tv Doc Film - Erich Mielke - Master of Fear Part 1 Deutsche Welle March 30, 2018 11:15am-12:00pm CEST
news from the german capital today the first indictments were filed at the berlin regional court regarding the shooting deaths of people trying to cross the boat on . the fulfillment east german border gonzo legend liam bolton the border incident where indicted members of the politburo of the socialist party and the national defense council of the former east germany who are responsible for issuing the order to fire will also be brought to justice they see at most of being in pretrial detention for several months now preparing for trial among them is any former minister for state security in the g.d.r. . block morning with.
the one from the much bigger hospital i have a ten o'clock appointment at the prison hospital paper the players are. given the bag. it's. all. about small is our main concern is the prisoners who have got it because by state security forces and we're also being held here we'll take revenge on their oppressors until it's election. good bye schmidt's was for example we always made sure that milka was in a cell by himself. thus. and any time he
left the cell for example when he had a court appearance as he was accompanied by several guards the other incident like this was. the east german secret the stasi for liberty sort of the fear thing a lot of people to think that they were being surveilled people to think that one person in three could be from the stasi they wanted to keep everyone off balance milka was a symbol of everyone involved in national security from full time officers and generals to informal collaborators miracle was a symbol of that but as a person he was and i make much kind of money. he's waiting for. and there was enormous pressure and it was like a red flag especially for the tabloids when it came to people shot to death of
a balance war it was. a butcher a man with blood on his hands at. germany's oldest prisoner had been head of the ministry for state security for thirty two years he presided over the systematic surveillance of east german citizens after the collapse of the german democratic republic the eighty three year old faced more than a hundred charges in court i don't know how mr milkha will fan in the coming weeks what i don't to my present at the trial will certainly insist on a fresh assessment including a psychiatric one just doesn't do. you have a visitor. good
lord morning mr. i'm dr brand. desk in the court has asked me to prepare a psychological assessment. the not anyone who looked into his eyes knew thinking i was as cold as ice he had his head of state of the prison i certainly ask myself what he would have done to me a free man for cation had gone in the other direction the. us you are doing what's right for national security what the party demands of state security and nothing more than this is your responsibility comrades it must be absolutely clear that the decisions we make in the orders we issue must be carried
out we're not a club or an association where you can pick and choose your tasks and we will succeed comrades we evolve this before the party in the working classes of the german democratic republic the state security apparatus of the g.d.r. will maintain a firm hold on the party flag we will defend our workers and farmers against all enemies and up hold the interests of the state and the socialist camp. all the enemies will be brought to justice but i find that the dish tops if you. have an insight from god i never doubted that his custody was justifiable and it was also justified from a medical perspective you know his health was repeatedly assessed to ensure that he was fit to remain in custody has a definite. total
of seven experts were commissioned by the berlin regional court the defense and the public prosecutor's office. they refused to speak with most of them. he remained silent often for hours. it was not for nothing that he was known as a master of secrets. and misdemeanors when were you wounded. can still you tell me that. and where were you born. mr male you can remain silent that's fine it's like let's both be silent. we both want to return to mars so does that will be possible mr milkha i have two
or three hours to say how we spend it is up to you and. mr milkha you were born on december twenty eighth one thousand nine hundred seven in the district of vetting in berlin was that of adding the red getting. a letter to your mother died when you were three years old your father emil a woodworker and card arrived remarried a year later emma louisa a seamstress when you say your family was in the words. of us or doesn't even begin to cover it we lived in a hovel for children two adults thirty square metres so i didn't have enough beds we slept in shifts it was a bit myself. by his own description milka was an anxious
and oversensitive boy he liked friends and self-confidence he had a strong need for harmony. conflict upset him and made him feel guilty. he had a deep longing for acceptance and approval and sought ways to escape his constraints circumstances. shamed of our home and wanted to escape that misery. to study and so on. i received a scholarship to the coalition high school in berlin as they had master was very satisfied with me that's what he said anyway. but he completed all of his assignments thoroughly and without contradiction. isn't it wonderful when you can make your parents happy for the moment. transcripts of interrogations of mucus parents carried out by the berlin police
confirm this impression he was a sensitive child in a cold unfeeling environment. and i think she left with the first is we removed him from the school because of the cost of books closing and so forth and a clone once of a time stand. in a hushed it was always reticent and reserved. i haven't finished it i never told us what he did. how much we rarely spoke with each other. much to go for him i want to emphasize that it was probably my son's later education and his outside contacts that gave him access to other circles he found on life in circumstances too confining and often complained about it. and once a fortnight you is on the only phone or circumstances confining what is there people excuse me the record is that. i didn't interview with your parents it's been
in the attic of the mobile court for almost sixty years the story and copied it from me. thank you if you want to file an overnight. up ok. we expect checklists the secret service to remain steadfast courageous and fairless a check is does not falter and does not retreat from difficulty cowardice is foreign to him and he never hesitates to give his all for our cause the cause of
the working class if necessary his life and order once given it will be carried out even if it destroys or not. but watch out the old man's coming. good morning comrade minister nothing to report good carry on and smoke outside. student don't stand around go catch spies. morning come at me mr morning with the senate cars on to me. earlier in the morning come administering this order is a must. how convenient it come with me i mean.
morning comment minister as i referred to but you have nothing to hide you don't have to run away. simple eighty nine just come right minister communal elections are almost five months away. says i can do the math was you want to always have to do everything myself around here maybe my generals could demonstrate a little initiative. of course call me minister because you can stand listen. tell me what is the political and operational situation you. want to i refuse to cast their vote. and you can what about those church clowns are they
telling people to vote. all right get moving and send your people out to the hunt and show your minister you can make him happy if we'd stayed in touch no score and yes come right minister. the right cars around you and i don't need any pretty slogans doing what we need are reliable facts as well as of course comrade minister a logical result of ninety nine percent does not happen on its own it takes work. to trust is good control is better than any but this is supposed to be a four and a half minute day. if this happens again i'll carry out a stalinist to purchase the shoes of all u.s. congressman strong. as hard as concrete. elections in the german democratic republic were largely a sham there was
a single list of candidates from what was called the national front there was no alternative. in the german workers paradise everyone was to share the same opinion only a few were willing to venture open criticism especially when it came to eric schmidt who had a well earned reputation as the master of fear. wanted to be seen as a man of the people but he was also deeply mistrustful of them even paranoid. and. i experienced him as someone who had an immense ability to respond to those around him that was probably even more true before i met him. he had a very keen sense of what others thought and expected i am but which direction certain things were developing and he was able to adapt to them because it would be no longer by the way. i am saying he was relatively straightforward in his in i'm a cop and had a relatively simple view of life as all it is that may sound in his own way he was
an idealist but did you know didn't drink didn't fool around with women he was almost ascetic. can remain dedicated to the socialist party until his imprisonment in moby even the fat was remarkable but that. morning news to me one morning. we sitting differently yesterday to turn our cast constantly look into the bright light and as minister i always sat on the side of the table. all right to give how are you today not good i'm not feeling well today. my head is full of crazy thoughts why don't you just let me go this is mr. senor you can see that i'm at the end of my rope physically and mentally. it will just want to go home to my wife
that's all it was just. you forgot your family to fix this thank you i'd. order as i must. you could be out of here couldn't you all. you could do that it took place. as it is decided by the court as an evaluator i can only recommend whether you're fit to remain in detention the judge doesn't have to accept it. and . how then you always boasted of your excellent health mr him you.
vitality was legendary the west german intelligence service the d.n.d. knew this according to well informed sources from the ministry for state security enjoys good health is very active and seems remarkably mentally alert in spite of his advanced age makinson he had to be get. this one lapse every morning he usually spends his weekends outdoors. he loves hunting and it's rituals on the hunt he was a different person open and gregarious. was far and. the. stars. are out on the or a r r r a a.
r r r. r r r r r r r. r r r us. was in the uk. arish meal because saw himself as a passionate entertainer he entertained his guests with puns and jokes often for hours he does come around i am of course only paid as a minister and not as a master of ceremonies i do both but only get a ministerial salary. you'll have to raise my salary of course. but if you buy let's say the body if i always do the same thing and then the women get bored with that of course i'm always rich and variety. it does cover ads let's raise a glass and drink to the. women here. let's make a toast to all the women in the german democratic republic who made it possible for us to achieve these good results to our women three chairs.
so you know we can dance right comrade once the dance floor is open find some funds . the minister forced his staff to maintain a fast pace his staff quailed whenever he came in early they were expected to be constantly at his disposal. minister you're already here. as the class enemy doesn't sleep either cause on us is there anything new. apartment twenty s. reports on symbol he nine put it on your desk just read it to me. i have no comrade minister i think you better read this yourself. that's i don't have time i'm shaving it's the district administration and hollis says they have twice as many people are refusing to vote compared to one thousand nine hundred six . how the city of hama yes. almost in addition
demands are being made to admit so-called independent candidates from opposition groups and also that hostile forces are also engaged in an intense preparations to disrupt the election. in the not raid filler etches they're lucky we live in modern times in the old days they'd have been dealt with quickly. if. good advice enough so early in the morning put it on my desk just commerce minister. i. really had any kind of strong it will feel very also a will to power he was alive in the one nine hundred twenty s. and thirty's and experienced the battles between the nazis and communists it affected his whole life. his strength of character he will power.
me of his parents joined the newly founded german communist party in one nine hundred nineteen. in one nine hundred twenty three after a clash with the police his father was sentenced to one and a half years in prison he was the breadwinner and his absence was a blow to the entire family that also had an impact on young ery. at fourteen he became a member of the young communist league. as a young man he was an active member of the communist party he wanted to transform the weimar republic the oppression of the working class had to be overcome nuka found his true calling as a member of the paramilitary wing of the communist party. when i saw that a worker was being persecuted by the henchmen the bandits of the bush was easy i felt outraged. when i saw i was educated in molded into a fighter a classified or for the great cause of our party for the idea of marxism leninism.
it was. mr me do you remember the trial. which strong i got so many of them hundreds of hours when that comes it is all this really necessary the ridiculous hand the silly wheelchair act in court. is this constant play acting i like a man of your stature and accomplishments. she said you helped shape our recent past and said gosh do you really want to humiliate yourself like this against the angel does watching you. do you know exactly what i'm talking about get there are hundreds of lawsuits against you but only one trial because of the murder of police officers that day sixty years ago you've never forgotten that.
that day was nine hundred thirty one when the democratically elected weimar republic was struggling under the impact of a global economic crisis the rising nazi party fought with communists in the streets the police responded with brutal force. on orders nights nine hundred thirty one two police officers were shot either third police officers seriously injured you look lots of that there was street protests and battles between the right and the left several people were involved in the shooting among them and each militia. milka. according to reports arish milkha and arish team are follow the three police officers paul unlove august really and fronts link numerous shots were fired at close range and allow for died at the scene. was seriously injured link who had been shot in the back crawled to the entrance of the babylon cinema
where he collapsed and died a short time later. in the chaos arish milk and dairy steamer were able to flee the scene. the police responded that with brutal force firing indiscriminately. one bystander was shot dead and twenty three other people including some children were injured. that same evening arish milka boasted of the murders in his face. pub and showed his comrades the gun the assassination order was said to have come directly from the communist party leadership. who was known as pistol kerry was said to have volunteered. in the years that followed he rarely spoke about the events directly but took unmistakable pride in his role. which the young shakers this must be sought out and trained ordered to shoot and kill on enemy territory if he's caught
and brought before the judge i must say yes i did it on behalf of my proletarian honor. an order must be carried out even if it breaks you. up with you. in a certain sense milken was a legendary personality a long time and a fascist fighter and killer you both he developed a criminal way of thinking but if he had a criminal tendencies habits and attitudes otherwise milka would justify his actions on the basis of class struggle and go noble idea is. any good it will in my view he was just an ordinary murdering who hid behind his ideology. it josh. gene energy this again as you know comrades i always say communism is easy to understand but you have to want to understand it. so which way. during
this way commerce minister. minister flyers printed an effort at a youth parish office they were going to be put in telephone booths just before the elections we intercepted them this morning. and nobody came. to suppress the vote. of the whole gang they won't be voting in any case. they want. really driving this case. or not i already know i don't want reforms like in the soviet union a choice among several candidates and such nonsense the bills from the government minister with all due respect wouldn't it be easier to lock them up till it's over . to be easier has put not better schools are under no illusion no good german
democratic republic the election law any violation at all would be ammunition for our political enemies they're just waiting for this they want us off themselves up with self-importance and discredit us around the world comrades don't take this lightly so i have a keen sense for when things are getting tricky so keep an eye on it pair a report. card want this to be examined. and. suspicions were well founded the east german leadership was watching developments in the soviet union once the great role model with concerned. the new president in communist party leader mikhail gorbachev was in acting reforms to greek popular acclaim also among many ordinary east germans. the east german regime including arish milka and general secretary eric whitacre oppose these reforms they had already witnessed many changes over the years and
plan to simply wait out gorbachev's reforms before them political transparency glasnost and perestroika could only herald the beginning of the end the end of socialism the soviet intelligence service the k.g.b. agreed going to. listen he refused to listen to anyone he was sick sick with narcissism that she will meet zero for the first time ever the k.g.b. was sidelined it continued to function but no one was interested in what it had to say. at his own vision his own view of the world those of us in the k.g.b. in russia we always panic whenever gorbachev announced a new initiative of the one who will be. they were always poorly thought through absolutely populist and also very dangerous. but still much. tired i want to go back to myself. this isn't you're not tired mr mucosa
i realize you're very angry. but about what about what i'll tell you about what all my life i defended the german democratic republic against these class enemies it's not me who should be condemned but those who gave away our country and those who betrayed the just cause of the working class and that's what i'm angry about. except let me tell you something. if i had my way the german democratic republic would still exist today this conversation right here would not even be happening. if that's what and more our conversation would have been a very different one for the. i'm not a judge or a lawyer i'm assessing if you're fit to stand trial and assassination more than
sixty years ago this is ridiculous that any state governed by the rule of law the statute of limitations would have expired a long time ago i mean but do you still remember and even said you know plots of course i do how can you forget that you put it so the police brutally get the poor demonstrators what they're trying. again and again and those capitalist pigs. shots fell and i ran i didn't say he was shot it wasn't me who did so now i'm the only living witness then why did you run why. because i didn't want to get shot through what a naive question was. done then you fled to the soviet union troops. that . i see here and when i had to escape. i left my brother behind i was twenty
one i kissed him on the head and i said now you have our bed to yourself now you can sleep and he didn't even notice i was leaving home but the couple of. the billing police interrogated his parents the highs and the trip to moscow fame as a surprise it personally i wasn't even at the train station when he left us. none of us went that he didn't expect us here. in moscow and nic but i arrived in moscow with only one suitcase and the first was unimpressed. it looked like the newsreels red square foot on paved. dirt mud which would always is in the center of town so it was going to be sheared laborers that beggars in rags raffia shoes. but the idea of socialism was an
inspiration to was awe here to me to show wonderful. the german communist party recommended to reach me for the international lead in school this was where the young communist revolutionaries received their training the curriculum was well suited to milk is taste military tactics weapons and communications technology setting explosives politics and economics and the history of the workers' movement. understood that we students knew each other by aliases by and i was appalled by. france for conspiracy was part of our everyday life and. his final appraisal gave him a mixed report. his character flaws had been evident to the instructor.
by bus in thought boss displays many moments of arrogance even complacency in self-importance that was coupled with a tendency to be alone or easily at satin. the highlight for the students was the annual may day parade on red square that was where mucus saw his great role model joseph stalin for the first time albeit from a distance. these are that encounter with comrade stalin moved me deeply and. he said he was a great man of him and not just a teacher to me. he was like a father to me in the shuffle. we had to abortion was a very devoted ally of the soviet union you know the rich past as an internationalist and as a communist there were. all. great respect for them we trusted them
and that no doubt appear to be all but sometimes he took his devotion to the soviet union a bit too far. so ready for example when the poles beat us in a hockey match the. needle polish players. should get was like they defended what i. knew the push humor of. losing was not an option not even in sports. the east german police intelligence service and customs department had their own affleck association called dynamo. who was its first and only chairman in characteristic fashion he maintained an iron grip he issued orders to spy on and bully football players and bribe referees. dynamo dresden and dynamo berlin became east german champions eighteen times over.
you can also brought his passion for sport to the ministry behind his back his staff used to say he won't retire he'll just keel over at his desk. to get out there not if your daughter which is citizens of the german democratic republic stand firmly by the soviet union and expect clear guidelines a clear political course not the rubbish put out by the soviet press every day. just read it. for your actions more than one candidate it's all political and ideological diversion ammunition for the enemy. through comrade stalin a man of clear vision. and accumulate eventual fighting spirit is i'm broken. is he. not you people can do what you're like but your virus is undermining the
german democratic republic that very striker glasnost rubbish like that. if we don't have a role model for clear direction where will it lead. if i understand your concern many comrades in our various state department share them. is difficult to swim against the tide of time. look at it this way for the first time we have a general secretary for whom we don't need to be ashamed. to can speak openly. to get sympathy abroad. and has a clever response. in the. eyes as i've done since when does a general secretary need to please the imperialist side of politics will spell that
he struction of the socialist order yes and yesterday there was another dangerous newspaper article about stalin stalin was described as a criminal where did your journalists get this information from your secret files now open like a library. your intelligence service is now a newsroom it's not finished the same. a bitch that says i don't care to be honest. i'm more worried about his domestic policy. than i am of his view of the past i discovered it's all just the same thing as if stalin's trials held in moscow were something dirty that's what so yes. i want to show trials they were necessary to steal the party comrade stalin had the courage to do what was needed
and that's the truth. more than you did here and there they are those elements what they're going to say imperialist spies that it matters when you write those enemy agents you're preparing to attack our sacred borders. but they're not your. leader said that he himself observed stalin's first show trials prominent members of the communist party confessed under torture to imaginary crimes the question of guilt or innocence was beside the point the show trials were a means to spread fear and cement power and control the defendants were sacrificed to the supposed greater good. many of milk as companions in soviet exile fell victim to stalin's great courage among them were the men who had issued the order to assassinate the two police officers back in berlin. was able to keep his distance he was
a master of the natural law eat or be eaten. nazi wasn't pretty but he got the job done. when you execute one troublemaker the rest of the troop stands up and marches in formation. in many ways he was a police officer who produced a police officer wants to maintain order and control. own a police officer by nature has a kind of repressive tendency. must be maintained. even if the order is not justified if your life. comes you are you afraid mr. i'm afraid. something just affected
you deeply. was what are you know of fear. psychology is all about yes right right right right you probably read about it in a textbook maybe you even wrote your thesis on it. but what do you truly understand about fear. if so i'll tell you something easy. is the fear that is most effective motivator behind human action stronger than ambition greed hope and everything together that is psychology. one careful tiny drop of fear is all you need to control the world just that much. that's the thing about here. believe me i know what i'm talking about. but i sed guns concur i was afraid to as i just thought i was very afraid that the
officer would ring my doorbell early in the morning and take me from port to my was formed just after i drew attention to the death of my friend who had died in stasi custody reality set in. the stasi came for me because i committed obituaries of the stasi lock me up up is that when you're confronted with reality what's going to have a pool to misha's for me as a person i was confronted with the question what will happen to me. what will the stasi do to make it will end up like my friend or will i be able to live my life in freedom if i as limbs of who. you know.
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