tv Doc Film - A Longing for Authority Deutsche Welle May 23, 2018 3:15am-4:01am CEST
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a couple of decades ago can venice culture of kharaj startups challenge the workplace hierarchies of loss corporations today apple and google are the world's most valuable company. it wasn't interesting to many people associate these companies with flat hierarchies freedom and perhaps even an acute. but do they really offer more transparency and progressive leadership. my sense is the utopian qualities disappear all those who are atheists will be jealous terry and often con is onto stretchers because places have one hundred twenty employees up there it must be very long and. like google the german company board has opted for flat organizational structures and. the leverage of leadership. first i felt this
approach wasn't working because we just spent a lot of time talking. generations have railed against authoritarian leadership styles but can we really function without them. with the workforce of one hundred seventy employees the company is the world's leading vehicles from the box back in group and has its own racing division his family run business in southern germany turned over almost. fifty. i like to speak my mind i don't want to have to go into detail over and over again because that costs a lot of time and energy of course i need good employees who understand my
leadership styles. in bodies the style of the caring. already means giving clear directions showing you mean business when you want to get things done. the company has a clear hierarchical structure managers have a commanding view of the operation from their desks. the boss oversees five main departmental managers who in turn delegate tasks to twelve unit managers today thomas p.m.i. is briefing his boss on preparations for ship them to spain workers down on the floor getting the cars ready for their next race. ok i have to step on it now i'm sure to take two more night shifts still before a down but it can be hot to have to be ready otherwise we won't get them to valencia on time. thomas b.m.i. runs the entire racing department. boarders and because it's
a family business the management style is naturally very hands on that often entails very clear directions but he's always respectful towards the employees always motivating them it's also very important for the employees to see that their boss practices what he preaches they say he works day and night for the company so of course he can demand the same from him you know from your family. the boss lays down the law that's been the classical for a tear in style of leadership since the industrial age but what lends the boss that's what authority where does the term even come from. in ancient rome the latin word doctorate referred to the general level of prestige a person enjoyed in society his clout influence and ability to rally support for his interests. under roman family law protest describes the power of male exercised over his children. it is similar in religion where leaders have long acted as representatives of the day.
for haga things that without authority societies look like structure. he's professor of clinical psychology and psychoanalysis at the university of kent in belgium. and a widely respected expert on systems of forestry or something i was really necessary in a society because the function of authority historically the relations between people and the voluntary way based on voluntary submission. was also voluntary to a given set of rules biko also we share with all the people the same belief in something of life outside. liberty and justice for all for example our values upheld by most modern societies the same rules apply to everyone. if we share our authority it means that we
share a common grounds it means because of that sharing that i can't trust the altar and trust it's really important to society for the moment that we have a society in which there is trust in a woman although that society go from. thirty based on trust serves to provide a structure and order it can prevent violence and arbitrariness in a society however blind obedience to authority is something else entirely. the atrocities of nazi germany serve as a cautionary example. the right and philosopher one of the phrase the banality of evil well covering the trial in one thousand nine hundred eighty one of ice man who was instrumental in organizing the holocaust people like iseman she said blindly executed orders without questioning them.
does that mean ordinary people who are just doing their job can be induced to play a role in a process of human in isolation. in the same year as the iseman trial yale university conducted. around breaking experiment. psychologist stanley milgram involved three people a learner a teacher and did research at. the linnet was assigned tasks if he made a mistake the teacher was told to punish him by administering electric shocks. the level of shock increased every time they learn and made a mistake. in all the many painful and i think. milgram wanted to look deep into a common explanation for the nazis genocide that germans uppity cutely a p.d.
into figures of authority. psychiatry professor i'm to be as my back explains the theory behind it. that's what i want to discuss one of there was a lot of discussion at the time about whether this was something specifically german or germans particularly obedient milgram expected his test subjects to put up far greater resistance to what they were being ordered to do there or the electric shocks were actually shot the lead as cries came from a type. not like the teacher didn't know that. but that's if you informed us was a relatively large number of the subjects tried to resist the orders but when the researcher continued to insist they caved in. i. believe they may have that i don't know i'm responsible. to you.
there was nothing actually forcing my subjects to carry out the orders it was simply the researchers authority but you continue. over and over again to teach and out someone else to direct their actions and passed responsibility for the consequences onto the person. in the audience. since then more than thirty variations of that experiment have been conducted around the world no matter in which decade or culture they were carried out and regardless of the participants gender all social background the results were almost the same. approximately sixty five percent of experiment participants carried out the research as instructions but why are so many people submissive to authority. abuse can be an indispensable aspect of social life clear instructions ensure
a smooth procedures not only intimate and see situations. as mine as this is all to protect five believe authority is vital and shouldn't be disparaged in the debate about the problems related to it not without authority our society wouldn't function well what it least function less effectively flourished articularly when that authority is legitimate or if it's. this. isn't thorazine something like nature's supreme principle of organization. for a long time behavioral scientists such as those here at the san francisco zoo assume that animal hurts all organized in hierarchies at the top is the alpha male when poses his will on the entire group. does that mean trips of billions for example are inevitably ruled by despotic males stanford university's robert
sapolsky has been researching primate behavior for thirty years and has drawn comparisons with humans. every year for the last two decades about it just has been four months in kenya tracking a troop of the billions. the billions have even accepted him as a member. what hierarchy does is it allows animals to deal with inequalities without having to have fight every single time. so the question becomes what goes into becoming a high ranking male baboons and it's all the you know dramatic sort of thing lotsa muscle big body mass big shark canines fighting ability all of that. but maintaining that position of top dog day in day out is exhausting how does the
alpha male and hold as a farsi. and once you become a high ranking male what goes into staying high ranking and then it's got nothing to do with that stuff that's where social intelligence comes in. staying high ranking hold it is about which fight she would nor which provocations you don't go anywhere near being good at psychological intimidation if you're doing it right all you need to do is. stare at somebody for three seconds and she should be running in terror. and accidents in the trip triggered a dramatic change in the bin social structure. sapolsky watched as the alpha and other high ranking males force ever scraps of food from a tourist. turns out it's not random who would do that it was the aggressive guys in my troop in
addition morning is when baboons do most of their socializing they said they gossip they do whatever so if these guys were willing to pick up and instead spend the time fighting for garbage and this other troop these guys were not very social. correct. but the means was contaminated with bovine says in one fell swoop all the dominant males died this is suddenly brought about a completely different culture in this true. low levels of aggression high levels of a silly ation animal sitting much closer to each other male sitting in contact. a decade on the troops still hasn't reverted back to the old time rocky. don't males now who ones who joined the troop this juvenile sense that in other words these were all baboons who grew up somewhere else out in the big bad geno's
where the capital was muscular world and somehow showed up here and learned in this baboons commune here we don't do stuff like that somehow this culture of less aggression more social affiliation was being transmitted with baboons to transform ones that we've got no excuse for not doing so. frank bowman how bad is a business consultant when it comes to management he emphasizes that authority doesn't automatically mean there are tearing. all to retain dorothy's key when it comes to cooperation and leadership and there's a form of all farty that's top down but all thirty can also be spread out and rest on several shoulders of. the gym and catching for the management presides over top down decision making the boss rules from on high headquarters lay out on the
lies his status he has the largest office. we have clear rules the clear the rules the easier it is to track who does a good job and how well things work when the boss is happy to shift with of can take. the companies. thought's has developed over a century going up the great grandfather set up his own for which his sons expanded the business to take in cars. in the one nine hundred fifty city grated their first victories in motion cycle racing establishing the company's motives for tradition the best strategy the fastest cars these were goals that didn't just apply to the new business of tuning engines they were also reflected in the company culture. to a teacher additional authority often rests on prerogatives passed down through generations of races of the claim to leadership power and decision making the other side of traditional therapies based on experience and expertise with people with
a person has a claim to the leadership position and thus the prerogative to lead his commanding position and or therapy radiate down to the lower teeth you know. what are the tools of top down management in ops case there are clear instructions issued from the top as well as time management and pressure to perform. simone's i need so guys were clear right next week work through all the points we have discussed then do me a favor please stick to them we've had enough time to ensure they work it's one of the full salute as. our employees address one another using the informal german personal pronoun do it underscores the family atmosphere while leaving the boss's authority untouched. the new employee use lycurgus paid for it takes some getting used to getting i'm going to use the words i'm one of the youngest here i've been here almost a year now and the first time of course you're like excuse me what's the corporate
mentality here but you get used to it very quickly and then you just accept the bosses like that. shift and also some even. but this relaxed approach also raises expectations. but i. could. pass on the back is given as motivation and should not be misinterpreted as an invitation to collaborative leadership. working. the end of the week will install the remaining parts to draw a comparison to the new exhaust system. then all systems go. if employees meet the goals they're rewarded with year end. but money isn't everything. you have to motivate people you really have to give them the feeling that working for the brand demands they give it everything they've got. is
the spirit that's the spirit and i think it starts with the hiring process and ends on the shop floor our managers to convey a positive feeling right from the start so people feel it's a privilege to work and not a chore. giving the company your all that is part of the company's philosophy. whether that's enough whether an employee can stay or has to go is ultimately decided by the company's earnings. by twenty we have to keep tabs every day every week and if someone is sleeping on the jobs then we'll find out. the boss sets the goals it's the manager's job to find solutions in the club management middle management managers a wedge between the top and bottom tier they have to follow instructions and deliver results to the top level not from the bottom tier they face pressure from
a workforce demanding discussion and negotiation. conflict you know at least on the one hand that creates stress an internal conflict how can i get all this done how can i meet my deadlines on the other hand employees seek recognition and practice so people live within this field of tension which. if the boss is personality underscores his position of authority the moral pressure on his employees piles up . one hundred he says has once you're going to is an absolute role model as a person and as an entrepreneur is really him it is important to give one hundred percent from the outset but it's always a challenge and coping with the pressure is also a challenge. in the end it's up to me to deliver the goods i mean. reduce it illness is increasing among employees in middle management in germany almost eighteen percent suffer from anxiety and depression almost thirty percent
say they nervous and irritable. almost fifty percent feel exhausted. all the international hierarchical corporate structures it's taboo to talk about it everyone has to perform everything has to be cool all the time but managers struggle with his internal cry. how can i tell you they face this dilemma i can't talk about it openly because then they'll be considered a low performer and i still have to deliver it's a huge stress factor for many people. how does stress affect performance. to answer this question researchers at the central institute of mental health in money time are conducting a stress test using m.r.i. to measure its subjects brain waves. i don't have to call it just. like in the milgram experiments the white coats
under schools the authority of the scientist leading the experiment psychologist. will shortly be giving subjects tasks to complete while they are in the m.r.i. and putting them under stress by giving them negative feedback. comes the code so you can sit down for a minute you'll be doing tasks in the m.r.i. . as you heard these are performance related tasks we'll be watching you from here later. be able to see your spire this camera. you'll be solving numerical problems as well as three dimensional problems. and you do that with this keyboard . on it you can just hold it in your hand twenty kinds of. subjects spend twenty minutes in the m.r.i. in alternating phases of work and relaxation. three subjects will take the test today. tests have you removed any metal on you yes my pockets are after.
the first starting the assistant collects medical data. and please put this in your mouth and chew on it slightly this is a saliva sample. the sample is needed to determine the level of the stress when. when coaches are. strapped in the subject is immobilized their pulse will be measured throughout the duration of the experiment. while in the m.r.i. subjects can only communicate through the remote control. electrical devices cannot be placed inside the m.r.i. so if the tasks are displayed in america. that means the image on research if audience tried screen is inverted. during the test the m.r.i. records activity in different regions of the brain. now it's time to stop so.
you can dissolve the so we're looking for effort and maximum performance. will personally observe you during these tasks is that clear so i clung. let's get started. on. the first performance phase lasts three minutes. so far the subject's pulse is stable and. then down to time pressure they solve most of the tasks correctly. then she tries increases the pressure by giving them unjustified minutes if. you haven't started session that we look at the interim results so far there are sub par more than anything you're working much too slowly if we compare your
results to other subjects. so what is very very important now is that you really make an effort really try hard to achieve the best performance did you understand the task so far. all right let's move on. particularly the. comparison with other supposedly based his subjects places pressure on the subject in the m.r.i. they begin making significantly more mistakes. egotist feet were giving negative feedback to increase the pressure to clearly signal we're really watching. it we really can tell whether you're answering the questions well or not. and you can see that this really increases the stress level that we see and says that says everyone just as well as. i mention is that solid stress so stress is the type of stress people feel most
acutely when we measure stress levels we see that criticism from a thinker of authority is tantamount to very very intense physical pain you'd have to inflict a high degree of physical pain to create a level of stress comparable to levels generated in such social situations or. exhausted and frustrated the subjects continued the experiment. all three tried their hardest to perform to the best of their ability. only now up to the test this tight acknowledge that his criticisms with thank you. have pushed empathy in the negative feedback to make me feel a bit inhibited yep i'm going back this is me i feel like i realized then that i had made more mistakes than i did at the beginning of the fish so i had a feeling it was rather detrimental to my concentration as. the pressure that i
found off of the feedback led to stress or additional stress with me i do tend to take negative feedback personally negative group million with loathing that is mental no president who is uncivilized we've been told by socialization to downtown sounds the whole education system is. geared towards facilitating doubt the thought in situations at work or like this experiment we ask what did i do wrong as we no longer ask for context of question the assignments legitimacy rather we have internalized a process by which we immediately look to ourselves and ask what didn't i understand correctly where did i fail to perform before. digital forms of authority was strongly patriarchal until the mid twentieth century men had dominated all the professions for a thousand years. it took the student movement of fifty years ago to challenge the status quo. you have to all. you had to dr you had the
teacher you had the mayor you had to judge all of them were male and it took until i think the sixty's before that stuff that would change in our days almost no one believed and you all were unpatriotic as we used to. call for hard to believe traditional authority has seen its day there's no longer any tolerance for the old institutions this excesses of the student movement have learned to question authority. the time of the professor was a problem and of the utilization grant regions knowledge that has completely disappeared. it's a kind of interaction be of the internet they have access to knowledge you don't have to transmitted knowledge and you longer of us are used to do we have to learn to be critical about which and when the are leaving university they can think of
their selfish. decline of old structures of authority has been accelerated by globalisation and digitalisation. today anyone can disseminate information and anyone anywhere can access it. the flow of information is now difficult to control. and it is becoming increasingly difficult for companies and states to keep a secret under wraps. control has become horizontal so it used to be down to the people and top could control the people are beneath them but now this control is mutual. so if i am teaching dulling a number of stupid things that will be on the internet too but in the hours and you get reaction to doubt and that that's totally different compared to the time when i was a student. if you look back one of the characteristics it was the obligation
to be to the leader of mine in a high statoil you basically end up meant that you were that you had to be accomplice of the system that you had to remain silent and something went wrong even if you did not agree it was not done to step outside and to say something about it and now this this has completely disappeared. leaks of sensitive information make front page headlines. individual or organizational whistleblowers have turned against traditional forests he's undermining them by exposing grievances and malpractise and then celebrated as heroes by the public. living a crisis of authority also on the political level then we. see a classic psychological reflex if people are in trouble they fall back on the solution that worked and that explains why
a number of people in the western world all hoping for strong wording to ship a strong father that's below the change things for the better. that phone attentions like donald trump and other populists have taken advantage of a vacuum of authority distorting in simplifying the facts dividing the world into good and evil and even line. we will make america strong again and god bless america. the oldest he's in charge he's trying to change the laws so that he can get more power he just destroys the authority and all that to get more power he attacks the judges this is one of the basic tenets of democracy well the moment that someone tries to change doesn't. it's a big danger. ford is a producer of outdoor clothing and equipment based near lake constance in southern germany. its company headquarters doesn't just contrast with auto tune or update on
the outside it also has a radically different corporate culture inside. what focuses on sustainability and production the company employs more than four hundred people and hear from david took over at the home from her father in two thousand and nine. my father had a synonym for my father founded the company out of nothing he managed every department every team and as a result many decisions were made at his desk or. when i was a kid i regretted that he often came home so late at night i can find is from my childhood i thought my mother complained a lot too and she warned me against taking over saying look i heard your dad works . his company was his life that is also how long time associate a hard guy guy experienced it as then i do recall operation a patriarch just about sums it up he was head of the company and called all the shots at the shift regardless of whether they were right or wrong the decisions
were all his or the knee in tried only. when i took over i knew i had neither the experience nor the time to make all the decisions on my own and i was the time i took over i had four children that's why there was a huge incentive to develop a different management style that would make a work life balance possible. that's what i've been in. that management style is democratic and think use of responsibility is shared among the workforce it rests to with manfred mind the head of trade marketing. the company culture is geared towards the principles of the common good this includes respect for people and nature solidarity and social justice. the company also operates on a basis of trust when it comes to working out it's. just because some employees
work on a trust based flexi time so they're working a forty hour week with times that best suits the job they're doing a concert tonight and best suit the employees only requirements to naturally they coordinate their schedules with a colleagues almost all of the workers here determine their own work times but not everyone finds it easy to cope with such freedom no mark listed. it's quite a challenge to lead a team with such freedom i had some people need very clear guidelines and so they needed to do list and very clear instructions and working conditions. like you know how to be human and that's a problem for a team leader who values freedom and empowerment such fun photograms. freedom can also give rise to misunderstandings and frustration which is why void equates leadership with motivation. to commit human beings for need i don't define leadership is telling people what to do listen to me it's important to show people the goal in the big picture so we're all marching in the same direction
down the same path and they carry their projects along that path like their own babies at any time they have questions or need feedback or need to know if they're on the right track i'm always there for them at any time that's how i view my role in to someone from. the. beginning. i think we are taking a pioneering approach we have to come up with new solutions and to do that we need people with an innovative mindset if you want to achieve results if you have leaders telling you what to do so we need a company where people are on an equal footing mention. the company encourages employees to develop and know. well the type of products customers want to try and you know what's you want to be clear to me to manage is com come up with the necessary innovations and creativity all on their own i need the brains of their staff to advance why collaborative leadership is key if you can only come up
with good ideas if you employ different types of all foreign flat horizontal authority creativity among many people and many branches. breaking the daily grind also provides impetus for new ideas. time minute ariel positions are still read in germany only eleven percent work from home. the picture is very different in scandinavia every full suite works out of a home office. works from home several times a week. that they clean the fuel by changing the company's leadership structure ultimately placed more responsibility on my shoulders and me if i was called on to take more initiative and play a greater role in decision making. the result is that i'm much more satisfied with my life as a whole because i have a lot more freedom. i don't lose sleep because i have more responsibility for my
contrary in the past i lost sleep because i was answering to an authoritarian manager who was expecting me to do tasks in a way that left to my own devices i would have done differently. over time the increasing trust has shown us serve to boost our faith in our own abilities and expertise i have almost solely. silicon valley is synonymous with innovation from the modest beginnings here google and apple feel the tech woods obsession with design. stanford university is just a stone's throw away from the tech the professor of neurobiology prabhat suppose he has watched developments here closely. to see what can be done. to sit still be on that steel here for considers itself is trying to work out how we need to be have a status and build status symbols. with garage startups that went on to conquer the
world technocrats led california the center of the world's technology industry. silicon valley is still considered a mythical place where visions lead to revolution. my sense is the future if you just disappeared completely one would assume it's true of all those great you know the gelateria bottom. strangers the displaced one of the twenty employees. of mastery more. companies in silicon valley place great importance on the wellbeing of the employees and europe workers can only dream of on the job massage therapy. apple and google believe such services make them the world's best employees because interest in a many people associate these companies with flat hierarchy spring to mind perhaps even on a kid. a subtle but almost the opposite is the case it is
a paternal form of all foreign tea which provides care keeps things small and entire cosmos is built around so to speak so that you have no concerns and only have to do is concentrate on your work. like google would in southern germany believes in promoting employee satisfaction and an ideal work environment. it has a climbing wall. and. did it first half have five or six times more children than the german every age fifty percent of our employees work part time we have people who work from home and part time executives reconciling all that is challenging. when hiring new employees human resources manager. particularly looks will soft skills like conflict resolution and communication. jobs at ford
often seeking a better work life balance they also value a good work atmosphere teamwork and praise. in return they accept salaries below the regional average. giving it. a don't want to very high salary they're saying i want to work environment where i feel comfortable where i have the feeling that people acknowledge me where i'm being seen and i can take responsibility but of course there are people who say oh no it takes too long to make decisions you have to have everyone's opinion on board with the wrong company for that type of person. but does a collaborative environment really force to include from employees outside leadership positions. illustrates a man has been with a company for fifteen years one day she had no idea. stop it we have
a lot of fabric scraps that could be used to make something so i designed a shopping bag. her idea got an enthusiastic response today the company produces a line of bags made from scraps yeah you know it is important we have idea coaches here and i have the chance to pitch my idea it was a great feeling. because it was well received and managers saw a lot of people thought it was a great idea that's what he did last. year. collaborative leadership can be tricky it can be frustrating to an employee if there is a not pursued are taken seriously and decision making processes can take a very long time. as it's a nice little bit at first i felt this approach was very inefficient because we just spent a lot of time talking about today i'd say we're becoming increasingly efficient if we find great solutions to form for. workplace democracy is time consuming
employees need to adopt an entrepreneurial mindset and shoulder the burden of responsibility rather than be monitored by a boss. the out of london exhibit a changes in social values over recent decades have given rise to new demands for participation that's why control is seen today as something that stifles creativity. and whites the reining in of control mechanisms today that is allowing people to be more creative and innovative mentioned. in this system control is not exercised to increase pressure on the individual it's the group as a whole that acts as a control. function. of a button i think control is a mechanism to monitor whether a person is really doing his job is dispensable but control is a mechanism in which we as a group look at questions like are we performing the way we should be are we
achieving our targets are we working efficiently i think that's essential. few employees would advocate scrapping the bosses position altogether and there's still a strong appetite for regular feedback. so authority can assume different forms. come authority can be organized in a multi-polar way you can have a story in a certain context and you can flatten hierarchies however the principle of authority is not abandon it's just structured differently on those talk to. the rejection of traditional films does not necessarily mean people want to do away with authority altogether when you decide to slightly people have a desire perhaps even a longing for authority because it officers sense of orientation community and integration side at the same time people at work want to be seen and recognized and included in mentioned often when the trust has disappeared security has appeared to
hopelessly today and in the future. thirty minutes from w. e w's program guide. dot com highlights. how the germans came together in one nation from shove their money into chancellor mark. the history of the germans has been shaped by great lawyers. i swell always to bring my royal college of that to protect christendom and spread find truth. even to focus on. a week before the battle of the enemy in topless and steered by courageous decisions close to the town halls as you tell your master researcher seize the crown of our room from god and not from his her sumptuous service. his holy
sacrament to live tomorrow we will have defeated the enemy people will never see one another again but. we must peace. oh. the germans have really gone. e.u. lawmakers have demanded better data protection and privacy measures from facebook c.e.o. mark zuckerberg he faced questioning at the european parliament in brussels in the wake of a scandal that put data of millions of facebook users into the hands of a political consulting firm sucker burke apologized assuring the lawmakers facebook has taken steps to improve security and transparency. u.s.