmen and marines, not that we should have to do this so entirely but if we are augmenting half the force with other civilian entities, come on. we need to talk about this. those civilian teammates of hours, that is what i think. doesn't matter if the teammates
we had were part of the equation, they still are today. think there is a moral issue that we would have to think about. , there is atractors takecurve of, when you blackwater at one extreme and someone running a bowling alley at the other extreme, a coffee company. war, we are killing people. , when you kill people it is called murder. it is only if a state decides it has to defend itself that you are allowing its military to kill people, and those people protection of the moral authority, that this is a military that is constituted of civilians, did -- to defend the
civilians. if you are killing somebody for pay, that is called being an assassin. i think it is a big difference, and i think we are starting to just wherese about these lines are drawn. when i was in vietnam, the marines did their own dishes and cooked their own food. we didn't have mcdonald's. you have to wonder about, if you are going to pay mcdonald's to participate in the war effort, back home people are making food to send to the military but at some point you go on the battlefield and where is the line between being an assassin and being a duly constituted member of or a public trying to defend the republic? i think we are losing sight of it and we have to do careful thinking about it. i am completely against having paid mercenaries doing our fighting for us. i think it is really morally wrong.
>> i wonder if i could continue on this track for a bit and shift slightly to talk about this unfortunate necessity of war, which is killing. scott inll of you, particular, you say i was andring my marines to kill it would be my burden to carry. you discuss this as well. how did you deal with this burden of killing? yourselves but for your soldiers and marines who were dealing with this burden of , this unfortunate necessity of war? >> we jokingly say nothing is original. this was not an original thought. i was surrounded by marines that, i knew that when i lead 250 marines and sailors into the deadliest city in iraq, and that
is not hyperbole, we lost more marines and sailors in that city than any other during that time. but i knew how important that was to these young men who were war. to be dragged into they never experienced it. all they saw was no -- what they saw in hollywood. it was glamorous. when you are an 18-year-old kid, we were thrust into that city meantknew those medals nothing to me. the only thing was bringing home as many marines at -- alive as possible home. i ordered them to kill. i said, you will kill. i am ordering you to kill. because i never wanted that marine to hesitate when he had to put the rifle on his shoulder. theput his finger on trigger and look through the
site of the scope and make the conscious, life-changing decision to take another human life. is a terrible and horrific thing to do, and task in 18-year-old kid who was probably playing high school football the year before, that is a hard thing to do and that is something i felt as a commander, that was my burden to carry. i never wanted them to leave that space, that horrible place of war that humans create and the worst that humanity does, to think it was their fault. that was my burden to carry. >> one thing i have come to understand, and we talk a lot about bringing people home, bringing veterans back into communities. that is this rifle built in factories by factory workers who are fed by farmers and the people who designed it
were taught by second grade school teachers and the rifle is a chain of events that gets in the hands of some 18-year-old this long and of chain, where everybody is who pays their taxes, the kid who pulls the trigger, he did the killing. no. let's say he did the killing -- i think we have to get more conscious about it. we did the killing. he didn't make the rifle. he didn't pay for it. sorry. everybody in this room is responsible for all that killing. you voted for the people that sent us there. you paid the taxes, you drove the car that burned the gasoline. the idea that some 18-year-old does the killing, we have to get that he didr heads the killing. it is an important distinction we are not dealing with. >> i was in the intelligence community. i was not combat arms. however, i had a combat action
badge. like tens of thousands of other soldiers, sailors and marines who were not combat action. ofwithin a couple days arriving in afghanistan, our unit and the base we were on received rocket attacks. those rocket attacks repeated the entire time we were there and it would depend on your location whether it was weekly or daily. within a couple weeks of being there, one of these soldiers in my battalion, died when his i.e.d., when his vehicle drove over and i.e.d. when you think about killing, it gets back to the aspect of a greater purpose. the greater purpose pretty quickly when you are on the ground is the person to your left and right.
it always has been, it always will be, every generation. it's timeless. but that can't be enough on why you are fighting. there needs to be more of a greater purpose. i think about, well into my deployment in afghanistan, if you have been deployed, who has been deployed, by the way? raise your hand if you have been overseas in combat. great. thank you. you get lots of care packages, right? especially after halloween, you get all that junk candy. one of the care packages we received, at least halfway into my tour, wonderful teachers had their students write letters to servicemembers overseas, and someone in my unit had grabbed one of the letters out of his care package and taped it on the wall and was like everybody, go read the letter. i walked in, i don't know what i
was doing, i walked in the joint and they wereter like, you have to read the letter. i see it on the wall and it is obviously a very young human being learning how to write. they are saying, thank you, trooper or troops, for freeing us from al qaeda's evil grasp. alkida.aeda was spelled and it was just, you know, this child back at home understood the greater purpose. they were writing this to us, and it was fascinating. and it was entertaining, and it ,as absolutely a great reminder because you do get into, it is about the person to your left and right but you have to get back to that greater purpose. own war,f you in your
and in faced a committed enemy on the battlefield. margorie, you wrote in one journal entry, after one episode, i hate the taliban more ever. -- there wasd from a pocialt -- potential for evil become normal in war and all-out aggression will help save your life and scott, you describe your men seeking retribution after a marine was killed in battle. as leaders, how did you deal with this anger, if not hatred, withoutyour enemy, allowing the violence to spiral out of control? >> i failed once.
i got into the same mode. a particularly popular was killed saving his platoon. just furious.was and on the next assault, we just anyded not to take prisoners and i went, yeah, that's fine. id i regret that because slipped into that and it's real easy. it's real easy. theyse it's like, well, killed him, we'll kill all them. we have to that what understand is, as a civilized people, is that we're all capable of this, that ofilization is this sort spider web that hangs over us, that keeps us under control. that, without that control, that civilizing influence -- laws, morality -- i call it the mad we're just comes out and not the top animal on the food
chain because we're nice. animal on the food chain because we're really a vicious species. wonderful, kind, caring species but we have this part of us. job is to try to maintain what i call that spider civilization, the order, the laws. we have the geneva conventions. people who don't understand war say everything's there's no rules. nonsense. because they'll do it to you if do you it to them. it works both ways. so we've come up with conventions about not killing because you don't want them to kill our prisoners. rules.re and this idea of -- i've told once but more than it's an important story because we had been surrounded and it
seven daysbad, six, deadghting and there were m.v.a. down below our fighting a fighting was doing check and a couple of our kids had ears in their helmets. ears off.ut the at that time i had just turned 23. was not as mature as i am now i knew that you couldn't let go on. i had seen horrible stuff. ears in helmets. that's not what bothered me. hit by a stack of bodies a mortar. that's carnage. couldn't last so i said to these kids, look, i know you killed your friends but killed their friends and they're cut theirs and you've
ears off and you just can't do this. won't allow this to happen. i didn't say, i'm going to court martial you because i have compassion for these kids. those we're going to bury bodies. this wasn't trivial because it 20 meters below the fighting were still shot at, occasional pot shots. so they had to go down there their shovels and started digging a grave for these bodies to bury with the ears and they started crying. they started crying as they're what itthis hole and was is burial is a civilized, civilizing ritual that we care for our dead and suddenly they a burial of human the towel heads or
whatever else. you do that because you have to do that. ordinary person can't kill another person but you can kill an animal. that's what happens. leadership has to bring you out of that quickly. rules and the minute that happened, the mad monkey that had gotten hold of i recognized it because it had gotten hold of me, gets put back in place. it and say we don't have that, it's worse. you just watch it come out in mobs. watch it come out in hatred. you've got to understand that it's there but then you've also got to understand that your job it underde it, keep control. ofe i call it the spider web civilization. that's the point of leadership in war and about killing is way.ng it sane that >> that's part of the crang that a youngeven as lieutenant and being a guy that
manages several lieutenants and young marines that think they're doing the right thing sore you have to control that type of chaos where you have all this friction surrounding you at any given time. and those experiences of war are carlutely timeless, that experienced, that our world experienced, korean war experienced. i experienced those things. we see this playing out even to this day in the media where there's u.s. service members, it's desecrating bodies or a conflict of a service killing a captured prisoner. there's one thing that we have a do, not justy to as officers who take an oath. as people and responsible people of our culture and our that youfe, is absolutely have to enforce not only the uniform code of military justice and the law of
conduct andcode of our oath of office that we swear the basic american rule of law that once you capture someone and put handcuffs on or flexi cuffs, you own them. you literally own them. you accept point full responsibility for that for it at, to care that stage, not harm it, maim you do.ever it is and i think that the public can easily get emotional about certain issues when they see like why is this service member being tried for this? the end of the day i don't want to serve in a marine corps murderers to be cut loose on society. i don't want to bring those type sociopaths, back here and reintegrate them into society because we have enough problems reintegrating guys that
theseompartmentalized all pieces of trauma doing the legitimate killing of enemies in combat so that's a tough thing that as this war, this theme ofn, this protracted war -- how long do we when itse wars up, enough enough and how do we define winning at the political and strategic levels so we don't have these second and third of trauma andts the american people accepting community back in they've shotwell the rifles, they signed the up theand gassed airplanes and sent young men and there so we can build tv's and xboxs. that's what we do. but we can never lose sight of that as an element of leadership military, those basic
-- tenets are essential so we continue to survive as a marine .orps, 250 more christmases >> one of the things that's that i wish me people would understand, you start sending young men to their seventh and ninth tours, at some point they're going to break. goinge point something's to go wrong. that doesn't mean you excuse them. i'm in agreement with scott on this. you cannot excuse it but you with disdain or moral superiority -- oh, this committed this horrible thing, he killed a prisoner or dead body or whatever it was. it's part of the same tragedy as war itself was but you have
to punish them because otherwise civilizing thread is broken and you never get it back but or punish them without hate without moral superiority. you punish them with sadness because they finally broke down that did something wrong. but you can't let it slide but attitude that they were horrible people. they weren't horrible people. they just broke. were juste time they really young and it's a tragedy that they're in jail but they're a reason.r >> i think these guys really really that question well. let's do another one. >> margorie argues in her work that showing compassion is not a weakness. really shared is panelist, as well. mark, you note that breaking killedter a marine was and wanting to be emotionally
steady and carl you talk about the needs for empathy. did you each deal with the emotional side of war as a leader, finding that balance between sharing your own emotions, yet being reliable and steady in front of your soldiers marines? mean, have to show -- i you're human. you have to have compassion in right? talked i just -- you earlier and you asked about dehumanizing. up.me say this, let me back we'really as a woman, often reviewed and graded that ae has great compassion as leader and what-not. that's great but you're not you havebe promoted if excellent compassion, right? it's been proven by studies. you to read an excellent book called "athena rising, why men should mentor
women" written by two awesome ph.d.'s at the naval academy and it speaks to this because men reviewed as analytical and who are you going to promote at the end of the day? cut jobs, who do you want on the team? analytical, right? that way.t it what i will say, you will go further -- you have to have both. to drop to know when the hammer and you have to absolutely know when you need to someone and hug them because you just delivered a red message that someone they died.early back home just have these tools in your tool kit. you have to just be human because by the way that helps in your job. one of my soldiers, ashley, she a phenomenal interrogator and one early morning it was an early report, we had a local national
come up to the base and they wanted to give us some information. kind of nervous, right, as most walk-ups are. ashley was on call at the time and she sat with him in what we the booth, getting the information. and it was through compassion being analytical and not dehumanizing this source that this local national, that she was able to figure out talk. wanted to now, this is a person that most likely been a taliban fighter or or whatever at some point in his history, ok. worked with this individual. at the end of the day, figured empthids enough to realize he had information about weapons cache outside of baghran airfield and kids were playing near and he didn't want them near it and figured out how to do that
because she was so good at her job and within 24 hours i was on with her.nvoy we went to the edge of the cleared landmine field and we and detonated in site that cache of weapons, over 600 munitions. that was in 2010. you must have both tools in your was ait and ashley wonderful example that day and continues to be so. a story --nded of this is a marine corps, how they show compassion. [laughter] >> a short answer? answer. his mother died and the the captain called him in and said smithers' mother died and you figure out how to break the news to smithers so it goes easy on him. out and lines up the
everybodyd he says with a living mother, one step forward. not so fast, smithers. toughhing to add, that's to top. but there is a mask of command. you can't cross boundaries. each level of command, you know this -- because you were a lieutenant. weren't born a colonel. you have a closer familiarity at andplatoon level, company battalion. as you rise, you increase more responsibility and you have to that -- and i applied this as i was leaving 2, 50 marines in combat, i wasn't there to be their friend. i was there to be their commander. they've got enough friends. only have one commander. they have one guy that will make those decisions that will bring of them home alive
and i think that's a tough thing to balance because we all agree the aspect of it's absolutely vital to be authentic. andn't want to sit up here have a bunch of bullet points and buzz words and talking speak.every time i i think that the message has to be clear but being authentic in everything you do and everything you write and communicate at every level, i think there's a filter that and still maintain boundaries so the marines don't think that me and tom are drinking buddies and at the end of the day that just been the case because he's in the marine corps 18 months and i have been in 15 years. are vast areas of gray in there. and you have to know that. alsos a great leader, you have to understand that the textbooks that we learn all these great leadership tools, aren't words that written there in between the lines like love and compassion and theng and concern
really great leaders can see in between the lines and they apply think that's what sets the good ones apart from ones.eat >> i've got two more questions and i'd like to turn it over to to join in the conversation. the first and really supporting evening about the united states income this era of becoming war, are we increasingly more comfortable with this idea of enduring war and if so, what are the of -- implications that especially on those who serve? >> since i was the foresentative tonight afghanistan and we have been fighting in afghanistan for 18 fightand we continue to there today. we lost an monday, first sergeant. his name is jeremy. many americans do you think know that? thank you.
we are still fighting this war. we have had 775,000 service members that are worn a uniform been deployed to afghanistan and been in theater over the last 18 years. the most revealing part of this number and this is a terrific article from "the washington post," i think the name was mos, the journalist that wrote this, the most revealing nearlyout that number is half of those service members who have been deployed in the longest war in our history have served multiple deployments, multiple deployments. so if i ask you to remember a jeremy, you need to andmber names like schmidty and tess.azquez, tess being one of my soldiers, one-year combat
deployments by the age of 25 2010 inwas with me in afghanistan. i said two tours. you serve, scott? >> 10. >> many. combatand served 17 tours. so there are names and prevailing during war has a face and if america's comfortable it, we need to ask ourselves why are we comfortable with this? 1% ofe less than americans are performing our commitmentscy overseas. talking about enduring conflict. and the second aspect of enduring conflict and endless wars is not putting a time line 2009 through 2010 when i was in afghanistan, president obama we will draw down forces in 2011. day, my next
intelligence collectors couldn't get anything because they were villagers, community, all of our sources and they said you guys are leaving in two years, why would i work with you, because you're leaving in two years and i have to still down the road from the taliban fighters. never put a time line on enduring conflict like this. and last thought on this is that war, ant fight a 18-year war one year at a time. we need to think about what is our greater vision. scott mentioned it earlier. what are our goals, objectives. we need to -- we don't go to war to fight wars. we go to war to win them. that's what we want to do.
coggitateing. >> while he's milling around, 20-pound with some brain club answer. state, not yale. i wrote an article about it and about iti were talking earlier. it was pretty simple. it was wal-mart wins the war because i'm a firm believer that we have to go into these areas of conflict and we have to show right looks like. not iraqi democracy or afghanistan democracy but democracy. there's only one flavor and the corps --he in a rein marine corps and army, we're fewly good at doing a things. one of them is blowing stuff up. we're not great at building stuff up. we're great at.
it bothered me when i would see whoor military officials were geniuses like me who had a degree, worthce nothing in the military, talking about governance and infrastructure and rebuilding countries. really galled me to no end and i thought until we get to the administration is going to implement the right people for the right job for the politicalon, our power -- do you see any senators or congressmen going over to iraq or afghanistan saying this how you build a congress? no. anyone from wal-mart or home depot or google going howoughfare to say this is you build infrastructure and build mega-stores of commerce creates throughput and money? no. they won't risk their bottom support our national security. that's way too crazy of a crazy, right, it just might work, right, brother?
what if there was a wal-mart in oh, and a kid's like soccer ball is not the only toy in the free world? amazing, right? it's so crazy, it might work but until we get to that point where a world war ii mentality where people are turning in to support the war effort and if we can be great students of our history from the the europeaner and theater that we have to stay, we have to be committed to win and what right looks like. i like that fan back there. shaking her head yes. i think that's the end state but is not just my vision think i share that with a lot of people that have sacrificed. think one of the problems with the 18, 19-year war is it's chicken and egg problem which is that you've got a professional military that is doing its job and you get the feeling that it's like outsourcing.
it's outsourcing the responsibilities of the republic. be in 18hink we would -year long wars if we didn't have the ability to outsource it to a professional kids that went to harvard and yale were also over there fighting. would last way shorter. so the problem of perpetual war and abetted by a small, tiny percentage of the country carrying the burden. if they didn't carry the burden, the rest of us would have to it and i don't think we'd have perpetual war. got theyou've equivalent of the praetorian guard. militarydent sending where he wants with no blow-back work atthose kids wal-mart. i think we're in danger of a class structure that's
increasing that's making wars last longer because we're in this pickle. we talked yesterday about national service, the only fair ourselves of this continuing to grow problem. i don't want everybody to join marine corps. i have three kids out of five i thedn't want anywhere near marine corps but they can teach kids how to read in the inner and dig fire trails for the forest service. all kinds of service we can do and then i think we would get out of this problem. it's a half of 1% of the population is carrying the burden. seven southern states account for more than half of the military. seven. we have 50. hello. and the other one that is damning is that if you take the three deciles when it comes
bottom threee deciles take more of the hits. 1.2orld war ii, it was times the top three. by vietnam, it was 1.4 times. now it's 1.7 times. trend, thaty bad the poor kids are taking the hit, increasingly. is the republic at war? or are we just outsourcing it abouti'm not talking ghetto kids. i'm talking about lower middle class, working class kids. carryare the ones that the burden. i think we've got to break that or we're going to be in big trouble. >> in one sentence or less, what most important thing that you want everyone here tonight to take away from a conversation relationships between war and society? or less.ntence
>> carl's books are like this. gosh. our country will not survive if we do not have some form of forward.service going [applause] and i'll keep -- last thought. current newsot of about the peace talks in afghanistan. we need to have women -- i'm not aying this because i'm woman -- but the studies show throughout several decades of research. go to the council on foreign relations website and find this research. to have women at the table for these peace talks and out the agreements because when we do, these 35% chance ofe a
lasting. [applause] >> i don't know about you but i want it to last. just a thought. >> my one sentence would be, i have to start remembering that we're a republic and that everybody in responsible for wars.ng the republic's >> be able to train and teach a career tongs over my shoot the rifle straight and run take care of young marines but i can never, ever anyone to care. you can't teach someone to care. being ann't care about american. if you don't care about what you do in your profession, in your all completely worthless to me. it starts here as a community. it starts taking action and having the compassion and care share thebility to
message and not think that nobody wants to listen and go out there and do something and change and we're simply doing it through one medium of writing. that on a daily basis, some structure. but you have to care. not willing to do that, i think you don't get a voice. care. >> i need to be respectful of scott's time because he needs to to the airport so join me in a round of applause. [applause] that are in of you the military, you understand the importance of unit coins, coins.ge we have those here and they're a
token of appreciation but also a of you joining the family and i can't think of a better say thank you for joining war society family. will stay here this evening for a little bit longer with you conversation and will be available to sign your books. on your table you have a flier follow-up event on the psychological cost of war. it will be just as great as the conversation you heard this evening. thank you so much for the support coming out this evening. in thisu for engaging conversation and have a safe trip home. thank you so much for coming. [applause] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org.]
announcer: live, tuesday, on the c-span networks. missouri senator josh hawley speaks about u.s. foreign policy for new american security at 10:30 a.m. eastern on c-span. noon, president trump speaks to the new york economic club u.s. house p.m., the returns for work on veterans legislation. eastern,2 at 8:30 a.m. the center for american progress on the daca program and what's stake in the supreme court case that will be heard tuesday. senatorred tona the todd young on foreign policy the hudson institute and the
returns to work on chad nomination. jimat 3:00 p.m. on c-span3, risch speaks about china's europe.e in announcer: this week the house intelligence comealt holds the first public impeachment hearings. top u.s. diplomat in ukraine, and deputylor assistant secretary of state george kent will testify. friday at 11:00 a.m. eastern on c-span2, former u.s. to ukraine, marie yovanovitch will appear before the committee. read testimony from the deposition. transcripts at c-span.org/impeachment.
the fall of look at the berlin wall next. spokesmanr 9, 1989, a for east berlin's communist party announced that for the first time since the dawn of the cold war, citizens were free to cross the border. this series of nbc special reports covers the breaking culminates in a 20-minute special summarizing wallistory of the berlin and historic events of that day. >> we interrupt this program for an nbc news special report. here is garrick utley. >> good afternoon. a late and truly sensational report coming in from east germany. which endednference just a few minutes ago in east berlin, government officials announced that communist east germany has now declared their border open with west germany. statement is that east german citizens have the right to cross directly fr