One of the most pressing problems continuously confronting the nation is the efficient and effective utilization of its manpower resources. At the time of this study Negroes generally had been employed at lower levels of productiveness than other available manpower. This study was designed to explore Negro manpower resources in terms of qualifications, fitness, educational background, skills, leadership and training requirements, attitudes and morale, adaptability for various assignments, performance of military duties, and the social and administrative problems engendered. As these various facets of the problem of utilizing Negroes with maximum effectiveness were explored, it became obvious that segregation greatly restricted the efficient disposition of this component of Army manpower. An assessment of the effects of the integration underway in Korea therefore became of primary importance.