tv Doc Film - The Germans - Barbarossa and the Lion Deutsche Welle May 30, 2018 7:15am-8:01am CEST
for most of the second millennium aid central europe is divided into a patchwork of states and only really starts to become unified toward stand it takes centuries for its people to start to see themselves as john. what is that cost. the average questions about a thousand years of german history the end . this is frederick the first of the house of horns dolphin elected king of the
germans in eleven fifty two his round stretches all the way down into southern italy but he opposite wider ambition to become empress of the west powerful rivals challenge him one of them his former ally and the man i am the air . an important visitor to the eternal city the citizens of rome haven't seen a german king for two decades but the guest from in a lot is by no means welcomed because of his red beard the romans call him bob battle south. of the x. . state and not come from. bill among these romans this isn't what cheering looks
like what are you doing in italy anyway an empire without italy no henry no emperor without rome. langton drome end it sees as an eternal role model for europe's later rulers the traditions of the roman empire have been associated with the german kingdom since the tenth century the germans have now been comune as of italy for the past two centuries speak at the pope crowned the german king also the great holy roman emperor in nine sixty two making hand the protector of christianity in the west. the end the frederick baba rasa from the house of holiness dolphin is the tenth german king to wed the roman imperial crown the newly crowned empress is
accompanied by his cousin henry the lion duke of saxony from the valve to mistake henry sees himself as an equal to bob at asa. the. was about as you have done. so should i fall to my knees before my cousin. just not before your cousin before your emperor. that's bother rasa owes his elevation to do you strike henry they have the right to annex the gentleman king but the imperial crown puts him above all of them the emperor is crowned by the pope and he wants to be at least his equal. to. the. kaiser feeding shrub
a savage in a great contemporary source a poetry emperor frederick barber also as being of average height with a red face and blond hair and his red beard of course was and he probably wasn't a great beauty but he must have had great charisma and invested a great deal in an imperial aura of it that was unpopular was something of an he's going on. not least in rome the proud romans are particularly self-confident at this time and an empress who really wants to rule uncontested needs to court their favor but the people of the eternal city where down they haven't been asked about who should be and crap. the pope had decided alone possibly influenced by frederick's magnificent gifts. sixty shields to the emperor.
about the last there and his entourage are surprised by the anger of the wrong ones they're in danger. stuff. henry the law and shows his control of the situation. thank you i thank you cousin feel courage and loyalty is everything for the emperor and his round. the lion prove to worthy of his name he was to not let baba rasa forget it frederick the first has come south his king he returns as empress if possible russell wants to rule in the north and south of his empire he will have to cross the alps a difficult undertaking the end of.
his empire in the middle of the twelfth century he is king of the germans and wields imperial power in italy and burgundy but the powerful valve setting and bobbin bed and vittles bathhouses rule in the german world the house of whole inch dolphins' own land a man in the southwest. the air the fells castle in the south and polite in it is considered impregnable frederick barasat comes here often the house of hellish dolphin who shaped german history for almost a century. and. the king returns home he brings peace to a land inhabited by six million people after decades of up people. ninety percent of his german subjects up peasants living in the most basic conditions. to him kissing the hem of the king's garment is meant to bring good luck
babar us there is also in a mad a king moving from palace to palace like his predecessors there is no actual center of power. in the house and palace on the conceit river not far from modern frankfurt bob. i had it built the red sandstone ruins are evidence of a once magnificent council compound that combined a courtroom royal court and accommodation under one roof among the traces the row building left behind we can also find his heraldic beast the eagle. guard led by the rats in their cars at heights the eagle was already the symbol for world rule during the empire when the bubble was a. barber also who made great use of ancient symbols and traditions from the roman empire took it up and it has been
a symbol of the holy roman empire ever since sides yet dustin born in disguise of tom's. own reconstruction reveals the ideal imperial palace it symbolized the very idea of empire architecturally. the air the ground floor the floor for subjects it's the supporting foundation for the rule of the imperial family who live on the first floor above the empress floor is the level of the russian the empire yours are proclaimed in this whole this is wes in arts and imperial diet's take place the throne is reserved for the king and empress the center of the empire is wherever he happens to be and baba ross's empire grows during the years of his reign not least westwards. the all. good
book in eleven fifty six an event of the european importance and trolls the bishops seat on the river mine for a few days. the. thirty four year old frederick barbarossa is getting married. his bride is sixteen year old fatima so fervently it's an international dream wedding the minstrels of the realm via to outdo each other in praising the beauty of the young noble woman as witnesses to the events reported. to him. the chronicle of the bishops of votes book says in the weeks after whitson emperor frederick wed a bad case the daughter of the count of burgundy invalid's book and consummated his
marriage. the consummation of the marriage of bad place and frederick is to be witnessed by dignitaries from the empire from england france and poland in the legal understanding of the day it was an important act of state necessary to vilify the union between the emperor and the contents both the marriage is primarily a political union and. the wedding was depicted centuries later in a monumental sealing fresco in the staircase at the residence the bishop's palace in football burgundy as part of the empire again a peaceful conquest. the end of the north the emperor's cousin henry the lion rules as duke of saxony he has his heraldic emblem erected in front of his
castle in bronze fide it is likely that work on the largest map of the high middle ages measuring almost four metres in diameter started at his court during his lifetime. it's a monumental testament made to the attempt to reconcile the teachings of christianity with new geographical insights the air. jerusalem still lies at the center. at the top of the stoff map is the head of jesus christ he holds the ground together the map which is drawn on another base was completed by henry successes the alms of brown shrine the ancestral seat of the both in the state portray a fearsome lion. the inspiration came
from the lion monument in front of don clodagh hold a council it was a bronze wax spectacular for its day that the bronze lion of braunschweiger is a symbol of the duke who set up himself in an inscription on a coin i had read of braunschweig and the lion and indeed the lion is mankind's oldest symbol of power from the ancient oriental empires to the greek and roman empires bronze is an imperial material and by using it henry put himself on this highest level. on the same level as the emperor barber author and the lion face to face. also made of bronze but gilded the captain bad head of baba rasa frederick had it made during his lifetime it's more than a man portrayed. the air his head rests on the walls of rome the symbol of the christian roman empire that he rules but
something is missing headband that diadem like that warmed by the roman emperors. the. scholars believe it looked something like this it also symbolizes the fact that the pope was not the sole ruler in rome or coupling of the capital. head of bob ross is a really good way of expressing this new self-confidence by the empire symbolically placed at the same level as the holy mother church case bob or other ones the pope and emperor to be equals right from pabst guys to fight for this aqua librium flares up again eighty years after a previous showdown between empress and pope at can also at this time in business song in burgundy or the understanding that he has arrived is an emissary of the bishop of rome i will put this. there are reports of the meeting between the papal emissary and the emperor that hinted
a new showdown the words spoken in the name of the pope sound innocuous and left. god the most. inane of all i mean full time but there's disagreement about the latin word then a feat which means favor but can also be translated to mean feat in the futile sense. how can i receive my imperial honors a fine if bestowed by the pope. sunbeams of who else would bestow the crown upon the emperor if not the pope powers silenced as roman whore. white. ampara frederick in no way sees himself as ruler by the grace of the pope is that i somehow nelse tell your lord that we have received the crown of our empire from god and not from his insolent servant. the sky fish that empire is sacred. stockholm sacrum imperium.
the l.s.m. guard. the ruler of an empire that holy doesn't need the blessing of the roman pope the as the expression sacrum imperio shows up for the first time in an imperial document of eleven fifty seven a short while later this holy empire becomes the holy roman empire there dition of the german nation only comes three hundred years later and of leave all of us a lot of these of this is how an important part of the imperial title was created under frederick barbour also images the name holy roman empire emerged and dominated german and european history for more than six hundred years and hope a shift. it's not just rome that's part of the imperio territory no more
than italy is too but the affluence it is south of the alps ah particularly resistant to the imperial plains barbarossa feels cheated out of his rights and the lucrative tribute. he goes to italy for a second time in eleven fifty eight a chronicler said of his entourage the number of troops was so large that even several roads were barely able to hold them all a horde of young men who confronted the vicissitudes of war without fear. the intended destination of this march is the center of the resistance man this it is consul has called a citizens' assembly to answer the impending threat. to the end . yet at the end braves citizens of milan do you want to be
a beauty and. to the arrogant germans and the subject to their laws do you really want to suffer this in your lifetimes. not to let us die like men before we suffer the germans arrah gunson tyranny. what man could bear the arrogance and conceit of the germans. the arrival of the german knights creates a sense of unity in italy but in light of german superiority most northern italian city has opened their gates and submit only the people of man are resolute in standing up to the german empress. and my hands about any other easier for milan was a huge city of god say milan had a population of
a hundred thousand at the time an enormous city fall bigger than anything in germany. and i lined these i'm sad for them it left that affinity for and that was precisely why bother also had to have this total victory under his belt in order to prove his imperial position to avoid consent and i'll be there for advice and condoms and impairing are to put it's your own advice or. the siege of man goes on for months after heavy fighting in the city and non-body is finally forced to surrender unconditionally. one of the most flourishing said his of the west is burned to the ground the citizens of man can save only them lives and whatever they can carry at the height of his power frederick shows none the less a. piece of my enemy of the guys these people of milan challenge the emperor i was forced to
punish them for that for it's they have no one but themselves to blame for this fate just. about it is a good b.s. victory the german on the rampage gives birth to the phrase food auto it tony of course not least because the destruction is coupled with an historic theft. as the start of what's in there. the mortal remains of the three kings. they want to take them from the people of milan. empire needs holy kings. baba rasa has the relics of the magi taken to cologne this attracts pilgrims to the city who were later denied a lot of money from monumental construction project cologne cathedral. and no tradition was only revived at the start of the twenty first century the cathedral
pilgrimage to the shrine of the magi it's one of the most significant pieces of the high and medieval goldsmith's odd containing the mortal remains of those who saw the king of kings casbah measure and bow thousand making them influential patrons of the city who knows that their remains have been looted from a long body they helped the city on the rhine flourish pilgrims gave lots of money while cities like cologne grow others are still to be founded. the area the land was given the duchy of bavaria by his cousin frederick barbarossa lang down markings on a green field he decides to found a market town called me mission which means at the house of the monks i
am i in henry wants to go down in history as the founder of a city three centuries later the capital of the duchy of bavaria would have a population of more than thirteen thousand to eighteen it became a center for trade comus and culture one of the greats it is news of the outs. air and after the second world war it became the capital of a self-styled free state that has remained big to kill a genocide its autonomy henrietta land has monuments erected to himself and more than germany to heal is the foundations the city is such as lubec braunschweig unfair hain he highlights that there are powerful german deeds to not just the
emperor of the loss of a foot of its father russia pursued the traditional imperial policies that he had to pursue because italy was part of the empire and really the lion meanwhile tried to expand his ducal role beyond the borders of the duchy of saxony saxon in the last of idol. in the second half of the twelfth century the duke's troops move north and east slavic territories seen as pagan lands conquered and colonized. the end even with just the two dutch is of bavaria and saxony the lion as one of the most powerful rulers in europe his advance is just the start of a german expansion eastwards where further dachas will be establishments in the future mecklenburg and pomerania for example but also the state of the teutonic knights. marion book now
muldaur castle near the polish city of danske a huge fortress one of the biggest brick buildings in europe a symbol of german settlements in the east started by henry the lion and continued by the two tonic knights. the at browns fike of the drill is also built by the lion the powerful duke exhibits a positively kingly self-confidence in his chosen her own. his marriage to the daughter of king henry the second of england contributes to this. the gospel manuscript that henry has made for this occasion is priceless and come funs his vision of his status one depiction shows henry and his wife receiving their crown straight from the hand of god it was
a sign of growing incidents. in the eyes of other dukes and the empress the line is getting ready to pounce to create his own that frown the magnificent rooms of his palace seem to confirm his ambitious plans in the nineteenth century damn clodagh hold a council was reconstructed in the style of the time. little black with dank rug wrote a council and henry the line in around eleven seventy built himself a residence that lacks nothing a king's palace would have the power base the lion was building for himself in saxony of area and the slavic territories put him in a king like position the scale of the power he wields was increasingly seen as a threat by the emperor and the other dupes so he was throwing down the gold
letters from france hog ghosla gosselaar the silver for ever. the lion stands up to barbarossa when the emperor asked him to come with him to italy to put down rebellions and non-body the land makes demands the silver mines of cos now if he did. i ask you as a cousin and friend and fellow fighter that. follow your emperor to italy. so don't charge me it won't be at your expense but you won't get goes lower. dismissed. without the silver mines in khosla the emperor wouldn't have any funds himself. a million got me in that case may god be with you cousin if i want.
this to be done i must see how you so certain of your power of saxony. this fight the empire has made your greatest. but it can crush you again today it's actually. the at the end of the. henry refuses to participate in the military campaign he's not violating any lure in doing so but he is still snubbing the emperor. an empire stretching from the baltic across the alps to the mediterranean can only function if barbarossa manages to incorporate the northern italian territories in the long term and he means the wealth of the italian cities. but the long bogs don't want to be part of an empire ruled by germans nor be its
paymaster just a few years after my lands destruction its citizens have returned to the city and rebuilt it has blown bad troops face barbarossa near lenya. open fighting breaks out between the free citizens and the imperial forces in may eleventh seventy six the air battle formation. close the ranks. to long pads on just fielding a force twice the size of the imperial army sixteen thousand against eight they're also fighting for their freedom. at stake is how far the junking can actually extend his power as the holy land an empress who will set limits to a claim that seemingly knows no limits us. so
when baba ross's bana folds he hasn't just lost. the battle. to get the traditional business of german historians long downplayed the battle of len yarnell as having had little after effect but the actual after effect lies in the victory of citizens over the nights combined with an anti teutonic resentment that persisted in italy for a long time. every year on the last sunday in may the people of the small town of len yano commemorate the dramatic events of the year eleven seventy six a letter written by the people of man to their allies right after the battle also confirms the historic victory. beloved fellow countrymen don't put our triumph over the german invaders down to our arms the laurels
a victory rest on the unity of all italians whose proud will rebelled against servitude. it's the first time national sentiment has developed south of the alps an italian one in opposition to the germans and their rulers on tone between the duties of a german king and the claims of a roman emperor barbarossa has made enemies both in german territories and in italy his dream of a unified holy empire as it failed. the ng in the air leaven seventy seven congress of denis marx the biggest peace conference in european history to date
it's a nice to strike a balance between the interests of the germans and the italians the empress and the pope years earlier barbarossa had put the roman pontiff in his place now the ruhr of the holy roman empire asked to submit from now on the motto is the pope is the true emperor. and freedom for the peace of venice in eleven seventy seven and in the emperor's attempt to create direct rule with his own people in office initially entirely and often. he lost the trial of strength with the pope for now a scapegoat was needed and that was an opportunity to settle old scores it's a human to begin right here. since henry the lion refused to support our author in italy he is now held to account at the imperial diet an effort he tries to assuage the emperor through an act of submission.
that said forgive me my emperor. a lawyer your remorse comes too late my lord to feed. your staff you're punishing me because i didn't follow you to italy you got used to if you weren't required to join you said so yourself. until and yet you're taking me down because it is about the honor of the empire. this is the verdict stanley specific. of course it is a verdict that he has also reached at the behest of the german dukes who felt henry the lion had become too powerful the fool of the duke of saxony is sealed with
a gallon house undocument. as a result of clear insurgency henry of braunschweig is found guilty of insubordination he will be stripped of all the feats he received from the empire by the unanimous verdict of the dukes and your list of official four hundred and move there was no legal requirement for henry the lion to obey the imperial military call it an emotional oil but he had a moral duty of loyalty to the emperor of the emperor hadn't just supported him out of a sense of duty either he was right to think henry would do things for him in return we don't know why he didn't maybe he just underestimated the conflict and its consequences he was headed in conflict on a foil cuts. the lion is exiled to england he plays no further significant drone in german history henry is buried along with his wife matilda in braunschweig cathedral which he paid for himself but his son will achieve what the lion did not
at the start of the thirteenth century he had the fourth will be the only member of the house of those to be crowned holy roman emperor but even then he won't recover the territories his father lost. barbarossa distributes them among the other deals in a way that ensures none of them will ever again become as powerful as the lion you auto vittles bark shall have area. do you feel of of heinsberg archbishop of cologne shall have westphalia. it's this town. hall and you bernhardt of on how to shall rule in anger from now on and in going to take you. but the fact that bob or rather bestows these territories on the german rulers in the first place shows that he still needs
their support. and the more for the redistribution of henry's lands demonstrates the rising power of the jews in the empire is becoming increasingly important to them to be able to freely elect the king and therefore the future emperor of it it's a right that never existed in this way in france or england an elected monarchy instead of a hereditary one that's an important special feature of german history and it wasn't long before this principle was in shrine in a historic document on the golden bull of thirteen fifty six need additional american ones or for that is federalism the strength of the states has if you will its early roots here. whitson eleven eighty four empress frederick is hosting an enormous meeting of the imperial diet nia minds more than seventy
thousand participants are expected dukes princes knights bishops and their entourages famous poets and musicians it was a soup palate event of which the saxon world chronicle said. it was the biggest celebration ever to have taken place in the jenin landscape. the shell size and splendor of the diet of mines makes it a social highlight aimed at distracting attention from the defeat in italy father also wants to demonstrate that the empire is wherever he is and that he is empress is preeminent amongst europe's ruelas. twenty thousand nobles are in attendance barbarossa wants to grant the new privileges and bind them closer to him. guarantors of his power ready to defend him loyal and dependable against enemies
within and without. the end. i. tournaments on just military exercises that the major competitions of that day anyone wanting to make a name for himself asked the women ahead the highlight is the just the participants have to bring their own muses they have to control it with bridle and spurs and they have to be able to hold the longs. the end. bravery is rewarded with applause as is a successful hit the lances are blunted so the colorful spectacle isn't meant to coles too much injury but many suffer injuries to more than just that quiet
i . jot of minds is also intended to unite the empress. adverse or is under the empire's calmness. but the duke's us don't jenna's of their autonomy they prefer to see the emperor as a first among equals rather than an or gust prove. the is concerned knighthoods is a highlight of the diet a ceremonial oath turns thousands of honorable young men into nights including baba ross's sons. yes we swear to protect the holy church and always to be loyal to the emperor of the holy empire our
supreme at liege lord we swear to protect widows and orphans and to honor women so help us god. i. know you got this in the name of god st michael and st george you on our nights be brave stalwart and loyal. got to god on earth and the empires defensed for the protection of the weak and in resistance to the strong stuff need some toilets bed is love and henceforth no other. finite in his two sons frederick hopes to establish who will take over from him and right the eldest on the left hand is to be the next roman german king and empress even though the duke's elect the king the empress still longs to get a king from his own house on the trend he wants the world to see that the house of
hohenstein often is destined to rule. at the diet of months the medieval dream of empire seems really gone. but dot clouds are gathering. the air at twilight on holy whitson a strong wind came from the west and caused many buildings to collapse what the divine power had signaled was not taken as a good sign. these are the words of the chronicler auto of santa claus in a devastating storm causes the backdrops of the diet to collapse many have killed
or injured a bad omen say many and indeed it's the beginning of the end. the end. nothing at. age sixty seven barbarossa sets off on a crusade to gerson and whether christian west and islam both have their sacred sites although the city is under muslim rule. but the am pro will never get that. he drowns in a referendum at least and never reaches the holy land a tool so in the end what has he achieved the ng and. they think yeah i don't think the balance sheet looks too good he ultimately had to admit defeat in his struggle with the pope was the jews didn't appear it is court anymore and his italian policies had failed and
then hoof. the italian and yet we still have to say that frederick barber also quickly became a legend and went down in german history as a great man supposedly good to do is put on a par with charlemagne or less cited carter. school student. in fact posterity has made him greater than he really was this morning went in the kids' toys and mountains into reindeer was dedicated to him at the end of the nineteenth century i am legend has it that this is his final resting place and that one day he will return to restore the holy roman empire in all its glory i have a grandiose misconception if ever there was one. the end
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dot com africa on the most. odd loony. tune to. this is g.w. news live from bar led political paralysis and italy's barks talk of fresh elections the man tapped to become italy's stopgaps prime minister failed to secure support for his cabinet picks and may not even been speech sworn in as disagreement brains italians could be sent back to the polls as early as july. and fueling