tv Doc Film - Erich Mielke - Master of Fear Part 1 Deutsche Welle March 17, 2018 8:15am-9:01am CET
from the german capital today the first indictments were filed at the ballin regional court regarding the shooting deaths of people trying to cross the boat on . the fulfullment east german border gon selegiline involved in the border incident where indicted members of the politburo of the socialist party and the national defense council of the former east germany who are responsible for issuing the order to fire will also be brought to justice they see at most of being in pretrial
detention for several months and are preparing for trial among them is editor milka former minister for state security in the g d r. block morning with. the hot blonde from the matchbook a hospital i have a ten o'clock appointment at the prison hospital papers replace. it with her bag. if only. a small is our main concern was the prisoners a product authorized by state security forces and were also being held here would take revenge on their oppressors until it's a question. of
bashford pfizer for example we always made sure that milka was in a cell by himself. thus. and any time he left the cell for example when he had a court appearances he was accompanied by several guards. in the. sure the east german secret the stasi for liberally sort of the fear of people to think that they were being surveilled people to think that one person in three could be from the stasi they wanted to keep everyone off balance milka was a symbol of everyone involved in national security from full time officers and generals to informal collaborators miracle was a symbol of that but as a person he was and i make much kind of money. he's waiting for. well then
let's go. and there was enormous pressure and was like a red flag especially for the tabloids when it came to the death of. the butcher a man with blood on his hands. germany's oldest prisoner had been head of the ministry for state security for thirty two years he presided over the systematic surveillance of east german citizens after the collapse of the german democratic republic the eighty three year old faced more than one hundred charges in court i don't know how mr milkha will fare in the coming weeks what a doctor might present at the trial will certainly insist on a fresh assessment including
a psychiatric one just doesn't feel. you have a visitor. good lord morning mr me i'm dr brand. the court has asked me to prepare a psychological assessment. is the not anyone who looked into his eyes knew that he was as cold as ice yet as you have said at the prison i certainly ask myself what he would have done to me or
for unification had gone in the other direction d. even. us you are doing what's right for national security what the party demands of state security and nothing more than this is your responsibility comrades it must be absolutely clear that the decisions we make in the orders we issue must be carried out we are not a club or an association where you can pick and choose your tasks and we will succeed comrades we evolve this before the party in the working classes of the german democratic republic the state security apparatus of the g.d.r. will maintain a firm hold on the party flag and we will defend our workers and farmers against all enemies and up hold the interests of the state and the socialist camp. all the enemies will be brought to justice but i find that they dished up too few.
inside for god i never doubted that his custody was justifiable and it was also justified from a medical perspective you know his health was repeatedly of sess to ensure that he was fit to remain in custody has a definite. total of seven experts were commissioned by the berlin regional court the defense and the public prosecutor's office. refused to speak with most of them. he remained silent often for hours. it was not for nothing that he was known as a master of secrets. and mr mueller when were you born. can certainly tell me that.
and where were you born. mr male you can remain silent that's fine. let's both be silent. we both want to return to mars so does that will be possible mr milkha i have two or three hours to say how we spend it is up to you and. mr milkha you were born on december twenty ninth nineteen zero seven in the district of vetting in berlin if you have adding the red getting. in what is to your mother died when you were three years old your father emile a woodworker and cartwright remarried a year later i am a louisa seamstress would you say your family was the words.
of us or doesn't even begin to cover it if we lived in a hovel for children two adults thirty square meters so i didn't have enough beds we slept in shifts. which of the missile i took. by his own description milka was an anxious and oversensitive boy he liked friends and self-confidence he had a strong need for harmony. conflict upset him and made him feel guilty. he had a deep longing for acceptance and approval and sought ways to escape his constraint circumstances. shakti shamed of our home and wanted to escape that misery. that's to study and so on. i received a scholarship to the kurdish high school in berlin and. they had a master was very satisfied with me that's what he said anyway. but
he completed all of his assignments thoroughly and without contradiction. there's no wonder for when you can make your parents happy for the moment. scripts of interrogations of mucus parents carried out by the berlin police confirm this impression he was a sensitive child in a cold unfeeling environment. and i think she left with the first is we removed him from the school because of the cost of books closing and so forth and a clone once of a time. in a hushed eve it was always reticent and reserved. never told us what he did. how much we rarely spoke with each other. much to go for him i want to emphasize that it was probably my son's later education and his outside contacts that gave
him access to other circles he found on life in circumstances too confining and often complained about it. and once of the night you is the only phone circumstances confining what is there excuse me the record what is that. an interview with your parents it's been in the attic of the court for almost sixty years this story and copied it from me. thank you if you want to file overnight. up the ok.
we expect checklists the secret service to remain steadfast courageous and fairness a check is does not falter and does not retreat from difficulty like cowardice is foreign to him and he never hesitates to give his all for our cause because of the working class and if necessary his life and order once given the book will be carried out even if it destroys or not. but watch out the old man's coming. good morning comrade minister nothing to report good carry on and smoke outside. student don't stand around go catch spies.
morning come at minister mongers morning with sin cause on to me. not knowing the morning comrade minister yes order is a must. let me. come with me me let. morning can make minister as i referred to you have nothing to hide you don't have to run away. i was operation simple eighty nine. come right minister communal elections are almost five months away and i am here says i can do the math was you want i always have to do everything myself around here maybe my generals could demonstrate a little initiative. of course comrade minister. you can stay and listen.
tell me what is the political and operational situation you. want to see i refuse to cast their vote. but what about those church clowns are they telling people to vote yes all right get moving and send your people out to the hunt show your minister you can make him happy if each day cuts no score and yes come right minister. the right cars around you and i don't need any pretty slogans doing what we need are reliable facts as well as of course comrade minister a logical result of ninety nine percent does not happen on its own it takes work. trust is good control is better than any. this is supposed to be a four and
a half minute day. if this happens again i'll carry out a stalinist to purchase the shoes of all u.s. congress mr. as hard as concrete. elections in the german democratic republic were largely a sham there was a single list of candidates from what was called the national front there was no alternative. in the german workers paradise everyone was to share the same opinion only a few were willing to venture open criticism especially when it came to eric schmidt who had a well earned reputation as the master of fear. wanted to be seen as a man of the people but he was also deeply mistrustful of them even paranoid. and. i experienced him as someone who had an immense ability to respond to those around him that was probably even more true before i met him. he had
a very keen sense of what others thought and expected a few i had but which direction certain things were developing and he was able to adapt to that because you know a lot about how it's. all i'm saying he was relatively straightforward in his in i'm a cop and had a relatively simple view of life as old as that may sound in his own way he was an idealist but didn't smoke didn't drink didn't fool around with women he was almost ascetic. going to maine dedicated to the socialist party until his imprisonment in most of it even the fat was remarkable in that respect. good lord morning mr me one morning. sitting differently yesterday you can i can't constantly look into the private light and as minister i always sat on the side of the table. all right good how are
you today it's not good i'm not feeling well today. my head is full of crazy thoughts why don't you just let me go this is mr. singer you can see that i'm at the end of my rope physically and mentally. it was fun to go home to my wife that's all. mr milkha you forgot your file to focus just thank you i've. ordered as i must. think you could get me out of here couldn't you. could do that
if the place. doesn't decided by the court as an evaluator i can only recommend whether you're fit to remain in detention the judge doesn't have to accept it. and. how when you always boasted of your excellent health mr him you. vitality was legendary the west german intelligence service the b. and d. knew this according to well informed sources from the ministry for state security enjoys good health is very active and seems remarkably mentally alert in spite of his advanced age makinson it's going to get. this one lapse every morning he usually spends his weekends outdoors. he loved hunting in its rituals on the hunt he was a different person open and gregarious. was
far and on. the. side. are all the are a are a were. are at all. who are at are at the ara was of the. was it the. here ishmael because saw himself as a passionate entertainer he entertained his guests with puns and jokes often for hours he doesn't come around i am of course only paid as a minister and not as a master of ceremonies i do both but only get a ministerial salary. you'll have to raise my salary of course. but
if you buy the city if i always do the same thing then the women get bored with that and of course i'm always rich in variety. it does cover ads let's raise a glass and drink to the. and here. let's make a toast to all the women in the german democratic republic who made it possible for us to achieve these good results to our women three cheers. now we can dance right comrade once the dance floor is open and sometimes. the minister forced his staff to maintain a fast pace his staff quailed whenever he came in early they were expected to be constantly at his disposal. mr you're already here. the class enemy doesn't sleep either cause on us is there anything new. apartment twenty's reports on symbol he nine put it on your desk just read it to me.
no comrade minister i think you better read this yourself. that's why i don't have time i'm shaving it's the district administration and hollow says they have twice as many people are refusing to vote compared to one thousand nine hundred six . how the city of hama you know yes. this i don't believe in addition demands are being made toward mitt so-called independent candidates from opposition groups and also that hostile forces are also engaged in an intense preparations to disrupt the election. grateful wretches they're lucky we live in modern times in the old days they'd have been dealt with quickly. if. good advice or not so early in the morning put it on my desk. just commerce minister.
he had any kind of strong will the village also has will to power he was alive in the one nine hundred twenty s. and thirty's and experienced the battles between nazis and communists it affected his whole life. his strength of character he's willpower. i mean of his parents joined the newly founded german communist party in one nine hundred nineteen. in one nine hundred twenty three after a clash with the police his father was sentenced to one and a half years in prison he was the breadwinner and his absence was a blow to the entire family that also had an impact on young area. at fourteen he became a member of the young communist league. as a young man he was an active member of the communist party he wanted to transform the weimar republic the oppression of the working class had to be overcome found
his true calling as a member of the paramilitary wing of the communist party. when i saw that a worker was being persecuted by the henchmen the bandits of the bush was he i felt outraged. when i saw i was educated in molded into a fighter class fighter for the great cause of our party for the idea of marxism leninism. it was. mr me do you remember the trial. which trauma i got so many of them hundreds of hours when that. was it is all this really necessary the ridiculous hand the silly wheelchair act in court. is this constant play acting i like a man of your stature and accomplishments. she said you helped shape our recent past and said do you really want to humiliate yourself like this against the angel
does watching you. so you know exactly what i'm talking about get there are hundreds of lawsuits against you but only one trial because of the murder of police officers just that day sixty years because you've never forgotten it. that day was nine hundred thirty one when the democratically elected weimar republic was struggling under the impact of a global economic crisis the rising nazi party fought with communists in the streets the police responded with brutal force. in august one thousand nine hundred thirty one two police officers were shot at a third police officer seriously injured you look lots of that there were street protests and battles between the right and the left several people were involved in the shooting among them as militia. milka. according to reports arish
milkha and arish team are followed the three police officers paul unlawful august really and france lenk numerous shots were fired at close range and allow for died at the scene really was seriously injured link who had been shot in the back crawled to the entrance of the babylon cinema where he collapsed and died a short time later. in the chaos arish milk and dairy steamer were able to flee the scene. the police responded that with brutal force firing indiscriminately. one bystander was shot dead and twenty three other people including some children were injured. that same evening arish milka boasted of the murders in his face. and showed his comrades the gun the assassination order was said to have come directly from the
communist party leadership. who was known as pistol kerry was said to have volunteered. in the years that followed he rarely spoke about the events directly but took unmistakable pride in his role. as must be sought out and trained ordered to shoot and kill an enemy territory if he's caught and brought before the judge i must say yes i did it on behalf of my proletarian honor. an order must be carried out even if it breaks you. in a certain sense milken was a legendary personality a long time and a fascist fighter and killer but he developed a criminal way of thinking but if he had a criminal tendencies habits and attitudes otherwise milka would justify his actions on the basis of class struggle and snow blight is. in my view
he was just an ordinary moderate who hid behind his ideology. in genealogy. you know comrades i always say communism is easy to understand but you have to want to understand it. so which way. if you don't like this way become a minister. and how's everything going to home ok you're going to minister minister flyers president effort at a youth parish office they were going to be put in a telephone booth just before the elections we intercepted them this morning with that. so we could just. stay there manage and they gave really election and nobody came another attempt to suppress the vote he's well done so well you rest of the whole gang and they won't be voting in any case as it was on usenet and. what do they want us to i want to know what's really driving the skank. i
already know i don't want reforms like in the soviet union a choice among several candidates and such nonsense. minister with all due respect be easier to lock them up till it's over. you would be using your hands but not better. german democratic republic election law any violation at all would be ammunition for our political enemies they're just waiting for this they want to soft themselves up with self-importance and discredit us around the world comrades don't take this lightly so i have a keen sense for when things are getting tricky so keep an eye on it. a report. want this to be examined. every suspicions were well founded the east german leadership was watching developments in the soviet union once the great role model with concerned. the new
president and communist party leader mikhail gorbachev was an acting reforms to popular acclaim also among many ordinary east germans. the east german regime including arish in general secretary eric whitacre oppose these reforms they had already witnessed many changes over the years and plan to simply wait out gorbachev's reforms before them political transparency glasnost and perestroika could only herald the beginning of the end the end of socialism the soviet intelligence service the k.g.b. agreed. listen he refused to listen to anyone he was sick sick with narcissism she will meet zero for the first time ever the k.g.b. was sidelined has continued to function but no one was interested in what it had to say. about his own vision his own view of the world those of us in the k.g.b. in russia we always panic or never gorbachev announced
a new initiative of the money will go to they were always poorly thought through absolutely populist front and also very dangerous. for the feel what it must. tired i want to go back to myself. susan you're not tired mr mucosa i realize you're very angry. but about what about what is all tell you about what my all my life i defended the german democratic republic against these class enemies it's not me who should be condemned but those who gave away our countries and those who betrayed the just cause of the working class i mean that's what i'm angry about. except let me tell you something. if i had my way the german democratic republic would still exist today this conversation right here would not even be happening. if that's what
and more our conversation would have been a very different one for the. i'm not a judge you're a lawyer i'm assessing if you're fit to stand trial and assassination more than sixty years ago this is ridiculous that any state governed by the rule of law the statute of limitations would have expired a long time ago. but do you still remember and even said you know plots of course i do how can you forget that. the police brutally get the poor demonstrators what they're trying. again and those capitalist pigs. shots fell and i ran i didn't see the shot it wasn't me yet so now i'm the only living witness then why did you run why. because i didn't want to get shot too what
a naive question was. done then you fled to the soviet union troops. i was here and when i had to escape but it was i left my brother behind and i was twenty one when i kissed him on the head and i said now you have our bed to yourself now you can sleep he didn't even notice i was leaving but the couple of. in berlin police interrogated his parents the highs and the trip to moscow fame as a surprise it personally i wasn't even at the train station when he left us. was no none of us went that he didn't expect us here.
in moscow in the big arrived in moscow with only one suitcase and the first was unimpressed. it looked like the newsreels red square on paved. dirt mud which would always is in the center of town so it was emaciated laborers beggars in rags rafia shoes. but the idea of socialism was an inspiration to us all these are made to show a wonderful. german communist party recommended area for the international linen school this was where the young communist revolutionaries received their training the curriculum was well suited to milk is taste military tactics weapons and communications technology setting explosives politics and economics and the history of the workers' movement. understood that we students knew each other by aliases by mining was powered by. france for conspiracy
it was part of our everyday life and. his final appraisal gave him a mixed report. his character flaws had been evident to the instructor. by bus in thought past displays many moments of arrogance even complacency in self-importance that was coupled with a tendency to be a loner. the highlight for the students was the annual may day parade on red square that was where milka saw his great role model joseph stalin for the first time albeit from a distance. he's of that and counter with comrade style and moved me deeply. he said he was a great man often and not just a teacher to me. he was like a father to me in the shuffle.
place. we are to abortion was a very devoted ally of the soviet union we have a rich past as an internationalist and as a communist. great respect for them we trusted them. repeatedly all but sometimes he took his devotion to the soviet union a bit too far. during example when the poles hockey match his. needle polish players. should the lord who was like they defended him why daring to win the push humor of. losing was not an option not even in sports. the east german police intelligence service and customs department had their own affleck association called dynamo. who
was its first and only chairman in characteristic fashion he maintained an iron grip he issued orders to spy on and bully football players and bribe referee. dynamo dresden and dynamo berlin became east german champions eighteen times over. also brought his passion for sport to the ministry behind his back his staff used to say he won't retire he'll just keel over at his desk. again i do not if your daughter which is citizens of the german democratic republic stand firmly by the soviet union and expect clear guidelines a clear political course not the rubbish put out by the soviet press every day. just read it. for your action is more than one candidate it's all political and ideological diversion ammunition for the enemy. with.
close. to comrade stalin a man of clear vision. of actual fighting spirit isn't broken. people can do what you're like but your virus is undermining the german democratic republic yet very strong glasnost rubbish like that. if we don't have a role model for clear direction where will it lead. if i understand your concern many comrades in our various state department chandan. is difficult to swim against the tide of tying it is. that sense of. look at it this way for the first time we have a general secretary for whom we don't need to be ashamed. to can speak openly.
to get sympathy abroad always. has a clever response. twice since when does a general secretary need to please the imperialists. his politics will spell the restructuring of the socialist order yes and yesterday there was another dangerous newspaper article about stalin stalin was described as a criminal where did your journalists get this information from your secret files now open like a library. to your intelligence service is now in newsrooms it's not finished the same taught it. doesn't i don't care to be honest. about his domestic policy. that i am of his view of the past i discovered it's
all just the same thing as if stalin's trials held in moscow were something dirty that's what sickness. about one show trials they were necessary to steal the party comrade stalin had the courage to do what was needed and that's the truth . more than you can get in here and there they are those elements of the new policy imperialist spies that it might imagine when you write those enemy agents you're preparing to attack our sacred borders. but then you are not to be sure that. they were later said that he himself observed stalin's first show trials prominent members of the communist party confessed under torture to imaginary crimes the question of guilt or innocence was beside the point the show trials were a means to spread fear and cement power and control the defendants were sacrificed
to the supposed greater good. many of milk as companions in soviet exile fell victim to stalin's great purge among them where the man who had issued the order to assassinate the two police officers back in berlin. was able to keep his distance he was a master of the natural law eat or be eaten. he wasn't pretty but he got the job done so that when you execute one troublemaker the rest of the troop stands up and marches information. in many ways he was a police officer who produced a police officer who wants to maintain order and control. owner a police officer by nature has a kind of repressive tendency. must be maintained. even if the order is not
justified with the full life. comes you are you afraid mr. i'm afraid. something just affected you deeply. as what do you know what fear. psychology is all about yes right right right right you probably read about it in a textbook maybe you even wrote your thesis on it. but what do you truly understand that about fear. something missy. is the fear that is most effective motivator behind human action stronger than ambition greed hope and everything together that is psychology.
one careful tiny drop of fear is all you need to control the world just that much. that's the thing about here. believe me i know what i'm talking about. i thought i'm just trying to guns concrete i was afraid to as i was very afraid that if the officer would ring my doorbell early in the morning and take me off the torch might as foreign just have to write to attention to the death of my friend who had died in stasi custody reality set in. the stasi came for me because i committed obituaries of the stasi lock me up i wisht up is that when you're confronted with the reality was from scott of the four. mission had struck me as a person i was confronted with the question what will happen to me. what will the stasi do to me it will end up like my friend or will i be able to live my life in freedom if i use the ends of who.
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barman magazine. long d.w. . player lives. play a. little. this is d.w. news live from bunny and you know in relations between britain and russia russia's foreign ministry summons britain's ambassador as the standoff deepens over the poisoning of a russian spy alone to spy on british soil diplomatic expulsions are expected also coming up russia prepares for sunday's presidential.