tv Doc Film - Marx and His Heirs Deutsche Welle May 6, 2018 3:15am-4:01am CEST
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and of what i've been putting in a category where is frightened darwin is three thinkers who have vastly expanded our human knowledge and or. to quote mission has been given vehicles he was the first economist to describe the basic laws mechanisms that drive our economic order and much of that is still relevant today on the stump before. to do so marxism has long played the most important role in chinese society and will continue to do so in the future. she. was supposedly the. child of rights for marx only because the bottle street.
those seeming alternative to capital people just look at stall in and out with. the alternative doesn't. start with what i find most compelling about mark says his belief that social liberation for the individual can only happen if that hope for liberation is available to everyone. comet's was a philosopher journalist and economist two hundred years after his birth his ideas are still relevant. today the speaking changes happening in the wake of globalization sparking fresh debates about capitalism and social inequality. marx himself insisted that the job of philosophers was not just to interpret the world but to change it. over the years many have sought to put his ideas into practice in widely differing ways and with widely varying results.
in many parts of the world people have invoked col marx proclaimed revolutions in his name ten society on its head. most of those experiments on our history but capitalism which marx despised has proven more resilient than he would ever have imagined to touch it so no access to the traditional marxist idea that you enact a revolution put others in charge and your problem is solved that's proven itself a failure and it's no surprise when you have class struggle and suddenly everything is turned around it and the previous winners are now losers they won't just suddenly roll over and give up for all for. to press for change to happen
we need social solidarity for everyone so the doctor should say. industrial revolution was the central preoccupation of the nineteenth century. its groundbreaking inventions would radically transform people's lives but also bring catastrophic working conditions to the new factories. the misery and deprivation
spot numerous uprisings across europe. was born into a tranquil town in what is no west in jenin. since entry of karl marx's a native trader which is of particular interest to the chinese because they adore marx and it's why our city has a very intensive relationship with china and china. dition is now mom's the chinese offered us a sculpture as a gift for karl marx's two hundredth birthday box we looked into the idea and located a place to put it under the sets miti said in the. clouds. a member of the crew has been we had pulled over the size and arrived at a total height of five metres fifty's bottoms it's a fitness we're happy with that because five five is marxist birthday and us. it's
offered i'm sure we hadn't even noticed that symbolism but it helped us arrive at the compromise on size of building the base and the sculptures being made in china . and she never gets to work with her bring the sculpture here in the spring and then inaugurated on may fifth one from just my from right. muggs spent his childhood entire as a do his father a lawyer was not permitted to practice his profession in pressure the family converted to protestantism. at nineteen commerce began studying law in bonn a year later he moved to berlin. the limb is also where marx first became interested in philosophy which eventually became his focus. marks a systematic study of hitler's doctrine of dialectics would become the cornerstone
of his future ideas and work. as marx would later argue industrialization gave rise to a new economic system capitalism and a new class of people the proletariat this new proletariat he believed would inevitably cast of the yoke of capitalist oppression and give rise to a new social order. but this revolution was a long time coming it did not take place until long after marxist death and it happened where marx least expected it in backward russia with vladimir lenin the communist revolutionary at its head. leaning by as i had yet seen in all men and had for decades associated with a group of left wing politicians the second international they all believed that if they educated workers about their true situation workers would all refuse to go to war against one another instead of the international probably terry it would join.
and forces and unite and spark over all revolution. that's just that didn't happen which was a crushing blow for many socialists lenin included that's a god awful in. the first world war was the first total war which demanded not only mobilization of an army but mobilization of the civilian population to meet the needs of the war effort and this was something the torah system simply could not cope with. increasingly food short the only party that is calling clearly for an end to the war is the bolshevik party using this rising tide of antiwar feeling lenin begins to argue the bullshit party must seize power in the name of the soviets.
marx is often said to be deterministic in the sense that he thought that socialism would come about fairly inevitably from the contradictions of capitalism lenin was much more of a volunteer a study he believed in will power and lenin didn't think that capitalism alone would create revolution so lenin developed this very particular conception of the party in which professional revolutionaries would lead the masses. without lenin there wouldn't have been a bolshevik revolution. if that's what's all that now the revolution was a hugely charismatic event for some a vision an inspiration for others a nightmare and so on.
lenny's hope was that the russian example would be taken up by the german workers and that the two countries in alliance could make a revolution and overcome russia's problem which was its intense poverty and its intense social and economic backwardness. germany was absolutely central in the perspective of the bolsheviks for the first few years. was a look from the rosa luxemburg and karl liebknecht founded the spartacus league in response to russian events they hope germans had grown so tired of war and its cost so dissatisfied that a revolution might be possible the ones who favored as much an addict how i thought his young one. they tried three times and they failed and i think they failed not because of poor tactics but because they were up against a much much stronger opposition.
as a student in berlin became known among his fellow students for his keen intellect he was considered a leftist which drew the attention of the pression secret police. mercs completed a doctorate but his left wing ideas made it impossible to secure an academic post. in only eight hundred forty two he began working for a daily newspaper in cologne the harness at sidetone which was critical of the present government in berlin. monks used the newspaper to describe the desperate conditions of the working class the census bands many of his articles bus in his short tenure as the paper's editor marx helped change the face of political journalism.
what it was turned on also had a powerful impact on marx you were the newspaper editor he was forced to address the struggles faced by local farmers at the dawn of capitalism that says that before that he was an intelligent clever radical thinker but very abstract and idealistic. i'm go from marx so i began reading mark shortly after finishing my confirmation classes but quickly god had an answer and so i've been looking for someone else who could explain the world to moved in for the knocks the quotes how i came to the early marx arouse basically the air of german idealism cultivators i'm can see you want to explain the world and help create a new society based on a principle it was always driven by an immensely important desire for freedom. marks marks the prophet flagstick icons who are as revered as someone who promised salvation to humankind it he never actually existed. that image is the result of bad propaganda as we've heard from click on. that propaganda
would later also be used to glorify the outcomes of communist revolution. these propaganda posters say nothing of the millions who were killed in the subject union under stalin and in china and jamal said. this idea put the pictures music straight nancy where the emphasis is very very much on the will of the communists. today there are many people who say china has had with deceased some stews now a capitalist economy in a capitalist world with a regime that is communist in name only i'm not sure that we've seen the end of the story maybe in twenty fifty there will be a chinese states that still calls itself socialist.
that you suppose you leads to since two thousand and eight the crisis of capitalism has steadily grown more acute but what does this crisis mean today we find ourselves confronted with the very same questions that karl marx once face. seashell you know mugs it's you. it's often said that the chinese revolution is a peasant revolution that is basically true mao sort ways of engaging presence through for example using traditions of opera. if.
the problem about socialism in backward countries was that all going to spy and to give people decent conditions of life it effectively meant squeezing the population for the resources that were needed to build a strong and austria and military state. mathis marks every chinese person knows him. here you know marxism leninism is the basis of our political system.
your song here we had big posters of marx at school that's how i came to know marxism right now my focus is on my own quality of life that's enough for me to go and make. it was such a problem to be honest i believe marxism is slowly being forgotten but that was why i think you got. to go see those so called. the chinese government is investing a great deal of money to popularize marxist ideas in the form of books modern media and even its own t.v. show. a million children come into the church and we whole. many young people wrote to us after the show they said it had given them an entirely different picture of karl marx marx was no longer just a poster hanging on the wall which they could now relate to him in their real actual lives. marx is still influential and even very influential he's still
marxist thought his philosophical views and his life marcus it's just all great individuals have two important characteristics. first they have made a meaningful contribution to human society to try to shift the end second their spirit is marked by firm conviction that a strong will and great determination not in the solution to these characteristics primary expressions in this work but i think the statue of marks has a high forehead and deep set eyes. but it's also decisive in the way that it strives to the future he is always looking forward to the future. or. the final he is not honest about. ok ok ok as a young boy yeah he's already seen it on so the height and the ground plan i hope
it's exactly the way he imagined it this is foolishness. my path to suppose i could have. coming and he's very pleased when you have five on the are ok we have two versions up one pedestal has rounded corners and it's tears as this or that in the other version we're mainly using right angles and perceiving going up which does he prefer inhibits doesn't need any kind of the final be joe you're not. the rounded one with the rounded want ok. mark says happy to be coming back home. early eighteen forty three pression senses force the time you should touch him in cologne to shut its doors.
karl marx decided to leave for paris that same year he married his childhood sweetheart jenny from best filed. in the mid nineteenth century paris was a haven for free thinkers of all stripes they debated socialist and communist ideas such as the abolition of private property in paris marx met feed listeners a young philosopher and revolutionary. marx was deeply impressed by innocence reports on the misery of the english working class. marks decided to abandon journalism and focus on political and economic philosophy this is the period in which he began writing about class struggle and the self emancipation of the proletariat. society all members of society are formally equal and have equal rights in reality the proletariat can only choose where to sell
their labor and choose where they will be changing. although workers are paid for their labor what they produce is not in service of their own needs but the needs of their employer. the worker produces grains for the mills of another. the worker is trapped in a vicious circle. his labor directly increases the wealth of the capitalists which only serves to intensify his own exploitation. society as a whole as more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps into two great classes directly facing each other. that you. would. tell a marxist you know marx is amazingly relevant we've never had so many people in poverty
court risk of poverty so many homeless and refugees and extreme wealth is exploding for you an explosion if you like to us from today's working class includes white collar workers and salaried employees and are you. when jobs are at risk mark says ideas often come into play for example when alston with his took up the fight against the plans of parent company tendril electric to slash jobs the friends coming this party supposing they fight. for example to lose a job i'm here to assure you of the full and complete support of the communist party i think i just said it in joint union meeting that we calculated how much the shareholders will gain from the merger this is ok are you that's why your fight is a just one we support here and in the entire country you don't do we'll continue forward together console so let's see. if she she will.
i believe the demonstration we witnessed here with some employees is very typical of capitalism today it's a globalized capitalism which pits the workers of different countries or different locations against one another it turns workers into the playthings of globalization so that they serve the interests of increasingly powerful groups this is a symbolic struggle to take a strong stand against capitalism the proletariat today must be much more united at the international level so what we're seeing now is that the ecological crisis and the massive social and ethical issues the world is facing today are bringing us to rethink our society as a whole. that's the genius of marx he understood that the contradictions within the system would become so extreme that we would eventually be forced to explore ways to overcome them.
the good news for. the french communist party was very strong after the second world war because it had played an important role in the fight against fascism in europe in the one nine hundred thirty s. . many important social and economic advances are communist in origin especially social security which was introduced by a communist minister in one thousand nine hundred five. i believe that euro communism was a key moment during the one nine hundred seventy s. euro communism came into being when the european communist parties understood that the soviet system was collapsing. euro communism in western europe emerged under the shadows of the cold war the new reborn socialist model was to cast off the shackles of soviet doctrine and up ten democratic legitimacy. this idea found enthusiastic supporters in many countries especially italy and france. but even as communist parties in western europe
increasingly distanced themselves from the soviet union communist east germany became ever more vocally supportive of moscow. in communist east germany the party to an authoritarian methods to enforce its interpretation of the marxist legacy in which the freedom of dissent had no place. even the renaming of cam that's as karl marx on may tenth one thousand fifty three was an important acknowledgement of the revolutionary tradition in the city and the contribution made by its working class store workers and present state. professor love caraballo is already created many statues of the greatest sons of our people time and again he has sought to fulfill lennon's legacy to immortalize the creator of revolutionary. and hysteria by drawing upon the art of monumental
propaganda station elites with fifty because while working on his designs campbell read the works of marx he seeks to express the content of revolutionary marxist thought individual for this was the irrepressible power of the passionate nature of the revolutionary and the scientist. of this. this is a karl marx memorial designed by professor levy of him of each parable will bear witness to the shared struggle of the working class and laborers of the german democratic republic and the soviet union even that in the from the moments right it seems to. me that the institution to be to motionless applause of two hundred fifty thousand residents and guests comrade every hanukah said the day will come when all peoples will of cast off the shackles of exploitation you know they will build a monument to the man who found the key to human liberation captured under the motto workers of the world unite karl marx.
there i heard about him in history classes and cities he wrote about socialism but i don't know why chemists was renamed stott he wasn't a bad or evil man. as i said i don't quite know what he did something to do with communism or no small part but it has been his job i personally agree with him that companies should belong not only to the bosses it's to the workers as well. but it's history it's. truly quantum on these germany marxist writings were readily available of course the series with the blue covers i got them from my eighteenth birthday but if like me you interpret it marks in such a way that you then. criticised ruling ideology or the ruling political system
things could get a bit difficult for you. marx i'm defunct so i started reading marx when i was eighteen i encountered him through my study of him and classical philosophy my interest in marx was an extension of that in a way to marx is also an inheritor of the classical german philosophical tradition marx and it was indeed. for those of. as it is doing zero who i believe marks very aptly predicted this concentration of capital we see today. the fact that capitalism is not simply a market economy but also contains a trend toward consolidation the formation of ever larger corporations but he understood that this would ultimately destroy productivity that's exactly what we're seeing today in so many areas four or five large companies dominate the market divided up to suit their own interests and then they're no longer as
innovation oriented as our current economic system likes to believe socially. in a scene forty five prussia demanded that france extradite call monks. monks decided to emigrate to brussels. a few months later he was joined by. the pair wanted to pave the way for a new probably tarion policy and contacted viking who had become a leading member of the new league of the just in eight hundred thirty six. marx and engels had the group renamed the communist league and were commissioned to write its policy program. the communist manifesto was published in eighteen forty eight a year of republican revolts against european monarchies. a specter is haunting europe the specter of communism all the powers of old europe have entered into a holy alliance to exercise the specter. let the ruling classes tremble let
a communist revolution the proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains they have a world to win workers of the world unite. in one nine hundred fifty nine a young charismatic revolutionary letter faction who overthrew the cuban dictatorship fidel castro then established a socialist republic just off the shores. that bastion of capitalism the united states. less than a decade later young people in capitalist countries rose up to oppose their parents' generation fidel castro and take of our became the idols of the one nine hundred sixty eight student movement truly of course we invoked marx when we told ourselves that intellectuals were merely a superstructure from which the revolution couldn't emanate it was a revolution we thought would have to emerge from the factory floor. many of us
actually went to work in factories for months some for years. what we learned from the workers is that they weren't waiting for us to be their salvation. that's when the theory of false consciousness became popular. the idea that the workers didn't know what they truly needed that they've been seduced by capitalism and that we had to explain to them their true needs. and that's when we started to question marks. we cobble together a new idea that consciousness had an important role to play in shaping the revolution. that was almost an marxist in a way because in classical marxism being determines consciousness and your revolution can only be achieved when the conditions of reality force you to imagine it can be done in twenty eight. years and there was something else within marx that's always bothered and repels me within the marxist edifice there is no single sentence that states simply thou
shall not kill. there is no principle that would forbid you to kill and kill in large numbers in the name of revolution and believe mention to . desist from this lack of ethics is of course a terrible flaw that's inherent in the entire construction over and over again it's what's caused the edifice to collapse. and spring. good food water giant it's huge. just like let's go to the other side of.
there. you know. where the off. on yes some people prefer not to engage with it i was a mayor in the former east germany and i saw how people suffered under marxism leninism how their freedom was taken from them by the constraints that were imposed on them . that's why we have such difficulties with this ideology. is why not we agree that the work will be finished around christmas and in january the transport will be again any small problems we still have all solved by then. it will be. the year that the communist manifesto was published marx was forced to flee brussels and soon ended up back in
cologne. he was brought up on charges of inciting the rebellion and acquitted again he was expelled and meanwhile he had also lost his pression citizenship and become stateless. mox and his family went into exile in london. at the time london harbored refugees from all over the world box and his family lived in abject poverty. three of the marxist six children died from illness time and again and this came to their. with help from an inheritance the marks family could move to a middle class apartment mark steyn spent much of his time in the british museum's reading room where he worked on his most important manuscript. the first volume appeared in eight hundred sixty seven copy time capital. markets presented it to his publisher with the words. i don't believe anyone has
ever written so much about money who has so little of it. in the u.k. unfortunately we're so used to move with marks and spencers which is a retail brand but because the culture i don't think is developed you know as much about comics as we should i think there's a little plaque on the house that they use here but i don't believe he wasn't british though to which he was he might might be in germany or something better. than he's clearly a very much a political philosophy that aspects of which are still subscribe to people like jimmy corbin and that sort of thing in this country. clearly it's opposed to capitalism and here we are right in the center of capitalism in europe is a real issue i think there's a lot of overseas investment chinese russian money you can drive around areas of north london and say they're pretty much deserted which is a huge shame and the indigenous population is being forced to. kind of
periphery of london if you want to different life unfortunately a few more votes and you can get a better house bigger house better life maybe also london but it's going to cost you a lot of dollars of commute so yeah. when i wrote my book city boy. which is a massive warning about not to do what i did have become a banker every single email i've got many thousands of e-mails off from people from from germany young men saying i read your book could you get me a job in a bank please they think who cares if you're cheating society if you're earning that kind of money. i don't see what happened in banking as irrational with the
financial crisis those guys who invented these false products but exploded a later date they were very rational because they would get a bonus every year before they were found out. everyone views call marks quite simply as a discredited ideology you know capitalism won but he still had a lot of interesting things to say about the system we currently live in the alienation it causes how it has possibly the seeds of its own destruction but one possible mistake you made thinking that just because your a member of the working class you will automatically have solidarity with everyone else and you will soon then realize that these capitalists are exploiting you and there will be a world global revolution and so forth whereas the reality is that. there are many other things that give that can defy people so grace religion you know
other aspects of your football team which city your in but your country i call you see anything that is going to replace capitalism any time soon we're all stuck with it. today many native londoners can no longer afford to live in their own city. but london is still considered one of the witness of neo liberalism another capital has become the symbol of the dark side of capitalism. athens after the two thousand and eight global finance crisis greece plunged into an economic depression its fate depended on the decisions of international donors since then the country has been in a permanent state of emergency capitalism brought us excellent new joys and pleasures but the great beauty of pain and poverty and despondency that we have never experienced in the past. the global proletariat has inquisitional trial the
problem it is for the west that the jobs that migrate it left behind a part of europe that has become steeped in despondency in uncertainty in joblessness in lack of prospects. it's a dispositional issue but that was always a problem with capitalism it generates similar things three months wealth and new forms of the provision. growing up in greece student of the day just which band marks gave me a great incentive to find out about this because you know how it is with young people you say to them. under no circumstances regret it and then the only thing you want to do is to get beyond that i was extremely eager to understand that. there's a very interesting dichotomy in. liberal capitalist societies according to which
the political sphere is the democratized and they cannot mix fear is completely hierarchical and feudal. box's view was that you cannot have democracy with a split whatever and technological innovation creates a columns of state there's a tendency that the owners of this apology are going to use it in order to mobilize power over the rest of us and to deny us the benefits of that knowledge it happened in the second and that's where pollution is happening a lot more now with google facebook and. the official belgians into the base because. it is crucial. to instead of losing. these fantastical to try to want to build a station for man if he finds ways of democratizing this the tools that are so effective we produced jointly. plus your voyages there
is no for what we are experiencing today as a transformation in the conditions of production which are blurring the boundaries between production and ordinary everyday activities and we're productive we're creating value when we carry out an online search on google. plus our many clicks generate profits for google. we don't like to think about it but it's a fact of the socialization of production we have today has taken on a completely new form different from anything marx could have imagined just don't have a logical way of comprehending it yet of. the people in power do whatever is necessary to maintain the status quo which they benefit from they'll do what we call quantity meaning they'll just print money interest rates down to business they'll adapt and do some of the taxes whatever's necessary to maintain the system. in eight hundred eighty one
comma his wife jenny died of cancer. mark struggled to cope with the loss two years later he died in his armchair in his london apartment. perhaps mark's intuited that he would have been dismayed by some of the uses to which his writings were put in the years. though mark's remains convinced of his ideas he was famously reported to have said one thing is certain i'm not a so-called marxist eat. law the law the old law oh marks the end of his life marx was convinced and a functional democracy something akin to what we now call a social market economy founded on the operators basis would eventually emerge. entirely peaceful means eckstein could.
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