The discovery of novel materials and methods to store more energy and release energy faster is a crucial area of research to address Army needs in both weapons development and lightweight compact power for individual Soldiers, combat vehicles and munitions. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), the Army s corporate research laboratory, is breaking existing paradigms in these areas by developing a rigorous science-based understanding of diverse multidisciplinary domains, integrating theoretical, computational and experimental research. Recently, ARL announced the establishment of Enterprise for Multiscale Research of Materials to create a unique capability for the design of materials that are suitable for extreme dynamic environments and novel electronic and electromagnetic devices. Cognizant of new research initiatives during the past five years, powered by breakthroughs in advanced experimentation and computational chemistry, physics, and materials science, ARL is boldly creating and enhancing the essential computational tools and capabilities to advance these rapidly evolving fields. The select papers included in this monograph are representative of the high level of theoretical and experimental research, discoveries and achievements of ARL scientists and engineers in energetics science and technology, and in energy storage-elelectrochemical power, focusing on lithium-ion, lithium-air and lithium-sulfur batteries.