tv Doc Film - Crimea through the Ages Deutsche Welle March 26, 2018 11:15am-12:00pm CEST
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crimea with the rugged beauty of its landscapes its mild sub tropical climate and strategically important location the peninsula has captivated visitors for more than three thousand years. throughout history has drawn conquerors and settlers into a mosaic of cultures on the northern shores of the black sea. today the majority of crimea's inhabitants are ethnic russians ukrainians and crimean tatars. but the peninsula is also home to bellow russians armenians poles jews and germans. the crossroads of the orient and the oxidant europe and asia. greeks came from
across the mediterranean founded cities and opened up trade routes to europe. nomadic tribes from the steps of asia conquered crimea well the mongols of the golden horde established a slave trade here conquerors became settlers tradesmen and artisans farmers and citizens until new conquerors came and new cultures. for centuries crimea belonged to the empire of the crimean tatars and the ottomans . under catherine the great it became russian and remained so for one hundred fifty years. then in one thousand nine hundred fifty four the peninsula became part of ukraine. a demonstration in the crimean capital simferopol legendary coach.
i that sentiment was reflected in the outcome of a referendum a few days later. and that's the moment of the most high on march sixteenth the referendum was held in crimea this referendum took place in line with international legal standards and the rules of democracy but it will change two percent of the electorate voted this strategic territory must have stable leadership the fact is that only russia can provide it. the totally cool or the crises. understanding the present situation requires a look back at the region's complicated history. in seven hundred eighty three empress catherine announced that crimea had been incorporated into the russian empire. two hundred thirty one years later president vladimir putin signed a treaty absorbing crimea into the russian federation.
a look back into the distant past shows that history leaves no stone unturned. what remains there is testimony to subsequent inevitable change. over two and a half thousand years ago the city and survived in crimea from asia. with the sea ahead and the rough step behind them the nomadic people settled here. at the same time the greeks established the first towns and settlements on the south coast of the peninsula. cultural coexistence developed in a relaxed and perfectly organic way in crimea. as the region became home to more and more waves of immigrants it blossomed through trade and change.
with the minister for women to their livers are there but there was a book because this first place is the manifestation of a cultural melting pot. here we see traces of cultures that extend far beyond crimea the greeks thracians city and killed starry servants our missions is to be submitted for us in all our excavations and what has been left behind when we can see exactly how the culture has merged with one another but it's a typical feature of crimea. but i get sort of the newest from the rights and this site is called now policy scythian now pulitzer new time older historical works also described the place as the czarist fortress of nam pulis. this is the first and the oldest site to reveal the facts here you can survey the beginnings of the excavations provide us with the most compact information on lake city and settlement of crimea here in the immediate vicinity of the present day city of
simferopol. mr sort of in the record of the search for. empires rise and fall those of the greeks romans byzantines turks in tatters ole succumbed to the passage of time. in seven hundred seventy four russia defeated the last ruler of the crimean touch ours catherine the great let it be known that henceforth and for all time crimea would be russian. the empress was right in saying henceforth but not in predicting for all time. in one nine hundred fifty four celebrations were held in moscow to mark the three hundredth anniversary of ukraine's reunification with russia to soviet leaders transferring crimea to ukraine appeared a suitable gift in public there was applause but in private confusion crimea is
part of ukraine. at the time it didn't really matter which flag flooded over crimea it was and remained a part of the soviet union. that the stuff is still thought the i wouldn't say that khrushchev made a gift of the peninsula that various explanations are offered him. the official reason in one nine hundred fifty four was that with electricity water and traffic routes in mind crimea was only accessible through the ukrainian soviet republic. yes officer that was the official reason but there is another explanation in one nine hundred fifty four crushed rope was one of the less probable candidates to replace stalin as the country's leader i'm responding had died in march of one thousand fifty three and he was initially uncertain who is successor would be the next often there's an aha got on tape on top of the suspicion is that
khrushchev transferred crimea to ukraine in order to secure the support of the ukrainian party elite pushed its own. elite. after russia conquered and annexed crimea in the late eighteenth century than insula became an underwriter for archaeologists the wealth and diversity of the relics uncovered here were a boon to the new rulers who came to be seen as the saviors of hellenistic culture . all or armenians also have a rich culture in crimea having lived here since the eleventh century. it was here that they founded the first center of the armenian d.s.p. or an european soil. despite being resettled by catherine the great in the late eighteenth century and deported by stalin in one nine hundred forty four the
armenian minority in crimea was never eradicated. today more than eleven thousand armenians live here. before. the armenian apostol the church is the oldest state church in the world. legend has it that the apostles brought christianity to the armenians seven hundred years ago . you know that english world we do this is chris bullock to lose that moment is you know it's. sort of a cut the monastery of the holy cross is the only armenian epistatic monastery
outside armenia. built in thirteen fifty eight it served as a sanatorium during the soviet era. it was not until two thousand and two that it was reopened as a monastery and handed back to the armenian at church. crimea became the home and the center of life of national minorities but they also experienced great suffering here in the form of persecution expulsion and death. all of them from the as a multi-ethnic region in the soviet union crimea experienced a great deal that was positive but also much there was extremely negative. the fate of the crimean tartars in particular is without parallel after the communist revolution the crimean tartars had many opportunities to participate in the
formation of the young soviet state. of course but during the second world war the nazis played them off against the other peoples in crimea. it was a political tactic and one that the tartars fell victim to. give us the illusion of when german occupation came to an end stalin accused the crimean tatars on months of collaboration and had them deported to central asia. which surely. it was not until the late one nine hundred eighty s. that they were allowed to return to their homeland for three hundred years bucky's are i was the capital of the state of the crimean tatars the crimean khanate. when mongo had germany came to an end they dominated crimea and large parts of modern day ukraine. in fifteen seventy one crimean talked our warriors
advanced as far as moscow and set fire to the city. the khan palace is a reminder of long gone power and glory she has good radiance he lets them the khan palace is a unique monument to history and architecture and it is the only palace of the crimea. a pearl in the world's cultural heritage. but for us crimea tars from the palace is also a symbol of our self-confidence and our identity our link to this palace along with the rebirth of our tatarstan it. seems today as if it were calling the crimean tars to return and to see new opportunities for themselves here. this place is sacred to us it's a bridge to our roots and to our past and she said i live as a business man. forty seven kings ruled the empire of the crimean touch ours
today the grass of forgetfulness grows over their graves. but nothing has shaken the tartars resolute adherence to islam. it continues to characterize their identity and sense of unity as it has all through the highs and lows of their history. for centuries the faithful have heeded the more zinn's call to prayer. in the inner courtyard of the con palace is the fountain of tears russian writer alexander pushkin immortalized in a poem the fountain of. droplets
of water dripped into a ball of flowers from a cold spring legend has it that they are the tears of a tartar king shared over the death of a beloved slave girl from the north who died before she was able to learn to love the tarkhan. move. located in the mountains above back she saw it is the thousand year old cave city of two foot kali the jewish fortress. it was inhabited by the car its a jewish sect who fled to crimea from palestine and egypt in the twelfth century. the car ites led secluded lives here apart from other jewish communities. the russian conquerors saw them as good jews catherine the great grand of the car it's the same civil rights as the native russian population. during the german
occupation of crimea in the second world war that status meant the car ites were largely spared the persecution that their fellow jews suffered during the holocaust . says mobile killing units murdered almost all of the crimea's other jewish inhabitants the reemergence of a jewish community in the region is nothing short of remarkable. the effect of crimean jews recently acquired russian citizenship doesn't seem to bother anyone here on the contrary. look on the line and look at this that is mentally and spiritually we have always remained cringe chance we were never ukrainians nor were we ever russians we have always been crimean jews and i don't
wish to say anything bad about ukraine but like others in the crimea it was as if we have been hung out to dry now legislation has been adopted to ensure that money's no longer siphoned off from crimea instead funds will be invested in regional development i get the feeling they are now pulling out all the stops to ensure that crimea doesn't just exist but that it's given a developmental boost. more assured as to what. jewish life has a long history in crimea there's fresh hope that it will have a bright future in the region. the influence of the ottoman empire during the crimean tatar. era brought islam to the peninsula. the ottoman rulers drew their legitimacy from the concept of holy war which was designed to extend the boundaries of his land. as
a result in the early seventeenth century it was turkish architects who built the mosque in yes but oriya. is known as the little jerusalem of crimea. jews muslims and orthodox christians live here in close quarters. russian orthodoxy often pertains primarily to a cultural affinity and only after that to religious affiliation. and yet legend has it that russia's conversion to christianity began in crimea. with some of these to which after having been him self baptized in the town of just son as us he runs for the mayor had the citizens of kenya in the cuban roofs
baptized on the banks of the neighbor. for work it was an important. one essential to understanding russia as a nation and the significance of baptism for the identity and culture of the empire . this baptism by prince philip the mirror in ninety eight had long been forgotten all of them. russia no longer had access to the black sea because. it was only under catherine the great that this changed. it gave russia a new identity as a major european state and returned to its cultural roots which had been laid by prince bloody mary back in the tenth century it was the streets of course we are. situated out. side the gates of the port city of sevastopol on crimea's southwestern most point are the ruins of the ancient greek city of trysts arsenals . in one thousand nine hundred two same vladimir's cathedral was built in the
middle of the excavation site on the very spot where prince flood emir of the cavern roosts is said to have adopted the christian faith. was. living near had conquered no switch at the time belonged to the byzantine empire in a military campaign. he planned to crown his victory by marrying the daughter of the byzantine emperor. byzantium consented to the union but only if the prince agreed to be christened. lattimer's exceptions of the faith laid the foundations for the christianisation of the russian empire. centuries later russia would justify the legitimacy of its claim to crimea with the legendary reference to ensure sustenance as the birthplace of its orthodoxy and civilization.
i. think. modern day military presence and power. with the russian black sea fleet based in suggestible peace in crimea moscow says is guaranteed. russia for a long and costly war against the touch ours and the turks for position of crimea. it's conquest and annexation in seven hundred eighty three mark the star. of russia's rise as a major european power. establishing sebastopol as the base of its black sea fleet enabled russia to control the key maritime links with the mediterranean.
on her journey across the newly conquered lands in the south in seven hundred eighty seven catherine the great also visited crimea which was also known as the tower of peninsula. she was impressed by its oriental flair but she also observed backwardness and poverty. katherine had an advisor and a favorite prince gregory potemkin whom she appointed governor general of what was called new russia. his task was to oversee the swift economic development of the new lands. to ensure that they were populated by loyal subjects the empress invited
settlers and colonists from central russia and abroad. he would but he was speaking of. the russian empire laid claim to the former territory of the ottoman empire on the northern shore of the black sea. because russia had long been cut off from the black sea and set itself the goal of gaining access. over cool through peter the great had opened a window on europe but communicating with european nations solely through a window was difficult. for her door was needed and that door access to the black sea on the mediterranean was opened by catherine the great. to the russian nobility crimea seemed like an arcadia within the borders of their. pyar they spoke of it in almost tender tones as the pearl of the empire. principle runs off the governor general of new russia and crimea during the first
half of the nineteenth century was one of the wealthiest and most powerful men in russia. in eight hundred twenty eight he had a palace built in a mauritian real graphic style designed by the british architects of buckingham palace. it's an aftershock that's just sad and i have to go sorest empire conquered crimea in seventeen eighty three it became a desirable place for russians to visit or for various reasons these included its climate of which compared to russian conditions and especially central russian or conditions it was like another world. and he says he's caught the south coast in particular with its mediterranean climate and volume sea was light sources and this
was something russians had absolutely no experience of all they knew were the cold waters of our hunger ask for example angles so that was certainly one reason big t.v. so many other factor that makes crimea such an attractive location from a russian perspective at least among the elite was the spread of western culture and values in the late eighteenth century and even since peter the great vest o.p.'s in all the classical antiquity was in vogue at this particular time the until landing crimea russia had obtained a region that had contributed to this period and bequeath the rich classical heritage of viet vets not thinking of it i could see p.s. what. it was mainly the rich and powerful who profited from the conquest of crimea.
princes counts and generals. bizarre as the empire generously gifted its elite with seafront property whose. recipients built luxury as parks and palaces. transforming the landscape into a scene of unrivalled opulence. is this where we spoke or see you as a witch and wish to really look at russian influence in crimea was substantial but crimean influence on russia was just as great as fun of politics but above all on culture if. only social poets painters and writers flocked to the peninsula books for it was going to take alexander pushkin. toward the peninsula soaking up the
spirit of classical antiquity which question was captivated by the scenery so unfamiliar to the russian i was sure some should like greece crimea also what an influence on the fine arts the history of russian painting is almost inconceivable without crimea one of russia's greatest painters was even to write off ski it was here that he reached the pinnacle of his artistic talent. he wrote softly repeatedly painted the black sea in the landscapes of crimea he wasn't an ethnic russian he was an armenian but he had a tremendous influence on russian and european painting. a selection of events such as these works is on display in the artist's former residence in fair dos. you're out his life he enjoyed the patronage of his are a grant from nicholas the first allowed him to study at the imperial academy of
arts in st petersburg. this are also financed a five years study trip in western europe for the young artist and appointed him the official painter of the russian navy. even softly produced more than four thousand painting. but he wasn't only a popular artist he was also an entrepreneur and. he made a decisive contribution toward the financing of a railway line to theodosia. my home address he wrote to a friend will always be fair dosia crimea. even soft he was born in fair dos or in eight hundred seventeen. he died in one thousand nine hundred in fair dosia crimea. in eight hundred ninety eight the playwright anton chekhov had the white villa built in the mountains above
the altar. chekhov suffered from tuberculosis and hope to find relief from his illness there. check of an actors from the moscow art theater at a reading of his play the siegel. leo tolstoy the patron saint of russian literature. the alter and the white fellow became a place to run to vote for russian writers and intellectuals in crimea. in the winter of one thousand know one chekhov wrote to his future bride in moscow i'm absolutely fine apart from a petty little matter my health. in july one thousand know for check of died on a visit to the german spa town of biden viler. he was forty four years old.
peace was to last for another ten years then war broke out and everything changed. developed focus coming to an end. russia would soon be consigned to the annals of history. during the first world war stately homes in crimea were converted to military hospitals. then came the october revolution. lenin and the bolsheviks seized power in russia the revolution rolled across the country. crimean tatars proclaimed the people's republic of crimea. then the red army arrived in crimea became the town read a soviet republic. but the revolution had not yet triumphed. german troops
occupying crimea followed by the british and the french. and finally the remnants of the czarist army rallied here. overlooks on the path and after the october revolution the civil war broke out in russia between the reds and the conservative white guards the red army drove the white forces south relatively quickly and on to on the tonsil in around one nine hundred twenty crimea was one of the last region still controlled by the whites and in other words by the czarist military company of a large number of intellectuals fled to istanbul and western europe via crimea and on all based on the high school field. long time this modest looking wooden lodge in the middle of a forest near my son drought was shrouded in mystery. it was rumored that every now
and then black limousines would pull up to the property which remained closely guarded even though it stood empty for decades. it has since been established that stalin had the house built for himself and a small circle of aides the rooms it said were furnished in line with his wishes so that he could conduct business as usual if need be. but was he actually ever here. possibly but no one knows for sure. but this whole situation. in the soviet era society was dedicated to implementing the idea of communism which we all believe that if we work hard and implemented the idea the bright future of communism awaited us through quick wins. just to kill
them but gradually the idea assumed the form of a state religion. and eventually it became clear that the idea of communism was a big illusion because of the bush league. for almost a hundred years the dream of communism in crimea had a concrete name arctic. seven kilometers of beach front a holiday paradise for four thousand children. are czech is a touch our word that means the best. established in one nine hundred twenty five by the soviet government our tech firm. served as a clinic for children suffering from tuberculosis it was then turned into a camp for elite members of the young pioneers the communist party youth group. children and teenagers from every soviet republic vacation joined by youngsters from all over the communist world. their relationships
and friendships fostered here were geared toward securing a bright communist future for all and initiation to vacation in arctic was considered a great honor. only the very best were included. in twenty fifteen arctic was reopened as a youth camp for children and adolescents. their russian government has invested a lot of money here sports and games three weeks of holiday and lessons combined offered all year round and free of charge. no one here talks politics the war and eastern ukraine may as well be going on on another planet not on our tax doorstep.
the friends focus on remembrance the words from the loudspeaker echo around the square. what's being reversed here and what might seem to be a relic of the past is a review in remembrance of the heroic days of the soviet union. in memory of the victory over nazi germany in the second world war i. owe. the grove of on earth contains the marble busts of those who spent their holidays here as children and lost their lives in war.
in nazi propaganda crimea was idealized as an ancient germanic region that it once been conquered in settled by the goths. as it is often hard to hear as a truth what we have here is a typical mix of military strategy considerations economic expectations and something transcendental ie symbolic as in we were here once before and now we have to take it back. just for office what we have also discovered is that many of the vast soldiers who were in crimea experience it as a fascinating place course the us and that's one of. the palaces and stately residences remained unscathed in the battles for crimea.
the last german troops left the peninsula in may nine hundred forty four crimea was liberated. only a few months later the region was in the headlines when in february one nine hundred forty five the yotta conference was held at the live audio palace the summer residence of the last russians are. joseph stalin invited winston churchill and franklin delano roosevelt his allies in the war against nazi germany . the aim in yalta was to negotiate the distribution of power in post-war europe. the big three agreed on the division of germany. and the protection of their interests in the occupied countries of southern and central eastern europe. when the summit photo was taken the die had been cast and a new chapter opened for europe and the war.
after abdicating in one thousand seven hundred nicholas the second asked to be allowed to retire here but his request was denied. instead the tsar and his family were banished to siberia and later executed. his summer residence was turned into a senatorial for farmers in the soviet union. the revolutionary soviet regime nationalized the palaces in crimea. under the auspices of the first workers and farmers state the russian riviera for a select few was to be turned into a holiday paradise for all. the new soviet man was seen as a collective entity the principle of working and living together extended to
vacations as well. rest and relaxation in the interests of increasing production. millions of soviet citizens gratefully accepted the state sponsored holidays. people from every soviet republic came to vacation in crimea the peninsula was part of the soviet union whether it was russian or ukrainian was of no interest it just didn't matter. for many people here the fact that the soviet union ultimately collapsed on the divergence of its constituent parts is an accident of history a painful failure. i think ashore in the genesis of a soviet people one that was no longer split up into separate nationalities but had something of a common identity was a concept repeated like a mantra in the soviet union for many years and i think that idea certainly existed to an extent and is definitely still present in many people's minds today of
uniform and. the future is shaped by the past and in that sense to most inhabitants of crimea russia feels closer than ukraine. on the experts of international law tell us that russia annexed crimea or the demographic picture shows us that roughly sixty percent of its population is russian it's just under twenty five percent ukrainian. and twelve percent crimean toss and that the official result of the referendum was a communist style ninety seven percent in favor with us but that is incorrect what we probably can say is that this referendum which was not recognized internationally and was not held in accordance with international standards probably did result in
a majority in favor of remix ation by russia but on the other hand of course it is unacceptable that minorities are simply ignored is this not released or. the smom in the hype and for all splendid. whether russia will learn to accept dissident thinkers and include them in its plans will prove decisive for everything that happens in crimea. he couldn't just feel lost irrespective of nationality for the first time crimea is perhaps somehow relevant in the post soviet psyche and it is now clear to the ukrainian government that it can't simply relinquish crimea it's called. soul quo vadis crimea. can only hope that the
people of crimea can decide for themselves what lies ahead stink whether we like it or not in my view we have no alternative but to accept that crimea is now and will remain russian why. we're seeing ukraine where the relationship between russia and ukraine is extremely dynamic. basically even today it has yet to find a definitive form. you first foresees question to at a point in time in the past crimea was handed. over to ukraine it passed from the russian to the ukrainian soviet republic within the framework of the soviet union. it's difficult to see that as a justifiable act it was a step within the framework of a single state and when one state is suddenly replaced by two independent states it's logical that both will stake a claim. time will pass and the relationship between the two countries will find
a form around about the war but the most important thing is that the voices of the people who live here are heard just to get to eat. in the eyes of most of its inhabitants much has changed for the good since russia annexed crimea for them a look back evokes little nostalgia. skop and sheesh that in time and again throughout the history of crimea there have been efforts to establish an independent state and in that respect we can say that if crimea belongs to anyone who belongs to itself.
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