tv Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine Deutsche Welle April 15, 2018 11:30pm-12:01am CEST
with the different languages we fight for different things that's fine but we all stick up for freedom freedom of speech and freedom of press. giving freedom of choice global news that matters. made for mimes. welcome to tomorrow today coming up. many people are interested in genealogy but how useful our commercial d.n.a. tests will reveal the secrets of mummies identity. and tracking down one of nature's most elusive creatures wildcats.
our first report is out of this world in twenty four team german astronaut alexander gale spent six months in the international space station i s s. in just a few weeks he'll begin his second mission. but this time he'll be taking along an assistant named simon our reporter had a chance to meet him. good morning simon who are in concord ground station no but how about some music great words for your favorite. interaction with simon will be like on the international space station simon can feel hear and react to his environment he's currently being tested at the cologne facility where the human astronauts train for their mission and he's due to accompany german astronaut alexander gast when he joins the i s s crew this coming summer simon is designed to be a digital help her along the lines of siri or alexa. the first flying astronaut
assistant featuring also official intelligence is we human or to whom we have one or thomas free floating robot if you want to call it that lease food yachts need for europeans or soon after it's never been anything like it in the columbus module but you see behind me we're also in three unknown territory in terms of work safety for the astronauts and we have to make sure someone doesn't move too fast for example noticing that in whiteness conditions he is able to calculate distances properly as he makes his way around the columbus module. that was tested on a special parabolic flight the aircraft's extreme maneuvers create short periods of freefall to simulate zero gravity. simon's develop his need to know how he'll move with his small propulsion mooches and navigate in weightlessness. he's not programmed with a map but has to find his way around on his own. i'm going to
have to think you know simon creates a map from self from his navigation camera it's a stereo camera. that means he has two pictures he can superimpose on each other to measure and determine distances between objects he selects orientation points on the pictures he receives based on contrast for example and compares them with the new picture we get so we can see where he's going. to be. but the betting astronaut is unable to hold his position in the first twenty two second long sirrah gravity phase during the parabolic flight. he spins loses control and is ultimately caught and held by the scientists. it's not working when i let go drift away. from. the development team is puzzled because according to the control software the robot is reacting and attempting to stabilize himself.
gradually they realize the source of the problem. the problem is that the aircraft has a certain residual acceleration that simon has to contend with. it looks like he's lost control but he hasn't. that means that human beings in the cockpit aren't perfect three experienced test pilots working together has brought the aircraft into freefall dozens of times to simulate weightlessness but there are still forces on board that a stronger than simon's propulsion motors. but the robot learns with a bit more human help when zero gravity begins he's able to float in place and make some flying maneuvers. so it looks like he'll be able to manage in space so it works. great. and back again. back in cologne simon's data connections are tested his speech comprehension is powered by the i.b.m.
watson artificial intelligence software system that's what enables him to make playful statements m r two d two just clearing my name is simon and i will support you. on the i s s the reporting talking head will guide astronaut alexander gassed step by step through selected experiments and record photos videos and voice memos . the often the sites were hoping that alexander gas find some interesting and that hill in gage would have a bit in that it seems for that we want to develop further so we'll really be accepted as a crew member if your space missions crew works at that when they venture further afield to the moon or mars and also most systems like this will accompany and interact with the astronauts. smith in the done their interview in question simon can also play games tell jokes and make faces and after about two years in development the artificial astronaut also has a philosophical side. life is ten percent of what happens to you and ninety percent
how you react to it. right you are simon and on that note have a good trip. on facebook we asked if you had a robot assistant what tasks would you have to do. much ina compass it would have to clean the house go shopping and cook for her. dowry is there enough scale he says he would have the robot find him a more attractive job. is a no you would get his assistant to spread peace and love in the world and try to prevent people from going to war. decay ristal been instructed robot to find cures for incurable diseases. that are true love a lot of the reno is thinking ahead he thinks it would be nice to have someone to
look after him in old age but. regardless of what they look like how many tasks they can perform all robots have one thing in common they all machines and don't have relatives no offspring and sisters. don't like people many of whom are kinda curious to learn what they can about their families are it tends. to me spit up to the little black line of spit is enough to reveal your origins. videos like this are used to attract those who want to know more about their ancestry meted out to customers all overwhelmed look at me. what. was.
your. hundreds of thousands of people. fed into a huge database. genetic information taken from. being collected by researchers around the world. so the results of anyone taking part in commercial d.n.a. testing. to the. traces of those who. can still be found in. the first humans reached from africa over forty thousand years ago they will. go. with them.
another. step. eight hundred years ago. and they've left traces europeans d.n.a. . and other words every human d.n.a. contains the elements. says that some d.n.a. comes from a. people group which includes the money franks. who spoke the language. but oppose would like to tone it strikes a chord in many customers. scientists say the tests don't offer much
valuable information. we have no idea of teutonic or germanic d.n.a. composition we don't even know how to not exclude to find the dramatic peoples it's like trying to differentiate between germans and swiss it's impossible we now know that thirty percent of the squares have a migrant background. but scientists can tease out some useful information from d.n.a. ancestor research. has this well it's important to recognize that we're all a great big mixture we come from all corners of europe and not only one place or one population and i think it's good for people to gain a sense that all of us in europe are one big family. genetic research websites are among the most frequently visited on the internet. science is also benefiting from the large scale interest in genealogy using data
from a large internet platform researchers in the united states have been able to construct five million family trees. the most comprehensive comprises nearly thirteen million people. most want to know who came before them but in some cases it's the other way around. this is the most famous mummy the desiccated corpse was discovered in one thousand nine hundred seventy five during renovations. church researchers want to know who this woman was how she died or history was she was remarkably well preserved even down to her fingernails. to identify. individual to see where she belongs what social class she came from how she lived her name of her parents her diet that's what diseases she had basically to reconstruct term daryn. at first
the investigation seemed to be coasting along. almost clogged highly calcified. physician she was a woman who ate well including fatty foods that i think she was from the upper class you know my. but then some contradictory results emerged an analysis of the coffin provided a death date but it seemed to contradict the dating of the tissue from the mummy. in any case the forensic scientists were able to give the mummy a face but no one knew her name the researchers would need that to tap into her family tree. so forensic methods weren't enough. time to consult the archives. the amateur genealogist spent
countless hours combing the historical records for the decisive piece of information. one thing the archives revealed was that the graves in the bathrooms the church were never properly documented so all the researchers knew was where in the church the mummy was location. to make up for missing or lost records they had to reconstruct all the graves. luzhin most of the mummy had probably been laid to rest in grave number a hundred and five that gave them a possible name for. the not be shown few days before the wife of past. but was this mummy really and i catalina bishoff to find out the research is needed a family tree with a descendant in the maternal line. that led them to someone named was mother you
know. who. was she really descended from and i categorically know. the thought of being related to a mummy was an odd one. that's kind of a funny feeling. this you have to get used to it i. thought at first it was a bit of a shock come on it took me a few days to realize what it meant this man. i think. a d.n.a. test would show it was indeed related to the mummy the genetic material sourced from her my flock would provide the evidence rather like in a criminal investigation. but isolating d.n.a. from the mummy is more complicated a swab won't work here. to go
for the temporal bone in the skull. in the case of a mummy you could go here but it. is the d.n.a. in the bone some polling to. know. the tests are conducted at this forensic laboratory the d.n.a. from the swab is isolated and compared with the mummies. finding a descendant in the maternal line was essential because the sample extracted from the toe was a kind of d.n.a. inherited from a person's mother the difficulty was that the mummy's daughter heart only hobson's . the genealogy was complicated tracing the family tree back seven generations from daughter to mother than at fifteen generations forward again a total of twenty two generations examined before the researchers find
a living relative course mildly. the tiny piece of d.n.a. be isolated from her is only passed on from the mother to her offspring by at the xcel it's known as mitochondrial d.n.a. because it's unique to a small like analogous cell called the mitochondria it should be identical to that of the maternal ancestor is even after twenty two generations have gone by. in the lab at the university of the scientists are waiting anxiously for the analysis of the d.n.a. samples. sitting. here we have the results everything that is green is identical there is one small difference in red but there are so many points in common that we can say that rosemary. this is definitely related. this is.
a historic family reunion after two hundred thirty years. it's so interesting to finally get to see my great great great great great great aunt. it's fascinating. help me just such a shame that you can't tell us anything. so the riddle of the fossil mommy's identity has finally been solved. living to a ripe old age young devotee it seems may have less to do with out genes them previously believed we can influence the length about lives more than we think if you ascend to the question about the nature of this is nuts it affects. us from ontario wants to know. what has a bigger influence our genes or our environment so far we don't know all the rules
are being kicked back and forth between nature or nurture they have different importance in different phases of our lives. even before birth the environment plays a role stress experienced by a mother can affect her fetus and disturb its development. in childhood strongly influenced by our environment early relationships determine how our emotional world develops and our ideas about gender roles are affected by watching our parents. it's one where adults that our genes come to the fore we start our families and become more like our parents both the way we look and the way we behave. in old age the environmental aspects become important again and determine how
physically and mentally fit we are. identical twins with the same genetic makeup can develop differently research shows that our genes are like hardware the software comes from lifestyle influences which genes can be turned on and off to affect our development. and we can expect scientists to provide many more insights into the complex interplay between genes and the environment. if you have a size question go to our website and send it in. if we answer it on the shows you look at our d.v.d. featuring a lighthearted look at albert einstein's most famous theories. the most important thing is to never stop asking questions.
this is akin to. a species of chameleon. this is a tongue can snub nose monkey. around the world there animal species so rare that catching even a glimpse of one requires a loss of luck. researchers in germany have now come up with a clever way of gathering more information about particularly. they've been prowling around forests since prehistoric times but all themselves extremely difficult to track down what wild cats have been the subject of numerous studies by biologists but have to a significant degree remain a mystery. geneticists at the second bad research institute in germany launched a new high tech project with the aim of finding out more about the rare protected species. it cuts and socially wild cats are extremely shy and nocturnal animals
them and even when you do see them they're hard to tell apart from domestic house cats so we look for an alternative method for identifying wild cats because it's a kind. wild cats are indeed a distinct species not simply domestic cats that live in the wild they look stockier and have blurred stripes and distant black rings on the tails they started to appear millions of years ago. in europe excessive hunting at the end of the nineteenth century saw them almost completely wiped out on the continent within just a few decades. then nocturnal way of life made them objects of superstition. that they would targeted by hunters for allegedly killing dia and phones but in fact mice are their primary prey today wildcat said classed as an
endangered species and enjoy legal protection in many parts of the world. to come to the aid of the german geneticists teamed up with wildlife biologists and conservationists the first stage involves looking for characteristic d.n.a. sequences that only occur in the genetic makeup of wild cats their aim was to assign individual heads and all the tiny structures specifically to wild cats which proved complicated to. the heart and tightens the hair contains very little d.n.a. after a few days or a week in the forest that d.n.a. gradually degrades you so it was quite a challenge to capture valuable information from an ocean that holds for the whole god whole spirit for live in for months on to become. the breakthrough finally came after to use the researches were then able to clearly identify a wildcat on the basis of just two will three head follicles.
the next challenge was immediately apparent however how to get hold of wildcat tax which cooled to some innovation. that machinery plant sticks to detect the wild cats we spray them with larry and which has a remarkable effect on the animals. they love rubbing up against the sticks in the process depositing hairs which we then collect but you get up some and kind. the conservation geneticists have since assessed over six thousand song polls and we're presented with a surprise you have to give it cuts we located wildcats and far more areas than we'd expected around half the samples were found in areas where we have been unaware of the presence of wild cats until a few years ago has become. their numbers the greatest in the mid range mountains of western and central germany. but many other parts of germany remain devoid of wild cats. so that's not due to their migration the nature however says wildcat
attacks but enough seem on the geneticists d.n.a. analyses enable tim to conduct a unique study he was asked by the kelo national park to document the new arrival of wild cats the project began in two thousand and seven with one male specimen today at least another thirty three animals live here thanks to the genetics of a seaman can monitor exactly where they're located and how big their hunting grounds. the reason why. the males tend to move around more and that mobility partly explains why wild cats take over a new terrain also would also brings danger to the animals. with so i told their flock to twenty sixteen we had fourteen animals killed on the roads in. but our central park fibro got more females which is tragic for the overall population they
were either pregnant or nursing meaning their offspring were lost to. filming areas dominated by monoculture is also constitute an obstacle to the cat's proliferation. that prompted a german conservation angio to draw up a network of roots connecting up the countries expansive forest areas by planting shrubs and trees. the system also benefits woodland animals such as dia martins woodpeckers and insects so protecting the wild cats also means helping the animals. for move through the world of science visit our website and don't forget to get in touch with us on twitter and facebook we love to hear from you. all. that's it for this week.
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