tv Doc Film - Bacterial World - Microbes That Rule Our World Deutsche Welle September 30, 2017 9:15pm-10:00pm CEST
and have been steadily growing ever since and they have presence all over scandinavia in finland and norway. and beyond there were even protesters that flew in from germany last night before the protest. i believe twenty danish and german individuals who are affiliated with the movement were arrested prior to the protest write up briefly if you could is there anything about golf and berg as a city why they might have chosen this place for that is the site of their rally. what a goal from sweden second largest city it's a very multicultural city there is a very big migrant presence there. one of sweden's biggest synagogues is also in kaufman burg and originally the. the march had been planned to walk you to today's young people or the jewish holy the holiest day in the jewish calendar and the intention of the movement which is extremely anti-semitic was to pass by
a synagogue today but that was stopped by a swedish court. week prior to the protest right the washington post thanks for joining us. we'll move on now to some other stories making news around the world russian opposition leader alexina volley has had a held a rally just a day after being released from police custody was detained on friday before a similar event as he tries to galvanize opposition to the country's current leadership the russian authorities accuse him of violating laws on organizing public meetings. here and police say they have arrested six alleged islamists in the northern city of bremen paper developed says the group is accused of planning to rob a jewelry store and use the proceeds to purchase weapons one of the suspects is french and security officials claim he has ties to jihadists.
the suspect in an extortion scheme targeting german supermarkets has confessed to poisoning food products he told police he was the one who placed poison jars of baby food in a supermarket and threatened to do so in other cities across europe unless he was paid ten million euros. well u.s. secretary of state rex tillerson has said the u.s. is in direct contact with north korea over its nuclear weapons program and it's probing the country's willingness to talk to us and made the remarks in beijing where he was meeting with president xi jinping and other officials he also called for calm the u.s. views china is crucial to attempts to stop young young developing nuclear weapons china has strong ties with economic ties with north korea accounting for about ninety percent of pyongyang's foreign trade. well joining us from washington is d.w.
correspondent michael caniggia michael the secretary of state did raise some eyebrows when he confirmed existence of contacts between the u.s. and north korea does this mean that the war of words between trump and kim jong un is over and now the diplomacy can begin. well to be honest nobody knows it sounds like tillerson said that the u.s. is ready to talk to north korea so that the war of words could end between both countries but as we know donald trump has so far not reacted to this and we know that donald trump has a tendency to speak his own mind about issues even if it contradicts his own official so we have to wait and see how donald trump responds to this and it's also important to note that trump until there isn't we're not always on the same page on on foreign policy issues for example tillerson wanted to the u.s. to stay in the paris climate deal donald trump didn't so we have to see how donald
trump weighs in on. this this offer by by terrorists and to talk with north korea. the right to trump is also talked tough towards china in the past accusing it of unfair trade practices and so on but on north korea he wants china's help is this maybe a way for those two countries to get on the same page a little bit more well delta has has played a carrot and stick scame with with china he has repeatedly lashed out at them threatening to slap tariffs on them but he has also tried to say that the u.s. is interested in good ties with china and so china has responded and has and as increased sanctions on north korea so that all it's actually a positive sign and it could lead up to a positive visit of donald trump when he first visits north korea with china later
this year all right michael in washington thanks much for joining us. before we go here's some sports sponges like action league leaders dortmund traveled to inform out foregone match day seven those two teams traded blows early on each scoring within eleven minutes but then shinji kagawa reese restored dortmund's lead before half time here eric obama young missed a penalty late on but dortmund still held on and claimed three points well get a look at the rest results glod bok grabbed a last minute winner gets hand over from the penalty spot frankfurt also left it late against they got their first home win of the season both borg and might share the point to the one one draw and another draw this without any goals between braman and hamburg in the nor derby on sunday freiburg host often time berlin welcome by and leipzig travel to cologne. that's all the time we have right now but do join us again at the top the hour.
climate change. waste. pollution see. and isn't it time for good news go at africa people and projects that are changing our environment for the better it's up to us to make a difference be good for god our magazine d w. for a long time microbes have been synonymous with plagues diseases and epidemics. but in recent years research from around the globe has revealed that microbes are in
fact essential to all forms of life plants animals and of course to us humans. the bacteria inside us are useful for breathing eating into growth they can even influence our behavior and sometimes they can even change the destiny of a species. looking into the microbial is as transcending as looking through a telescope to the stars and thinking about our place in the universe. we can't keep them but with the observation tools available we can reveal their existence this is a very novel time hides a lot of people feel we have not been this kind of inflection point since darwin. the study of bacteria is revolutionizing all. all we know about how living things function and could possibly revolutionize medicine.
we can't see them but they number in the billion us. their presence is beyond question. we are immersed in a sea of bacteria and water on the leaves of trees in the air we breathe. they inhabit every tiny corner of the planet. here in amsterdam zoo a contemporary museum called micro was created to make microbes visible. bacteria first appeared three point five billion years ago making them one of the very first
forms of life on earth they're also among the most basic consisting of a single cell without a nucleus with a few d.n.a. molecules floating around inside. invisible to the naked eye bacteria exist in all shapes round rod shaped more with filaments. since their advent and they have multiplied to colonize the entire surface of the globe they are present on the most every day of objects. bacteria are everywhere absolutely everywhere. they form a world of their own and now we're finally beginning to understand the complexity of this world. was always off to believe microbiome. you can never look the same way as yourself as before you are part of nature and you are not just
this individual but you are full of other organisms which make us do what we can do and this is the start of a new thinking of a new era and. so generation after generation the essential bacteria are transmitted to the bug through this maternal jelly. and this is the only no from the sect but anyway all. dependent on the microbes in some way and of course and say the baby acquire there. from the hamas. just as with insects a crucial process plays out at the birth of humans and other mammals.
it is at this precise moment that you acquire and develop your microbiota. after spending nine months protected from all external bacteria babies enter into contact with the microbes that will be indispensable for the rest of their lives. said so at birth it's a shock. the end then will be contaminated by its mother. the mother transmits the microbes present in her vagina anus and on her skin and therefore it's an invasion so to speak. then the baby will feed on breast milk and this milk also contains certain microbes and then when it goes on to solid food it many new bacteria colonise the baby and these new bacteria are those that it will more or less until the end of its life. and from birth the bacterial invasion will trigger the creation of another biological system essential to survival the immune system. the
organs of the system bone marrow spleen or lymph nodes produce lymphocytes these cells and their antibodies are responsible for controlling the activity of microbes . necessary for neutralizing them. what's surprising is that the immune system needs microbes to become operational. this is why a baby born by says aryan section may have a less effective immune system than a child born naturally. it's a little like sports to be effective you have to train all the time. system that's not trained that's not in constant contact with bacteria is much less efficient. as you develop you come into contact with more and more. little by little your immune system becomes stronger the bacterial population your host grows to gigantic
proportions. adult humans have as many bacteria as they have cells. went to people kids for ten seconds nearly eighty million bacteria of seven hundred different species that are exchanged. this is our internal ecosystem is modified really that some positive thing. thank. so that microbes. some of the boss. we don't know. for over a century microbes were regarded as disease carriers to be found with antibiotics
and antiseptics. such medical thinking is now widely questioned. tend to treat bacterial infections with antibiotics however and i keep. ira cannot target a specific bacteria it will kill the other bacteria responsible for the disease but many other bacteria as well. that's why doctors are now cautioning against the systematic use of antibiotics and it's estimated that less than one percent of the bacteria in our bodies are harmful compared to the thousands of microbes that are useful to us only a few dozen can prove dangerous. but the probably the accurate way to think about microbes is they are just microbes sometimes they're bad sometimes they're good and this depends on a myriad of variables including what types of genes does that microbes out what types of genes does that human what's the environmental pressures and it really
takes all three of those kinds of variables to determine whether a microbe is going to be good or bad. microbes are thus essential factors in our health in our intestines alone researchers have found nineteen thousand different functions that are provided by over one hundred sixty species of bacteria. this is what is commonly called our intestinal flora. the intestinal microbiota has become a major focus of medical interest. in the southern german city of heidelberg the team of dr p. a book a pioneer in the exploration of the intestinal microbiota is leading a worldwide study. they're collecting human excrement from
around the globe to study its microbial composition. developed on the web the project has already got samples from a lot of volunteers. and scientists studying the microbiota collection gathered in heidelberg quickly discovered something startling. a kind of autumn. when we started in two thousand and eleven we didn't really have any expectations because no one had ever worked on this but we might for example have assumed that no two cases would be the same or that there would be links between the bacteria and the different eating habits in various countries like the japanese it a lot of fish and that has a certain composition with the french drink wine and that would be reflected. in what surprised us was that food geography and also gender and age apparently have no impact. on china kind of. by comparing samples from different
continents the researchers observed that human intestinal microbiota could be classified in three main categories but they have called enteral types. the three enter zero times are like three large intestinal flora families. or type we are does not depend on our environment our sex age or even on our diet. in fact the scientists still do not know what determines our gut type. and yet this is what dictates how we digest our food or react to a drug. research in this field is still in its infancy and yet professor bork's team has already established correlations between changes in
intestinal microbiota and diseases such as colon cancer or obesity these findings sometimes go beyond mere diagnosis and offer new prospects for treatment. the script on the biosphere and there's a big one there are other examples as well such as fecal transplants which are graphs of faces from one person to another. and so on this is a rather disgusting job here as this is but it helps to fight against certain infectious diseases which can be cured with antibiotics. transplantation is effective in ninety percent of cases and then and discover how we can also expand this research with use of such knowledge might enable doctors to find the right donor for an intestinal transplant the one containing the right enteral type which could increase the transplant success rate and is it a smoke to steam folks a lot it's a study done. the idea of transferring intestinal microbiota could revolutionize
medicine. worldwide many teams are working on new solutions to treat patients with metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity in particular. nutritional specialist dr karim climb all coordinates a major event funded program investigating the role of gut microbes in cardio metabolic diseases here in her medical unit in paris her team is undertaking important research on the intestinal microbiota of patients who are diabetic or obese. state. it is the animal model which has created out people in the fields so we found that if you take a none obese animal gym free and you transfer the intestinal flora of an obese
animal to it in two weeks it will become obese based. the publication of these findings had to resign doing impact. the mice given the intestinal flora of obese mice had almost doubled in size after fifteen days but strangely the phenomenon was short lived some time after the experiment the mice returned to normal even though they were receiving exactly the same diet has before. no one yet understands what happened but it's now certain that a malfunctioning of our microbiota is a factor in obesity. she don't know what humans the challenge is to understand the changes in intestinal flora and see their role in the development of obesity and we've observed a loss of dynasty in the intestinal flora of obese people this is not
a loss of bacteria across the board but the loss of specific material and an increase in other types and this is what we're trying to understand including the role of these changes in the development of obesity. not only of a city but also complications associated with obesity which on us. it will take a few years before research into the role of intestinal bacteria will lead to new therapies. but doctors are now in no doubt that microbes are a crucial factor in the overall functioning of oregon ism. are a part of us they're an essential element in our organiser and contribute to all aspects of our physical existence.
they've been present since life first appeared and played a role in every stage of the development of the living world. one microbe in particular has become a. daryn the bacterial world. has stepped out of the shadows and into the limelight . in the early one nine hundred ninety s. researchers detected the bacteria's ability to spread rapidly through different insect populations but they couldn't explain it. a team from the french national center for scientific research has examined this bacteria as reproductive strategies in micro wasps their findings are astounding. that's not bad if we can really see the accumulation of. basically.
bacteria. the researchers quickly nicknamed. the reproduction manipulator. when it infects a microbe the microbe also takes control of the insect sexuality. has a unique dual feature first it's transmitted only by females from mother to daughter and you know allows female osps to reproduce by themselves without the need of a male. we've isolated the females in these tubes they come either from populations where well baccy is fixed where individuals carry a while back or populations where will back it is absent in both cases the females are virgins so the idea is to introduce males into both tubes and watch what happens and this will illustrate the long term consequences of infection by well
back. i'll put some males inside here. but i don't know i will wait and see what happens. well i think there we see a male and he's beginning to mount onto the female and the mating begins. and so we have here a coupling that will last between ten and twenty seconds which is pretty rapid what i did when we introduced males with virgin females which do not have all back you know we see that quite soon coupling occurs between the males and the females most of. special now will see what happens when we introduce this same type of male but this time with females who have been infected with will back for a few generations you know it's. one of the members of the same system and we could watch this too for a long time because nothing will happen. we see the males just moving around
keeping to themselves meaning that the females are incapable of initiating male courtship behavior. the infected females have lost their ability to issue mating signals to the males with full baki female micro wasps no longer need males to breed. the biological mechanisms of the symbiosis between the parasitic microbe and insects are not yet understood nor what causes the bacteria to colonize entire populations but it's estimated that will affect sixty percent of crustaceans spiders and insects. and. on a more general level biologists are beginning to understand that bacteria played an essential role in the fundamental mechanisms of the evolution of living organisms.
over millions of years nature is created the most diverse forms of life and each time with new forms of symbiosis between living organisms and microbes. joinder stand these mechanisms scientists must now discover the molecular processes at work between the bacteria and their hosts. on coconut island in hawaii a surprising discovery has allowed scientists to understand the first principles. biologist margaret macfarlane guy is studying the collaboration between a very particular type of bacteria and their small cuttlefish host the bob tailed squid. the.
this is my bob tail squid. he's a beautiful one medium size just. very soon he'll be large enough to be in a breeding part of the breeding colony. the bacteria that colonize the bob tailed squid have a unique feature their bio luminescent. what the bacteria do is they make light in that light is diffused across the central surface of the animal and matches moonlight and starlight so that no shadow creates a camouflage so that it's an anti predatory strategy.
this is an extraordinary phenomenon a form of calm a florist that only functions at night without any intention on the part of cuttlefish or the bacteria. and the phenomenon is repeated day after day. margaret mcfall new guys team eventually discovered that this mechanism is triggered only when the bacteria count exceeds a specific threshold. how is this possible. we didn't know what was causing that requirement for a large population of bacteria to be present but what we discovered was that it was due to a single compound that each individual cell produces and if that he doesn't hear
that same signal compounds from other bacteria around it closely related bacteria that are also bioluminescent it will not produce light itself. in the cuttlefish body the signalling molecule is continuously produced by the bacterial cells. during the day the bacteria multiply and produce the molecule. but as long as the threshold is not read nothing will happen. it is only when their concentration is so. the cuttlefish is organs after many reproductive cycles that bio luminescence will be triggered in the bacteria.
us there is a mode of communication between microbes that takes the form of an elementary chemical language. bacterias d.n.a. sends messages to the cells of their host body which in turn communicates with microbes. in paris and a laboratory of the pasta institute a team of biologists is investigating whether bacteria can affect behavior in mice . these mice born using this area and were raised in sterile conditions they've been kept in isolators where there are absolutely no bacteria so they've lived without
microbiota since birth. in this experiment the pastor institute team is prepared another group of mice born and raised in normal conditions that is to say in contact with microbes. the scientists compared the two groups. the principle of this test is to measure their level of anxiety. we placed the mouse in the center of this intersection composed of two paths with no walls open all around. to pass with walls the mouse faces a dilemma because naturally being a curious animal it tends to want to explore the open paths but that creates anxiety so it's more reassuring to be in a closed paths with walls i think. and the result is surprising that two groups of mice react very differently to the
experiment. we found that sterile mice are less anxious than normal mice though we don't know how yet intestinal bacteria influences the behavior of the mice and their level of anxiety. less anxious the mice with bacteria take more risks than normal minds are somewhat more aware of the possible danger. but what is happening inside the body of the mouse one of the biological processes at the molecular and cellular level which allow bacteria to interact with the brain. to know how to eke still suggests a long lead maybe the enteric nervous system since we know that there are nerves in our brain that go into the intestines so it's possible that some messages or signals passed through these nerves and carry this information up from the intestines to the brain another hypothesis is that intestinal bacteria disseminate
certain molecules or disseminate certain portions of themselves in which pass into the blood and the blood eventually reaches the brain level to. put you to implement this as a kind of fast track communication between intestinal flora the bacteria and the brain via nerve impulses as a result of stress responses anxiety impulsivity feeding behavior common biological parts linked to in the brain it's like a highway with lots of into sections filled with molecules in all directions whose role we don't understand it all said six or seven years ago the microbiota came along which like an organ has a role in speaking to the brain factitious. and now we're trying to understand what kind of tiny counseling the microbiota to the other organs cluny claim yet it is exactly. the study of bacteria plunges researchers and
physicians into the heart of the complexity of living organisms if we come to understand the interactions between bacteria and organs we could influence them one day that's an exciting medical prospect might we have bacterial therapies in the future or drugs that target microbes only. but before we can identify a promising medical perspectives researchers still have to dissect the hundreds of thousands of biological interactions that take place each instant between our body and our microbiota it's a task of dizzying proportions. we are definitely going to. so it's truly a special moment in biology and i think the revolution that we could be experiencing in the life sciences today is just as significant and powerful as the one that was experienced when genetics and evolution fused together where in the one decade of probably a century long retooling
a biological knowledge to understand the significance of microbes in our living world. the research on microbes is still in its infancy. there are billions of microscopic organisms still to be discovered which inhabit to our world without us realizing it. no longer can we conceive of living beings as independent entities rather their ecosystems caught up in a multitude of biological interactions. after having battled bacteria for decades perhaps tomorrow will revolutionize how we treat disease. already there radically transforming the way we see ourselves traditionally we.
see. other humans. from the front we are not living as individuals were living is complex communities it does beg the question who's driving the bus who's in the lead here basically it's who am i who are we and the truth of the matter i think will be that there is nobody driving the bus in fact everyone is driving it simultaneously then what does he need. not be the barrier. fundamental. question. really changing. the way we think about what it means to be.
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