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tv   Doc Film - Luther and the Nation  Deutsche Welle  October 31, 2017 8:15pm-9:01pm CET

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which has been demanded of. today and that's something that she's being encouraged in throughout today's speech and that's also being reiterated by other people who spoke at the events today all right as our correspondent kate brady from the eastern german television back there where celebrations have been taking place five hundred years since the start of the protestant reformation kate thank you very much. you're watching the w. news live from berlin i'll be back at the top of the hour with more world news followed by the day i have to say here that. germany is a strong country. we have achieved so much we can do this and if something hinders
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us we must overcome it india. going where it's uncomfortable global news that matters w. made for mines. initially montanus it was only calling for a renewal of the church and its face but the pope and the emperor saw him as a threat and he was demonized by both. an overwhelming majority of the population at home supported him would martin luther divide or unite the germans.
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april sixteenth fifteen twenty one it looked like a reenactment of palm sunday in jerusalem. a man branded a heretic by the church celebrated like the messiah in the german city of alms. using do that rather mountain. we could still turn back here. when and if death itself were waiting me i would not turn back unleashed on. martin luther on his way to the imperial diet of worms an assembly of the holy roman empire on german soil an event that would change the course of history. never before had a man of the people excited such enthusiasm ordinary people peasants and members of the lower aristocracy in particular put their hopes in this month that.
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even if the pope and the amphora were against him martin luther knew the people of germany were on his sign. he was celebrated like a victim but his biggest test was still to come would he remained steadfast. and i hope you're taking a difficult path i wouldn't want to be in your shoes day. behind. the cupboard as he'd understand it a song and now it might prove too high for my voice so often the cheers of support did nothing to relieve his anxiety what will be contested behind these doors wasn't
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a matter of who had the right place it's a new thing it was a matter of life and death. germany in the early sixteenth century did not exist as a united political entity territorial princes ruled over their own regions of the ten million german speakers one in ten lived in towns the rest in the countryside. the dominant belief was one of a god given order of rulers and the ruled one empire. one faith one amphora it was the idea that held the holy roman empire of the german nation together but it was beginning to unravel. at first only criticized the beauty of practices of the church nepotism corruption and waste but then he publicly rejected any into meijer between man and gone. he singled out the dignitaries of the roman catholic church who he said behave like
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princes rather than priests for luther only the bible was infallible. luther accused gone's representatives on earth of hubris after layer the tenth was crowned pope in fifteen thirteen he was more an asp page and than an ecclesiastical leader holding cold with pomp and extravagance to underline his power and glory. this pope from the power from a d.g. family wasn't interested in theology since god has given us the papacy he said let us enjoy it. transformed rome into a cultural center and political power but he depleted the papal treasury in the process. he commissioned a massive renovation of some peter's basilica in the vatican to pay for it leo encourage the sale of indulgences and exemption from punishment for sins.
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luther maintained only the mercy of jesus could himself sin not money. the only path to salvation was faith not deeds his ninety five theses attacking corrupt church practices were quick to circulate it across the country the pope threatened luther with excommunication but luther responded by publicly burning the bill hom the monk motivated solely by his conscience. the reformation was triggered by the disc. butte over indulgences luther was convinced that believers were being duped and that their salvation was in jeopardy lloyd being. he believed the indulgences were lolling people into a false sense of security with disastrous consequences. d. gunson coffer ta list by the time luther was summoned to the diet of the pope had already branded him a heretic. he was given the opportunity to recant before the emperor of princes and
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nobles of the empire if he did not he faced an imperial ban and death. decision day had arrived. he must recount. luthor must recant or he'll burn unless he finds powerful supporters luther already had frederick the wise elector of saxony had watched his rebellious subjects popularity grow and he sympathized with luther's criticisms of the roman catholic church and so he will rise the emperor's rules one way or another. but the empress role and the role that god has. frederick the wise was powerful he was one of seven electors in the empire who chose the emperor
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and the others were the margrave of brandenburg the king of bohemia the count palatine of the rhine and the archbishop's of cologne much interest. any candidate for king and emperor had to make concessions to the powerful princes that also was true of the hapsburg and for a chance the fifth who was elected in fifty nineteen. the new vyvyan. his election wasn't without controversy if there was opposition and skepticism. the roman curia had a different candidate has got there were very strong reservations because of his immensely powerful position. and that was prejudice against him as it was viewed as a foreigner in the empire over which he now presided the imminent kaiser for. the hapsburg emperor was unfamiliar with germany and its people even as ruler of the world he could not override the german princes the image he cultivated wasn't just
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posturing charles was right in saying the sun never sets on his empire. his prayer book has survived to this day it doesn't just testify to the hapsburg religious piety one page depicts the most powerful man on earth kneeling at the feet of a guardian angel. the page shows signs of wear and ten an indication perhaps of the young and for his insecurity. as a devout catholic charles was determined to silence the heretic from the end but the german princes forced him to hindu thought out. the emperor who spoke no german was represented at the dot avanza by the archbishop of trias legal advisor the empire's top tier witnesses to an unequal jewel a german david against a supremely powerful goliath. yes n.t.f.s.
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i met were gathered here to put an end to the blasphemous lie a spread by dr martin luther from that under the new town i was fit to bat. mitzvah with heretics zeal yes cost doubts on paper law thora t. his writings to question the author of the of the church and in so doing he has destroyed the unity of all christians my opinion will tell man. luther are you ready to recount your life's an address here and now here yet so if you dare hope. even luther's powerful supporters advised him to recant. no one can deny that through the pope's laws the consciences of the faithful have been almost pitifully troubled. on does and also that the possessions of the germination have been devoured by unbelievable tyranny that if then i recant the
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only effect will be to add strength to such tyranny to open not the windows but the main doors to such blasphemy of. any snitched unless i am convinced by the testimony of scripture or by clear reason i cannot and will not recant anything. so help me god. a man. luther's appearance before the diet of alms went down in history is a turning point in european history but luther didn't have the benefit of hindsight
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he dead to stand up to the most powerful man on the planet perhaps because he knew he wasn't alone. and then luther knew he had a far reaching social reform movement beyond him and that enabled him to act the way he did involves in volves in the towns we have the support of the middle class just as the intellectual elite associated with the humanists the less. well it's to a degree that the backing of the imperial not and a portion of the clergy supported him to die it is clear was all this coincided with the calculated use of the nascent power of the media the battle to shape public opinion began involves. it was the first propaganda war in european history fought by followers and opponents of the reform of the friar from a german backwater became an international household name one placed on an equal footing with the pope in the fight for the one true faith.
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thousands of flyers were printed some portrayed luther as a saint stuffing the greedy mouth of the roman demon others portrayed him as a divider and a messenger of the devil as a satanic heretic doomed and damned. this visual propaganda in the form of caricature was once a reach people who couldn't read. in the battle for hearts and minds looters supporters made headway but ultimately it was up to the end for it to pass judgement on the reform of. the hapsburg ruler made his position on luther clear since the king of the germans didn't speak german he composed it in french. how many fish do you understand what he's saying. you don't need to understand french to know he has it in for losers
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and the timing type can be lickin those are his design if you're concerned about him he dated a liaison. whatever the un presenters can only end one way i miss you national often these days. you know he wants to see luther burned. to do that he has to get in first he's so you this is. in the eating to vamose charles the fifth declared luther an enemy of the church and state he held a previously issued guarantee of safe conduct but as soon as it expired luther was to be arrested and punished would come to that. luther set off to return to that and back but the journey was interrupted.
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by what was that hunters yeah god. yes and i know who they're hunting too. deep in the woods foresman ambush luther's carriage. when he goes in they don't want you. luthor had been briefed on the plan what looked like a kidnapping was in fact a rescue operation. to prevent the implementation of the edict of the reformer was bundled off to a secret location. oh no it was to dorset implementing the edict alone was difficult for the under offered and from a legal perspective he had no executive organs to enforce ian out there and he depended on the willingness of the regional princess to publish the edict and enforce it and in that territory i trust and understand these as it is naturally
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frederick the wise and that no such intention to unleash for those devices dr gun is done. luther's princely protector had different plans frederick the wise head the reformer advanced book castle now eyes enough in his area of jurisdiction. as a territorial prince the electorate of saxony. made use of his autonomy to secretly defy the amphora. the persecuted reformer was given a comfortable room invite book council he was to want for nothing. though forced into hiding luther had not been silenced his writings spread across europe. faced with an unknown period of confinement luthor decided to make good use of his time.
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he adopted a pseudonym. and changed his appearance. and he began a revolutionary work a translation of the bible into german luther wanted the word of gaunt to be accessible to everyone including lay readers he rejected church doctrine that maintained the pope was the sole authority even temperature of scripture his followers would come to be called evangelical from the latin and german words for gospel. it took luther just a few weeks to complete his translation of the new testament into german. a new communications technology gave him fast access to a wide audience the printing press.
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the individual letters were cost back to front laid out in galleys and fixed in position the ink was made of linseed oil insert a formula which produced pages that haven't faded in centuries the sheet was printed in the press this device later lent his name to an entire. branch of media the press. at the start of the sixteenth century there were four hundred printing facilities in the german speaking world. as print shop in fifth and back was the first to publish luther's new testament in september fifteenth twenty two. was sixty six reprints the work had had a run of one hundred thousand copies by fifteen twenty five it was the first
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bestseller in german history. loses translation wasn't always literal he used everyday language with colloquial turns of phrase. the new testament in german a translation by martin luther. travelling booksellers often luther's bible for sale at markets demand was huge. concert when you read yes but then read. a sample come and listen listen to what she's reading the new testament in germany . commented out at a time of widespread illiteracy reading out loud was a common practice. once that soon he does forget i only got discussed. on feel. like you feel i and others come of it. as
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words of the bible in the language of the germans and it leaves on a you know it's a change. it's going to not susan she was talking. to you. susan. usually stagg i am a good girl just. as i didn't. lose his translation of the complete bible was published in german in fifteen twenty four an original copy is preserved in the anna amalia library environment. luther's work had a profound impact on the development of the german language the author dedicated it to his protect and the electoral saxony his bible led to standardize ation of the german language which in turn fostered a stronger sense of common identity among german speakers.
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the dusty luther's bible translation didn't just serve to strengthen the sense of community within the protestant movement it also had a long term impact on the german nation as a whole doctrine his language became the language of literature he thought wish interestingly and unbeknown to them catholics were also impacted by this development if it happened behind their backs such as make them act hinted in bookings at the south dakota making a fast. it wasn't just the bible that spread from the back but so too did lose his reformation teachings neither would have been possible without the protection of the saxon prince but frederick the wise never fully embraced luther's teachings and remained a catholic all his life. holed
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up in forecastle luther was aware of the debt he owed the prince for his protection he also knew that in return the elector expected luther's loyalty that loyalty was put to the test by development that shook wide swathes of german speaking europe and brought those regions to the brink of out right civil war. a bloody uprising staged by peasants demanding greater rights and freedom encouraged by luther's reformation ideas they used his arguments to justify their evolved the presence will pose a deep dilemma for luther. should he stay true to his conscience or to his princely protector. thuli the president's war panorama in franken hausen is one of the largest
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paintings in the world in great detail it depicts the first revolution on german soil emboldened by the religious reform movement the peasants saw to overthrow the feudal system under which they were bound to the estates of noble men and forced to give up most of what they produced. the revolt was sparked by opposition to new taxes and duties on the german serfs and based on their interpretation of scripture paying a time is on the fruits of the earth had long been exacted on the peasant as a form of church tax. but now the lord saw to extend this payment to the possession of animals the tax collectors invoked divine law to justify their demands.
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luther's translation of the bible into german allowed people to verify those demands by consulting scripture themselves. it's a complete injustice to take that ties to animals to. the council it's how dare you don't the rightfulness of our actions. those who possess large stock have to pay it times from them that's what it says in the. priest have vouchers for doctors. how old is what we voted for ourselves and they said the bible says nothing of the sort if they should watch yourself mouth will undo you you will pay a tithe on older animals either that or in coins and if you don't see you in court on this day and you are the emperor the judge we would be as steadfast as dr luther extortionist. of so. many peasants refused to continue tolerating such conditions luther was their role model and the burden should be laced shoes the
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emblem of never evolved. when the conflict threatened to escalate the peasants called for luther the reformer left his hiding place in violent book and traveled to the rebels in the hope of defusing the situation. luther had shown how to resist the all thirty of the emperor and pope both townspeople and peasants now wanted to follow his example. i was a if god spoke german yes i tell you yes. yeah how else would he have understood your prayers he had to be the first one god has understood them
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and he has ons of them done on their hearts yet. is that's also true for the prayers of us the person he said about on. the peasants expected luther to side with them. god turned out he bought god also he is the peasants and he sees the injustice done to them. but fighting injustice with injustice is not god's will it's the will of the devil puts. luther distanced himself from the peasants when violence broke out in may fifteen twenty five they also targeted members of the high in ability. yes this is now it's your turn count. you two will meet
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your judgement hasn't so be it go. to bloodshed triggered a radical change of heart and with a female soul the devil at work and even appeal to the gym and princes to crush the peasants. let whoever can stab strangle and kill them like mad dogs. luther described the war against the peasants as a battle against the forces of evil. the decisive battle took place near franken hausen in fear in jail six thousand peasants lost their lives. advocated the preservation of divinely appointed author to secure his reformation he sacrificed the peasants.
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the end of a people's hero. the peasants and the reformer were not seeking the same types of freedom. the cause of fighting outside the core issue at the time was the term freedom the term had different meanings for different players luther. it meant first and foremost the freedom of a christian regarded as in the us a law the passons it meant the freedom from jews and bombed the daughter to this day for the princes it was the political freedom to rule their territories for fools and it was a similar story for the town magistrate just for you and in the end here's a finish to just modest. one man's freedom was another man's loss catholic property was lost to the church wherever rulers adopted the new face in outsell or saxon in
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the monastery was disbanded the building turned into a quarry. the end it was a fate the oldest indian prior incident was spared. yet the elector of saxony gave the property to his famous subject martin luther and his new family. and in june fifteen twenty five martin luther married the former nun catalina front door the reformer had called for the abolition of celibacy in his earliest writings . luther's married life was not untouched by political upheaval my bet is no latin and five bedroom no not just these last lines it's urgent people are waiting. at forty two the former monk became the master of
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his own household and a happy husband god gave me cater and i don't want to give her up not for france nor for venice. commonalities god anything. is lent over that already travelled by. and never had to be to luther himself is supposed to have said twice a long time not have it. well then it must be right. catarina and martin luther founded an institution. the clerical marriage had a tremendous impact on cultural history because it effectively ended religions demonization of sexuality for teufel long sexuality masters also made of flesh and blood wasn't mentioned off life not mass age and it was a bombshell after the not just for luke that's contemporary can austin i wanted nobody inside. as you know bomber. the
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reformation didn't just revolutionize family life with its emphasis on the sermon it also transformed religious services. the core messages depicted above the altar of the church and the salvation cannot be earned through good works sacraments or indulgences. the. salvation is attained only through the grace of god. there was no longer any into me jury between god and humankind neither a pope nor a church. luther had paved the way to a new world order. charles the fifth was determined to prevent its emergence after the edict yvonne's he'd left germany to wage war on numerous fronts. neglecting the struggle
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against the reformation. protestantism spread now charles decided to reassert his authority as the chief defender of catholic christendom he would restore the old order one amphora one empire one church. after the pope agreed to crown him and for a in bologna a in february fifteenth thirty charles traveled to germany with his army of mercenaries there was a renewed showdown with luther's followers this time at the diet of book. the chancellor of saxony christiane bear spoke for the protestants. your majesty in this document we have laid down the basic doctrine of our faith. galoot theron's wanted
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a settlement. for chad's unity it would suffice if there was agreement on the teaching of the gospel and administration of the sacraments they sought to sever their faith in the papal hierarchy and rome. but the confession of our expert that laid down the call lutheran doctrine was rejected by both the emperor and the papal envoy. the emperor will startle your new confessional however he believes only the roman curia is qualified and intitled to compose texts of this nature and of. that tax lacks any polemical antagonism with regard to the church in rome and indeed if any text ever had a shot at facilitating an agreement it was the outs book confession he tried to help her to the new confession. a lot of time has
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passed since of orms the ideas are not confined to this book they are out there in the world. so those soon. xylem his majesty regrets not having eliminated the heretic and his ideas and ones involving. the lutheran powers knew that a confrontation with the emperor was just a matter of time. made these it was this document piece is within reach everyone may keep their faith wherever they are without feeling constrained or threatened and. charles hope to turn back the clock he was ready for the battle against protestant princes towns and landholders if necessary he would settle the protestant challenge by force of arms. design in my estate his majesty isn't afraid of war he gives you six months before his
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mercenaries enforce peace defeat if. charles reinstated the edict of warm condemning luther. once again the lutheran princes left the diet under protest and the noun protestants was coined a label for the new political identity. by the mid sixteenth century only the bavarian heartlands parts of bohemia and austria as well as the territories to the west of the rhine remained roman catholic pope had lost all influence across the rest of the empire. luther and self had only been able to follow the events in out spoke from afar. does talk as though that ended without the protestants. the news from alex bank was bleak. as it looks bad.
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a military showdown was looming lived his life's work was in danger he had only wanted to reform the church but it gonna do rough of the highest authorities he'd wanted to liberate christians but have fostered strife. there why do knows what god wants and what plans he has for us germans. martin luther sense that the conflict with the church and the emperor was coming to a head a peaceful solution was not in sight. this is the first map of conscious in germany drawn up by the katanga first sebastian minster in the mid sixteenth century the borders between the principalities play as insignificant a role as the who run an empire but this vision was threatened by the specter of an
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empire about to strike back. fearing the worst protestants rally together in the town of. the but. a team princes and representatives from twenty eight towns in the empire joined forces in a new defensive alliance. they demanded the right to choose their religion in their territories. the document drawing up the league in april fifteenth forty seven the alliance was put to the test. as troops approached the river elbe from the west closing in on the unsuspecting forces of the count at least encamped on the eastern bank.
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the protestants led by john frederick of saxony trusted in god. but i have news from the scouts of the emperor has advanced as far as allows a of its followers are here still have to cross the aisle that buys a stun gun sight sight time enough to prepare the warm welcome the emperor deserves and found. the protestant army felt safe on the other side of the river which it deemed impossible for the emperor's artillery . but charles was determined to take the initiative on the cover a sick funk his soldiers folded that elba cut down the guards and secured a floating bridge. if it succeeded the surprise attack would route the troops.
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the men under john frederick trusted ingall and wait for the emperor's troops banked on the element of surprise. the for . the stealthy attack caused panic among the forward scouts of the small county glee. here. dressed in splendid. arrived wholly unexpected while most of his infantry had
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crossed the floating bridge the cavalry found a ford higher up stream. his defeat of the protestants at the battle of mubarak was decisive. it was the portrayed by titian commemorating his victory had charles reached his goal of returning germany to the empires fall of the two after his triumph on the battlefield the emperor went on to capture the town where everything and begun that in the. but the man he had declared an enemy of the state was no longer alive. the great reformer had died at the age of sixty two one year before the battle of midway back in february fifteenth forty six. a quarter of a century after the diet of vaughan's the emperor and counted the reformer again at least his tomb in the council chechens that and back.
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the victorious habsburg ruler wanted to see the grave of his anniversary with his own eyes. dead or alive but he's a heretic and cats are. most famous burn. joined should we get to mount. charles was advised to dig up and burn the heretics bones. feel the quake by wage war with the living not the dead. luther's tomb was closed. what remains. a slang for us to give luther's long term impact on germany and the germans is the cultural and more specifically the linguistic achievement which through this translation of the bible has had repercussions far beyond the protestant territories does he know he also had a political input he supported the development of territorial states of modernity
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and in this respect you could say that luther advanced the federalized nation of germany for the whole. luther's vision of a new face surge division the church in germany fractured into the good. with the loss of church unity the old political order to was irretrievably lost. princes towns and entire regions embraced. his doctrine. yet the man who found refuge in casa left behind fall more than a theological legacy. martin luther's appearance involves was a rallying cry not only for freedom of religion but also for freedom in secular fantasy in germany and elsewhere his translation of the bible laid the foundation for a nation bound together by a common language luther was a unifying and
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a divider his legacy has shaped german history five centuries. it's all about the moments that lie before. it's all about the story inside.
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