tv Doc Film - The Germans - Otto and the Empire Deutsche Welle June 3, 2018 11:15am-12:00pm CEST
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at the heart of europe a region in change a country that took a long time to unify people who only stunted regarding themselves as german as the centuries progressed. did they come from. questions about the history of the german people. there is no. mention of the germans in the tenth century the tribes of the
bavarians saxons swabian and franks are connected mainly by their language a common external enemy strengthens their cohesion one who wants to seize the moment and rule is king over the german territories and as emperor over christian europe ato the first. seven contingents from german tribes twelve thousand fighters from bavaria the frankish territory swabian lorraine and bohemia have followed their kings call for help otto is pinning his hopes on a decisive battle the magyars have never fought against king author but they are
confident of victory. last their reputation precedes them as it has been for year after year more than fifty times already the dreaded horsemen from the steps have swept into the empire on plundering raids they burned down castles towns and churches and caused a bloodbath among the populace nobody was spared the words of a chronicler that's why the magyars were called enemies of mankind and of christianity. let them come last have courage god will protect us. everything is it stank for king auto his crown and his vision of becoming an emperor as powerful as charlemagne. the german tribes are united as they fight
a common enemy it's a life and death situation. in . germany in the tenth century inhospitable landscapes and ancient forests fragmented lacking fixed bulldoze home to four million people at this point in time its future is still uncertain. forty. nine thousand years before the battle of let's face it auto is still just the duke of saxony he's on his way to hour one with his six year old son leo doth who's jew to succeed him one day almost all of his subjects are
peasants most of themselves living on the breadline no one talks yet of a king of the germans or. the kingdom of germany is a land of jukes some tribes open up with. and they elect a common king arthur's father king henry has died a successor must be chosen from among his sons and crowned here in athens that's why autumn has convened all the juice and the highest ranking counts from all of the tribes the history of the germans can be said to begin here with the arrival of author the first charlemagne's imperial palace not only the nobility have shown up chroniclers report that many commoners have come to.
archbishop heard about of mines greets auto. auto once to be crowned henry successor in the palace chapel the mortal remains of charlemagne are buried here he is venerated by the germans and the french as the father of the nation. in the year eight hundred forty three his grandchildren divide up the frankish empire into the kingdoms of west frank here middle frank here and east frankie and they are home to four old germany tribes saxons franks swabian and bavarians these lands would one day become the do chill land the land of the germans there is only one image of otto's father king henry an almost unrecognizable one on a seal he breaks with charlemagne's tradition in order to secure authority he doesn't divide up the realm among his sons just one of them is to be king otto it's
the first step towards a kingdom of the germans. the monk change reports in his chronicle what takes place on the day of the coronation and. it's a time when hardly anyone can read let alone write not even the nobility as a result grand gestures and significant rituals are needed they made him king according to their custom then they promised him advice and assistance the chronicler vidocq and reporters line of fire your enemies are my enemies your friends are my friends i wish to be loyal and at your side which will talk candid and ability to your boy don't give advice on. the duke's pledge their future to their king the monocle most always know. it's the tribal chiefs and the nords who
choose the room from the day of autos carnation on this electoral principle will hold for almost nine centuries. in others case the vote for the king is still accompanied by the consent of the people if you accept this choice raise your right hand to heaven. lead you can the monk reports that the people accepted the choice. after the first is crowned king here in the octagon of a hundred seadrill where the throne of charlemagne still stands a further thirty german rulers will follow in auto's footsteps the announcement by an archbishop heard about makes auto the representative of god on earth in line with the custom of the time. and me ma. made your head never
be without the oil of mercy. the bishop places the dia diem on his head and proclaims him king and the successor of charlemagne. of to be crowned now and in the future with eternal reward. the german kingdom was to be based on the divine will the appointment by the nords and the legacy of history he was now the king of all the german speaking tribes but would that be enough for him what's he planning must the throne of an emperor is not a king's years. when auto also sat on charlemagne's throne it was seen as outrageous hubris as if he wanted to demonstrate to claim to be emperor of all of western christendom.
out of the course of out of the great was the first medieval ruler who wanted to assert rule by one man does that lead to great resistance in his family among his brothers who wanted to be involved in the royal rules or you're right he responded to this with great violence in other cases he tried to respect claims overall we must conclude that otto the great ruled firmly trusting in god and exhibiting great tenacity consequently he. came in the middle ages a king ruled from his saddle because this realm didn't have a capital a true seat of government as a result also was an idea to enter and king touring the german lands with his almost two thousand strong entourage for a good one hundred and eighty days
a year. when the king came the towns villages i'm on a street were responsible for feeding everyone the peasants in particular were hard hit god bless the king but may he never return was a common saying. otto's first trip after his coronation and took him to the collegiate church in cleveland borg. after years of hard work restorers have revealed nero's in the crypt that had been almost totally covered up. among the many biblical scenes in the vault there is also one very one image king auto with his crown and septa more than a thousand years after it was made the restorers returned a face to this fresco from the early period of german history.
the elaborately restored collegiate church in trebling book is now a world heritage site otto felt drawn to the crypt it was his spiritual center. he was known to be pious and regularly went on pilgrimages to the grave of his father henry two who made owed his kingdom for the. basement whom you can. read as you do not the. commodity. that's what the lord's prayer sounds like in a saxon otto's language so i'm sure in the he'd. be foolish talking of beliefs as king otto didn't just have to fear his brothers who envied their fathers favoritism again and again bands of hung gary and riders rode
through the kingdom pillaging and murdering they call themselves magyars. auto now had a duty to protect his realm. and he was a devout christian. cultures will protect us lord from the marquis as are others. otto's father had built fortifications as a defense against the hung gary and riders the saxon pilots in valor for example. in times of danger the people could withdraw to faults behind ramparts ditches and palace saying it's. the king gave the past. since land and weapons he also had grain stored so that his
subjects could withstand longer sieges. half. half. the ramparts of that saxon fort are still visible today but back then they were not enough to prevent the my gallant's from invading the kingdom. because all to move from place to place some of his subjects would have seen him and spoken to him. one of his school. where this week. and scott from out of the book equal my. father you learn english young we've had a lit up a very long to be don't go but not even angus male or the new one will be. free for
the young more. really we haven't begun mean. invoke winning theocratic gun gun he got his nom. yeah i. mean. how do we know what language the people spoke back then. were the tribes in autos kingdom able to understand each other. the east. the monastic library of design gallon in switzerland contains many treasures from the early middle ages manuscripts provide insight into how the germans communicated back then the oldest book in the german language was written by monks in around eighty eight hundred it's a dictionary for travelers the codex. the word exams motorized
sounds similar to the modern german word xanth muti or gentle while the mood i sounds similar to di mucci or humble the spot from an english one language and they understood each other even though they had strong dialects. of day varian franconia saxon manic. sometimes communication was difficult from time but what we call old high german today is of somewhat artificial georgian and it's not one language that people actually spoke english alter the great caused a stir in bavaria with his saxon dialect vitally of thing only there's concrete testimony to that but for. the muck to book rider is believed to be a likeness of auto the ambitious king's enemies included not any some of his brothers but some jukes too he could only secure his power he knew if he expanded
his own ancestors lands the most powerful german speaking tribe the saxons lived here on the eb or around the year one thousand. baht or the first transform the in significant fishing village in market of my god to book into the rose city of marketable he had it surrounded by a wall and churches built a royal palace and a cathedral. mack to bork remained one of germany's most magnificent cities until its destruction in the thirty years war plan. after it's gone thick reconstruction of the cathedral was one of the largest in germany the in throne couple were chiseled into sandstone in around twelve forty one of the most beautiful sculptures of the german middle ages. it's believed to depict king auto and his first wife at eton when autos beloved wife died
he married again. he chose adelaide of burgundy the widow of the italian king otto has a young son with her henrich. his son from his first marriage leo dauth who's long since grown up he was already there at the coronation are one up until now he was regarded as the rightful successor to his father's throne. well well with le tally and. stop it at once leave it all on and tell him to stop show respect for the future king.
as artist did you say king yes. age being our league i am a legitimate heir. are you going to break it all for her. my father my father is silent. so i must answer nobody could know how far leo doff would go to assert his claim to the throne and what a nice he would seek out. in the year nine hundred fifty three the magyars attacked auto's kingdom once again. and they set fire to castles and towns and caused such a bloodbath that there was threats of total depopulation. the words of
a chronicle of the enemies of god and mankind as the magyars were called at the time managed to get all the way to the rhine a nice way via needles dutchy remained unscathed. otto's son had decided not to fight the magyars and to negotiate with them instead like other nobleman he tried to quench the mag yards green for loot with gold and silver. but leadoff wanted mall he met with hawker boot school the military leader. again. tell him i know of even greater spoils for you. didn't just want to buy himself out with the. they were to undermine his father's power and help him assert his claim to the throne
used to declare you really king arthur's son. you know yes his firstborn knows all. about what he wants to take the crown from a vision and i companion will lead you to the rhine you'll find more treasure there than one man can carry help yourself to my father's riches. need all spanked with the magyars became known he was not just risking his father's room but also opening up the land to the mike johanns what then happened in a hostile in middle franconia maybe exactly how the lay of hilda planned to trace the father some conflict. the warriors examined their gear prepared their armor and buckled their swords two men of the same blood father and some.
odd. but what have you done to me what have you done to me. if you are much more disloyalty will you show me. aren't you my flesh and blood on . fire you're taking everything the crowd my honors my pride. submit yourself to your father never it's. such a game. nick. cleared off is a will to flee from aust time my own son is my worst enemy otto laments.
little finds a place of refuge in hagen's book on the river danube auto besieges the episcopal city for six weeks a famine ensues the gates are open that same night reagan's book almost burns down to the ground but near dove manages to flee again will he continue to fight against his father would he seek help from the magyars again. neither can the chronicler reports the following incident the king has gone hunting in a place called soup of doom when suddenly a ragged warrior and his the count it's leo dog otto son he is isolated himself with his treason the jukes close ranks on the side of the king.
stand with my son. doth was gripped by the deepest removes he swore to be a bt and henceforth and to fulfill his father's every wish the words of the chronicler as he is king by the grace of god otto feels bound to show mercy to his last son but leo daughter has forfeited any right to succeed auto to the throne. laugh. now auto confront the external enemy they must drive out the maggie outs with united forces the king coups the worriers from all the tribes across the realm to come to lay his fish yeah oprah's book the town is under siege by the magyars and
refuses to surrender. ah ah the cross of oil in the church of saint africa still commemorates the siege more than a thousand years later the people of iraq spoke well hoping that auto would liberate them with his confederation of tribes. defense against the heathens was organized by bishop he rode against the magyars knowing he might die if he said. legend has it that oughta munched on the plane a village fete with all the warriors from the kingdom under his banner.
the contingents came from bavaria swabian behemoths from. tonia and lorraine. most of the warriors were provided by powerful bishops. under the banner of st michael often managed to assemble an army that was truly enormous by the standards of the time twelve thousand man it was to be a decisive battle. down the magyars have destroyed our towns set our churches on fire and killed many people and here's your fight that hurt it should we retreat from the enemies of god and mankind in our own country one in finding gutters on the mentions of if i can last last. night and we must show firm courage in the face of these heathens and their
old dusty advice the sex among the two killed was the only one to report auto speech on the less fit plane his account was clearly intended to portray a whole roic image of the king the coast area to. get stuffed in our letters speak with our swords instead of our tongues yeah there's question. father in heaven give us life and victory. later generations would call this moment on the next fed the birth of the german it's. the lunts king alter carried at the battle of let's face it is part of the imperial regalia that i'm now kept in vienna.
comparative invest. asians show it to date back to the time of charlemagne when this type of luntz was common. but it has gone down in history as the holy lands. to the insect not assist in the time of alter the great the holy lands were seen as a symbol of authority its owner was seen as the true bearer of kingship his own life the holy lands held the special power because it was seen as a relic with which a special part of christ's passion had survived and even fear. legend has it that a roman soldier stabbed the crucified christ in the sight with this nonsense as a result auto and his warriors believed it to be holy. this classification as a relic gave it an aura of a weapon that would bring victory yet would bolster also the greater interest
troops in battle if you had it you were invincible. bad. as chos know wide open plain. let them come. he has his armor dried has form long lines there to keep close drags. on and. let them come. last have courage god protect us. the holy lance was to sanctify this battle otto's worry is believe the magyars to be healed their archers are formidable they can kill from the fun the agile horsemen avoid close up combat.
i. they don't aim at specific targets instead they fire devastating scattered volleys . but this time auto's army is better equipped than many arrows bounce off their shields and the chainmail also provides protection his rank stand firm much to the magyars surprise that's what auto has been banking on. man on words i. now the kings riders take the offensive. half. the braver man among the enemies
resisted in the beginning but when they saw how their fellow warriors were playing they were surrounded by hours and were killed one after the other. that's how the chronicle describes the back of. the magyars one not equipped for one on one combat. they only had like weapons and nothing with which to combat the losses and long swords of their opponents. the victory at left for it gives the author the standing he once as a chosen defender of god and glorious monic he now sees himself summoned to high up on he shows no mercy. no magyar returns home those who are captured are decapitated and their leader is not the only man to be hanged
it's a brutal revenge but the battle of lestrade is a turning point. and you need a larger audience and if auto the great had been defeated it probably would have meant that they would have had to start paying tribute to the magyars the heroes and maybe auto would have fallen from all this would have meant that the kingdom would have been organized as individual tribes again but victory at lesh failed gave otto the great and uncontested position you seek of the unleashed its he's recognised across western europe and from the east and you can definitely say that this was an important part of creating an identity in east frank you know which then later led to the german empire or its from bushnell or from baton rouge.
king auto was now called the great defender of the fatherland. the joint victory it less phage brought the german tribes closer together. the ground was taking shape stretching from the outside to the north sea and the baltic and to the arab and the xylo in the east. but also had even greater ambitions he wanted to follow in the tradition of the brown men and prince much charlemagne to become emperor he had to go to italy in sixty one when the pope code for his help pope john the twelfth is being pressured by the king of italy who contested the pontiff claim to rome was victorious and established his own rule in italy.
he went to rome on the roads of the form of seasons. otto the great was fifty years old by now a ripe old age. he entered the capital of the ancient roman empire as king he wanted to return home as emperor. the romans weren't impressed. now you eternal rome have been taken by the saxon king the saying went. on the spot where michelangelo's basilica of st peter's now stands the pope once pronounced charlemagne the emperor of the christian west. the same was to happen this time it is said that auto was crowned emperor on this round stone made of porfiry emperor of
a realm that would one day be known as the holy roman empire of the german nation. a chronicler reports that the romans and italy's princes didn't like the oath that otto swore when the pope made him emperor. in the use of force in the name of christ i swear that i will forever be the protector and defender of this holy roman church and all its territories you're fighting in fun to receive the symbol of glory. this is how the allegiance between the german king and the roman pontiff was forged in the name of the father the son and the holy ghost. otto had achieved his goal of being the successor of charlemagne in europe signal glorify the symbol of glory the imperial crown the most significant item in the imperial regalia. it's now in the treasury of the whole football palace in vienna
it said that author the great was crowned m. pro with it for centuries this crown would be the symbol of the empire. order. for a. king david and king solomon autos role models everything he does is done in the name of the lord. barony at a guess a regnant through may kings reign. corner and because this crown and the imperial honor gave the emperor a primacy over all the other kings in europe and it was more honor but not greater power all the holy roman emperors wore those crown until eighteen or six years or
addition by hands. from now on empire was part of german history sometimes as a unifying force between the german nobility pushing for autonomy sometimes as a trigger for war and division but the notion of empire united the germans across borders and religion after the end of the holy roman empire of the german nation in the early nineteenth century. mythical notion of empire was revived in eight hundred seventy one in the second empire of the kaiser's. hitler's third highest tried to appropriate the regalia for itself but in the end germany faced the mockery of the victorious allies. the ruler from the saxon nobility was now king of the germans king of italy and
holy roman emperor. he was called the darling of the world and the head of the whole globe. i am. his challenges grew with his empire. otto felt drawn to italy the saxon and his warriors like the south. otto and his entourage spent ten years in italy where they had to assert themselves against powerful opponents against italian princes byzantines and arabs. are and the long absence from the land of his birth was seen as the king since. it was said that his kingdom had been off and that's the price he paid for a european empire that was also contested by the byzantine empire in the southeast
. since auto cannot defeat by santi i'm he seeks to create peace through marriage. from his son who was to marry a byzantine princess but the plan didn't go all together smoothly. until you were promised the empress daughter and step they want to force the distant relatives on the house she. she is not born in the purple that is fraud. dear lika. she isn't worthy of any. send the bastard back. the emperor wanted to find a conciliatory solution and made
a decision for his son. in . the high school and what is your name. till you found no. tayo far no. auto except to the bride for the sake of peace. one of the most beautiful marriage certificates of the middle ages attests to the union between two worlds that now recognised each other. the second and three often no wood room together but what was their legacy.
zada brick torn and dusty side we should emphasize that the period of otto the great reign contained several milestones on the way towards a german history it starts with these are mired. in the battle of last felt on the empire and with that author the great didn't nuff for germany's history to do for the torch we shifted. after many years in italy otto longed for the land of his fathers again we took into his chronicler wrote he returned to gen mania with great wealth and victorious troops trail farno. what are you reading. it says here your land horrifies people with its marshes and forests and you drink an intoxicating grew of barley and wheat about whom does it say that. about your ancestors the german a papal says why do romans call you to chant lightly because they fear us the
two tongues who want invaded italy and now they're ampara is a saxon he stands x. in your case. you need an eye out they also dismissively call you to. detach. oh they're stuck up romans they only like latin they despise the languages of the demonic peoples money. they went to rome with auto the great has saxons swades francs and but variance they returned home with the imperial crown and the name the italians gave them they would soon become accustomed to the name and eventually use it themselves deutsch and germans.
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