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tv   Doc Film - Feminists Inshaallah - The Story of Arab Feminism  Deutsche Welle  October 21, 2017 7:15am-8:01am CEST

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a yes. yes yes. yes yes. to mark international women's day lebanese women's rights activists have taken to the streets they've come to tell an every day yet tragic story their story. now. as in many other arab countries they're calling for a law to stop violence against women. over the last two months five women have been killed only yesterday a brother slit his sister's throat all domestic violence reflects a whole system of violence that we're subjected to every day in our country. it's the men who rule who have the power and so it's the women who suffer who are
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subjected to their laws their desires and their violence was really. up to the people who want this rallying cry was first heard during the arab spring which spread across the region and two thousand and eleven. in tunis women were in the front line of protests calling for an end to the dictatorship a few months later the election of the islamist and not a party and once again brought them out in the thousands of votes at the crime scene center we have tamed our rights fifty years ago that has now they want to challenge them. when we're not going to let this happen that's my high level. during the egyptian revolution women also made their presence felt in cairo but in the demonstrations against the rule. in power they became the target of systematic
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attacks and sexual assaults. as the people of the arab world rose up in the name of freedom the rights and status of women became more hotly contested than ever. and yet things for arab women were very different fifty years ago. emancipation and equality seemed within reach as the countries gained independence women enjoyed considerable freedoms. and the political leaders of the time the liberators of the people declared that by people they also meant women. fifty years on women face increasing problems claiming or defending these hard won rights the situation of women has hardly improved or not at all what happened how can arab women shake up the society so blocked by sexist and patriarchal structures this film recounts the
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struggle and chants the history. genesee it is one of the countries where arab famine as i'm going back over a century is most deeply rooted. sharif as a diary is a pioneer of genesee and feminism at the july cemetery in tunis she is taking her daughter and granddaughter to visit the grave of a man who inspired her the author and reform to her dad who died in one nine hundred thirty five. that had no time to hold our demand of women's rights how he wanted women to be part of political life to be able to study why he demanded rights for women not because they suffered in justice or women left their father's house to go to their husbands house then from their husbands house to go to the cemetery that's what they used to say in the olden. but. we must
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remember to her how well thanks to him women are free today and he spoke about that almost a century ago there are more to know what we know. but it gets done last. month before women could be repudiated in marriage without a court case. usually the husband had enough of his wife all he had to do was go and see the local solicitor at his home. and just say they wanted a divorce and that was it she was returned to her father's house and then it was her father who looked after her and her children. for leadership that a boy with a boy. according to. the liberation of tunis here in the french colony also meant the liberation of women. the freeman king for my theology student maintained that this was not at odds with islam although he had
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the support of an intellectual and reformist elite that dad was fiercely attacked by conservatives and religious traditionalists. from the very beginning religious law and its interpretation have been at the heart of the arab feminist and modernist struggle. egyptian jurist cousin i mean in his book the liberation of women published in one thousand nine hundred nine criticizes one of the most powerful symbols of tradition the veil. opposite of what a fun in a preview it is only before me this level of commitment on the book one demented but was on the bottom of while the devil bit off his outdoor god it kind of said you. have a lot of mustard so with that after your eyes and in a film. like that you huizi into her dad because he i mean was not looking to oppose islamic self only the traditional interpretation of
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it by advocating women's liberation he was above all seeking to prevent his country's decline and move it towards maternity. while those men elaborated the first feminist theories it was women who turned theory into action the egyptian who does shari is widely considered one of the first arab feminist activists. in one thousand twenty three after attending a feminist congress in europe she broke a taboo. arriving at cairo station she cast off her veil in public and showed her face after the initial shock and disapproval a crowd of women spontaneously began to applaud. the heads of syria were are now lifting up her veil was symbolic the whole. to hit meant that a woman could escape her condition and become a woman with rights and duties which appear to be all the women with
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a real role in society who is even active and militant or not the only that you. founded the egyptian feminist union she fought for women's material independence political and social equality with men and cooperation between arab and european feminists her actions sparked a chain reaction within egypt and far beyond its borders. in one thousand twenty four that unity and minority a were tiny removed her veil to followed in one thousand nine hundred nine by happy the men chary. the battle against the veil and polygamy inspired other tunas in women like she refers to darwin who joined the union of women of china zia in the one nine hundred forty s. . who then lackey for the steam and our union of women meetings we defended repudiated women. we went from door to door we wanted to distribute pamphlets to
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women so they would come to our meetings. to me i often the husband came out and told us to go back home we replied but we're fighting against french colonialism of the sun he would say what are your the ones who are going to get rid of the french go on. applique emma. the union of women have to his ear was established in one thousand nine hundred four and was close to the communist party . it brought together activists from different communities french women engineers in as well as muslim or jewish museum women. they saw the fight for women's rights as part of another battle one that would lead to the liberation of a colony and all of its people. in one hundred fifty six became independent. the first president of the tunas in republic became the architect of women's liberation he instituted the code of
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personal status outlawing polygamy and repudiation establishing a judicial procedure for divorce and fixing the minimum age of marriage at seventeen. he took advantage of the moment of national consensus after independence to enact reforms even managing to sway the religious authorities of the time. or turned into law the ideas a spouse but unity and feminists starting with time out. he was convinced that his country could only become a modern state if women were emancipation. and as a bad gesture bookkeeper lifted the traditional veil and public.
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although he did not establish complete equality this state feminism ten used with paternalism was to revolutionize the lives of genius in women. state schooling became free to all and co-education the new on. women and in the job market and does control the gain widely available also market unity apart in the arab world. the planning has a good mobility role here. he dies for his examination say only that it will show his will jesus she with the beauty of it appealing to me with her share on a state level breast stick. to dock area we got to yes my ass off an email back easy to show me to write. a post and was made legal in one nine hundred seventy three for all women the appearance of a real state feminism and would remain an exception in the arab world.
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in the majority of other countries by contrast the feminist struggle was sidelined by independent. egypt political and cultural beacon of the arab world was led by connell got. from one nine hundred fifty six. the country present to the rest of the world with a completely new image of women such as the femininity embodied by some yoga mind. the actress and dances taught in popular egyptian musicals that were exported throughout the region. the salton even the nerve center of cinema was in egypt it was hollywood on the nile or you would. scantily clad
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seductive femme for time the movie stars transformed the image of the arab woman. these modern heroines also brought an ancient art back into fashion dunson was ok to take a. lot of his own to me the dances represented freedom which went beyond the borders of any country. it was truly the symbol of women's power that. was. and it was also a woman who embodied now says egypt the sing out. even more famous than nasa to whom she was close in concert and sang of love and passion and forged a powerful bond throughout the arab world through her. now
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. the liberation of egyptian women was not just a fantasy of the silver screen or musical underclasses regime they obtained the right to vote young female city dwellers gained access to education and public areas here two women joined the workforce they abandon the veil and relations between men and women were changing. but the conservatives retained a powerful hold on the country using the and friends to limit the scope of certain reforms especially concerning marriage. one of the most outspoken critics of women's liberation was the muslim brotherhood a powerful islamist movement founded in egypt in one nine hundred twenty eight.
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one of its representatives sayat hardtop called it. that if the vista article the limits so much it is government the most oppressor with a farmer. the muslim brotherhood was the main opponent of nasa's brand of socialism in particular they disagreed over the status of women as the speech from one thousand nine hundred sixty six shows. what i believe to most of the land of the finalists i mean. what the. fall of the. i would. give and became a gap few months. with. shared at the list of. the law this. was.
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much much the alice. now. i guess they're about to get out. yeah. but not a faced constraints in a country which was mainly rural and conservative the reforms he introduced on behalf of the gyptian women paled in comparison with those adopted by. the. masses of oratory and regime was devoted to a big dream of a different kind arab unification. in one hundred sixty seven war dealt a blow to progress and women's rights. i know that he was.
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there. was there all of us throughout the so i kneeled. in the one nine hundred sixty seven war israel dealt a crushing defeat to its arab opponents and particularly now says egypt the debacle sent shock waves through the arab world tipping the political balance of power in favor of the religious leaders and conservatives. it was also attended by that if it is a sixty seven did not signal the defeat of the arabs but of modernity it defeated the modernizing powers and legitimized the conservative forces before school so that. you know. the modernizers were democrats they were let's say all thora tarion modernizes the mahdi but you didn't attack them for their all thora tarion character missing without risking jail. spilt so from one thousand nine
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hundred sixty seven the conservative forces criticize them for their lifestyles of a visit. for the status that women had attained and for the meeting egyptian films in particular the films from the fifty's and sixty's. which showed men and women all kissing all the way from his office on the us. are all that they get the idea was to reverse something profound that was believed to have taken its revenge in sixty seven where the most modernizing regime was notably in egypt and in syria were brutally defeated by a state that had been created on a religious basis israel. and so forth so that was there legitimize ation. therefore the conservative forces believed that it was the hand of god punishing the arabs for betraying their own faith. robert ray look
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proper for. the oil crisis of the one nine hundred seventy s. highlighted another major change in the balance of power in the middle east. with the oil windfall the economic and geo political power shifted from egypt to the arabian peninsula. saudi arabia barely touched by an identity until land began to develop at a frantic pace. in this traditionalist country home to many of islams most holy places the economic boom only created a superficial modernity worried about the influence of western values saudi society tightened up restricting women's lives even further. off it. in fact it was one of women's enemies. oil wealth helped to create a hyper monetary society. i wanted
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one that was extremely modern and it's hyper monetarism part of the same time much more conservative with regard to women from their status dropped while the rest of the economy of the society was modernized as was it. for many years saudi arabia was the only country in the world where women were banned from driving despite risking arrest some women activists defied the restrictions recently the ban was lifted by royal decree but legislation requires the approval of religious leaders who had justified the ban in this way. our religion doesn't forbid our women to drive but it doesn't give them the right either the religious authorities have considered the pros and cons and decided that the disadvantages outweigh the advantages along. the gulf states rapidly began using their financial power to export their social model to other arab countries.
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that the inherited and she faced with social difficulties and poverty and attracted to the wealth from the oil in the gulf states millions of egyptians most of them uneducated immigrated to these countries particularly saudi arabia they were influenced in these countries that had become so powerful. the saudis believe that islam was born in their country and that everything they say is true but then there will be a chip ins began to imitate them. they came back around the nicobar need the full veil i had been a car i do in a never been more the. more luck even their accents had changed in. the way yes. from the one thousand nine hundred onward several gulf countries started spreading their rigorous islamic ideology via television satellite channels
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broadcast the words of extremist preachers throughout the arab world such as those of a gyptian side on this side of his channel. are going to be you know so low are you while it was one. word a lot. shove koroma. word here had. i g. and then oh i hope that it will it deep. deep. it is. thought to be. here hello ahead. and for us now. you know. how would you go. yeah and you may infer. you. are. stuck with me and in my.
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s.f. day now sherry had to be good then he had this bitter unfortunately we have many an educated women who cannot read or write or meat off home these new t.v. channel watch that have opened in egypt have exploited this illiteracy. had the only means of women's ignorance is that her little boy thought that them are these channels have not succeeded in convincing egyptian home to the end because women influence their husbands and their children what a real mother had then when word. only women were enlisted in the fight to bring back the veil and introduce conservative religious values the followers of radical islam even succeeded in rally in some influential women to
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their cause such as the actress hung on to work the egyptian movie star took up the veil and ultimately quit her career not guilty of any claim we. don't know or you get again no not one of that again. no not to shut up. and i was actually going to shrink it about an animal but that charlotte said well larry i would like a bit less and i will well it hard to show what it must come along. if the doing in the measure here are at the minimum a lot and i mean mission here and listening to what the head of. and locked up and a lot. little by little the islamists succeeded in engineering a comeback of the veil throughout egyptian society even among women who did not support their ideology. but the revival of the veil went hand in hand with three islamisation of society.
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if they don't meet at the beginning of this really islamization meet the job was unquestionably a militant fail he ship it was the militants of political islam who were the job he claims as from the source of the fifty miles he gradually with three islamisation of the societies it became an identity veil so to speak. in other words wearing the veil showed you belong to the religion. and i see that as a remarkable victory for a political islam to have been able to transform the job from a militant veil to a general veil for all. she hides. but in this paradoxical society the only presence of religious strictures does not stop some women from seeking areas of freedom within the framework of religious
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morality yes except alongside programs featuring extremist preaches one satellite channel broadcasts a popular show presented by an egyptian sex therapist played a heart or das to preach to boost subjects. but. i had. a lot of sentiment that of course we have to take our culture and religion into account that's why i only talk about sexual problems within marriage as though it. was your fault at all but you every jurors are human beings who can be right or wrong but religion doesn't get it wrong women's work is not forbidden if she talks about sex in a respectful medical and scientific way it's not forbidden on the contrary it does you good if she earns money and she keeps her wages for herself it's not forbidden her buying things in her name is not forbidden dressing well being elegant and
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having a nice car is not forbidden so why feminism and what could it do for me that i can feminism bring about women's freedom and my religion gives it to me. so might islam as a system of values also be emancipated. one movement known as muslim feminism thing so. it first took root in majority muslim malaysia but it also has arab proponents . moroccan as muslim or a bat is one of the most active she believes women have the right to interpret the . qur'an. when you go to indonesia malaysia or pakistan whether you're in deepest egypt or deepest algeria or morocco the same
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islamic rhetoric about women prevails. so rereading the holy books from a feminist and female viewpoint is very important and hope and is because at least it restores value to the female perception and. secondly it will open up a field that until now has been completely closed to women the interpretation of the text how can you accept readings that are fifteen hundred years old but bear no imprint of women yet they're not clad to the south. america gained independence in one nine hundred fifty six during the rule of king mohammed the fifth he was a member of a dynasty still in power today that claims descent from the prophet muhammad. constitutionally morocco's king's combined political and religious authority. in one nine hundred fifty nine the conservative code of personal status was adopted it affected many areas of family life with. almost fifty years were to pass before muhammad the fifth grandson the hum of the sixt introduced
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a new family code. the king announced that the new laws would limit polygamy and repudiation of marriage and make it easier for women to divorce. the software i think changing legal text says not enough we wanted a change in the status of women and we thought that once we had the new family code the problems of women would be sorted out but you should go to the courts and see all the inner justice that continues to make women suffer. for our legal system is corrupted that's why for example the new family code restricts polygamy but in a corrupt legal system men always find ways around it that enable them to be polygamous. result of course or the we can never move toward more female emancipation and more equality out unless a democratic system is set up as the most. and i think we are still
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a long way from the model of a democratic system in morocco on elkhorn there are so much injustice it's always women who suffer the most awkward this is all a family also for the first. change in law is an important step but it's more difficult to change mentalities and behavior in a bad american artists have staged a play based on dozens of personal accounts by women. the words oscillate between humor and tragedy and cover subjects such as sexual violence the honeymoon and virginity on female genitalia. that is how much. and remembrance oh what a mess if you know that i'm seeing how the. next elicited even exactly what i'm going to get sleep.
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where does it require but. i'm already just like my other shallow did sleep. but i hated yes. i did you know me well you know one other man you have. some oh i'm all stood up and stop what you're going to have what i have to do was it was nice it was us. i mean yeah we do we. belong here you see a big. hug and i think today it's time to talk about these subjects about the body or a lot of woman and her relationship with her body. those are very taboo subjects.
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here and i think that our bodies don't belong to us just said no machine is going up in little sort of beat now through our upbringing we're told how to dress. we're told how to live our sexuality and you know. a lot of. school but and religion gets mixed up in it. we're told what's allowed and what's forbidden. yes. larry. larry. we've had threats and insults. some people have called for my moroccan citizenship to be taken away. and others say we should get psychiatric treatment. others even say these
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young wonderful actresses should be condemned to death. but in a society like ours which is conservative in schizophrenia these kinds of reactions are inevitable. and they only encourage us to continue our work. with that. in two thousand and thirteen a young. eighteen year old. published a topless photo of herself on facebook it was a provocative act which divided the country. with women's dignity she's lower than we value women and she diminishes she takes her clothes off even just a cat will hide when it does its business and what does she do. so.
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in short the reaction i mean a roast reveals something that to me seems fundamental. about. the feminists of the arab world fight about rights jurisdiction socio economic issues like speaking about the body is extremely difficult. sort of going to six there are taboo subjects in those are the body and sex. so it gets changed and if we don't talk about the body in sex we'll never talk about the heart of the woman question it's going to feel what did i mena do that in a way she pulverize the taboo. and on her breast she wrote something extremely interesting my body belongs to me and is not the source of anyone's honor. but the drama of societies that are preoccupied by custom because it goes well
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beyond religion. sometimes in a way we make islam responsible for sins it hasn't committed. the third but the fact that women's bodies are effectively the source of men's honor is a tragedy for women in this part of the world. to do. well something is in feminists have distanced themselves from i mean as act others see it as a turning point for their callings. i mean that you see i mean she just let me know belongs to a new generation of feminists that can give a lot to the political scene and help women's rights evolve in tunisia i mean i don't see that and i say to the previous generation of feminist don't close the door leave the dialogue open between the generations. we must get weaker and become divided by amount of the misuse. it's a new generation that doesn't hesitate to defy authority and make that known using social media.
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this is a video of a gyptian metal band massive scar era the music has been condemned by islamist groups and called satanic for much of its existence the group has been all female at the outset they just wanted to play music and weren't interested in feminism. despite this just being women in the public eye has itself become a political act. i wanted to start a group and my family said i couldn't possibly do that with boys so to be able to play i started a girl group again but i don't consider myself a particularly feminist. feminist but you are very feminine. and. she's feminist in her attitude her way of comprehending problem is to not talk. and
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the second when there are obstacles i face up to them i think if i don't confront them i wouldn't be able to move on this if i am this and then i do nothing i'd go nowhere and said i think it's.
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not far from tahrir square in cairo murals tell the story of the egyptian revolution especially the attacks on the women who came to demonstrate in the name of freedom. the full of dictators during the arab spring the freed women's voices but also unleashed violence against them. they found simply woman question is the question that really lets us comprehend what liberty is that is the notion of liberty contains the idea of freedom and equality if we don't have both at the same time we have nothing feminism is a political idea we cannot think of feminism without political freedom freedom of opinion did appeal. leaves. how can you have a true democracy without all citizens having the same rights it's impossible set up was impossible so indeed. democracy raises the question of equality that it's already getting. and the uprisings in the arab world have not brought about further
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equality the one glimmer of hope and a feminist struggle in tunisia and january two thousand and fourteen the constituent assembly confirmed the rights acquired by women in one nine hundred fifty six despite pressure from islamists who wanted to roll them back the success was mainly due to the mobilization of civil society and the existence of a robust feminist movement and other arab countries to women continue to fight for their rights. this image appeared in two thousand and eleven just after the revolutions it combines a woman's face with an outline of the arab world young arab feminists have succeeded in uniting beyond the frontiers of their countries thanks to the internet yet the unison the lead the online initiative the uprising of women in the arab world find
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that the dominant let us the female solidarity is essential for changes to come about in the arab world why is it important to work together and not our selves to ourselves because we learn from each other. there are countries that are ahead of us in tunisia for example yeah the women there have already done a lot my heart and visits me if there's. the two lebanese women began this movement with two others a palestinian and an egyptian the site features thousands of faces women and men ordinary citizens from across the arab world expressing their commitment to women's rights. they assume the unbelievable success of the photo campaign surprised us. however we weren't surprised that so many men participated i think because every day we see that male domination also leads to violence towards men. and if it is. at the end of the month.
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i think we are on the brink of a real feminist revolution. i support the uprising of women in the arab world. because from my right. i support the uprising of women in the arab world because the liberation of. the uprising of women. because i want to be a strong and free. i support the uprising of women in the arab world.
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learn a simple online on your mobile and free stuff for d w z learning course nico speak german made easy. the other way into an official estimates more than one point two million venezuelans live in colombia legally and illegally. but already at all why return to. to visit friends is that i don't think i'd ever go back there to live you know what i live there again i don't know so i'm not sure. bearing witness global news that matters. made for mines. the so-called islamic state has claimed responsibility for a duel bombing in afghanistan which killed more than sixty people one blast
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occurred during friday prayers at a mosque in kabul.

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