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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  June 7, 2018 9:30am-10:00am CEST

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but what does all of this mean for economic inequality around the world you guys are starting to play as war here the response to that statement should be yes we are starting clarence walked here. the rich the trash the exclusive record stores in journalism on t w. hello and welcome to tomorrow today with a brand new look. coming up why trees are chatting with our some social media. why the shift from an agrarian world to an industrialized one destructed our body clock. and how the european flat oyster is returning to germany's north sea.
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but first what do parachutes have in common with dandelion seats well they both utilize the same overflight many human feats of engineering mimic nature. cars are inspired by the aerodynamically efficient shape of a penguin. and where to be ideas for velcro come from. sticky bird or plants of course many of the tools we use mimic nature's designs in medicine to. the natural history museum insta count is an impressive archive charting nothing less than the history of evolution. it's a place that all of the sharks loved even as a boy when he did an internship here he had an opportunity to explore it in depth he was for. personated by the details of the exhibits the filigree structure of
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insects for example it appeals to the budding engineer in him. what's extraordinary is that even though insects are so tiny they can muster a lot of strength so they've developed high precision multi purpose tools for feeding reproducing and defending themselves. in sex have been self optimizing for millions of years. one point i realized that all these functions that insects have developed could be applied in medicine specifically in the field and. that's how he ended up working in medical bio nics applying biological methods and systems found in nature to engineering and technology. this is the sort of thing that inspires him the all the positive of the whole. thin as
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a hair. can drill holes into wood several centimeters deep. with the help of a model of the positive all of us funds and his team at the front of the institute for manufacturing engineering have transferred its operating principle to author pete exaggerate. the secret of the drilling method used by insects which we recreated here is that it isn't a standard rotary drone but rather a pendulum drill composed of three parts moving up and down and grating the surface a way to create a cavity. the advantage of this grating drill method is that it's possible to chill cavities a fairy switch and square as well as round and triangular one this is why it's so well suited to surgical purposes such as inserting implants that need to fit the tightly as possible a prosthetic hip joint. for example. for
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a dental implant all of us found is currently developing a prototype. to have. challenges scaling down the parts to pen size we're working towards that slowly but surely. just. another surgical tool inspired by nature with a bone punch it's currently awaiting approval in the us. it lends itself well to enter vertical discs surgery of tissue that are pressing on a nerve need to be removed. most punches can only remove small quantities of tissue at a time so surgeons need to keep emptying them this increases the risk of infection one of the shots is new orthopedic punch reduces that risk by sucking the cartilage into a shelf it significantly speeds up the surgical procedure. one of the sharks got the idea from snakes and the way pythons and anacondas swallow their prey the key
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factors are the structure of their skulls and their backward curved filings snakes special lines jaws allow them to swallow their food whole however launched their prey. is that the snakes jaws move dependently of each other. that its teeth backwards so that boot is gradually pushed back through the mouth into the stomach. imitated this principle by constructing two rows of teeth that move against each other shifting the particle backwards. backwards and right into the bone punch simple but clever. nature is a huge source of inspiration for technological solutions take the chordal fin of bony fish for example.
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it's normally you would expect it to bulge that way if you apply pressure newark it was just this way. the bony spines of the fin bend in the opposite direction to the water pressure. use this principle to develop a productive forceps which can grip delicate tissue without damaging it. but he has yet to find an investor for the four steps to actually bring them on to the market . the difficulty with biopics is that you need to have a lot of stamina because it takes a long time to develop a functioning prototype. the advantage is that it often leads to innovation that's highly useful and locations. all of us far also keen to show. children well they can find inspiration from nature he came
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up with an idea for educational installations much to suit and botanical gardens. the first to say that we've noticed that schoolchildren are failing to make their own observations in biology class so if that then even university students taking courses in genetics and the regular biology aren't making their own observations or working in a little so what we want to do is counter that trying to start. his own observations have shown that nature both an amazing trove of insights and innovations just waiting to be discovered. smart technology has made our lives are a lot easier but in some ways the digital world has created more stress. that was the subject of this week's viewer question on facebook. do you think social media is addictive if yes how do you deal with it. has
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a simple solution he deactivates his account from time to time. garcia who of chile says sometimes i'm surrounded by people but i still feel lonely because no one saying anything. frederic nelson of kenya says he's tried deactivating facebook three times well we're glad he's still following us and sarah member of spain says she sometimes feels she has an other life beside the real one . we're all a master in our smartphones and online twenty four seventh's the pace of life has never been as fast as it is today flocks of us feel a need to escape now on them. for a hike in a forest perhaps. but think again these days even the
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trees are on social media. the birds aren't the only ones tweeting here in this outdoor lab a pine tree is also tweeting updates on its rate of growth and how much water it's transported. today it's shrunk by zero point zero four millimeters and transported just two point eight seven leaders of water to its crown that's not enough for a pine tree of this size. forest researchers tanya saunders and andreas balta closely monitor the pine trees tweets. the forest in eastern germany is struggling to cope with the dryness resulting from climate change. the two scientists are looking for ways to help the forest adapt to further environmental challenges. the moment. we had six trees tweeting in the netherlands belgium and here in brandenburg. we
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plan to add more trees from the north and south of that we can figure out which species are best equipped to deal with dryness at each location income the team also has another project examining the effects of dryness on young trees. this year the researchers have planted spruce saplings from a range of different regions in the outdoor stress test lab here one group is exposed to such extreme levels of dryness that some start to die a comparison group are kept well watered the researchers examine the water content of the saplings and their photosynthesis activity to establish at which point the plants start to die. there's a reason why the researchers are using young trees. the mondays are. on and we're experimenting with samplings because they represent the next generation of forests
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and for you if the forests don't regenerate there won't be a next generation here we've identified that the provenance of the spruces meaning the region they come from plays a major role in it as you can see this one here can cope much better with dry conditions than this one here which is almost dead. their studies help the researchers advise forestry businesses which trees they should replant. cats are allowed to go forth from the state forestry center and and brandenburg are doing similar work. today there in the short height of forest taking samples from a range of oak saplings they planted amid pines. scientists agree that mixed woodland is the future forest made up of a variety of trees which can adapt to changing environmental conditions. not all
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these oak saplings come from brandenburg some are from six southern european countries this one is from boca area for example. the researchers take leaf samples from a sessile oak to see if the trees from the south are better adapted to train this than their brandenburg cousins. then they flash freeze the leaves and cold arise them each. the resulting powder is dissolved and examined for amino acids. these biomarkers indicate how the oaks respond to environmental factors. you have to. look at the white line charts the one from the area and shows a lot of stress in adaptive response the brandenburg one barely reacts at all. so obviously not all oaks are the same. there's a broader range and that means we can select the oaks best suited to changing
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climates that's our goal it's like. here's a glimpse of what a forest might look like in the future a mix of tree species with a range of origins which have all been tested for their resilience to climatic conditions. in mozambique meanwhile one scientist is using high tech to combat deforestation go to d.w. dot com slash science to find out. early riser. or is there nothing you enjoy more than a liar. which crow type he was depends on your genes. humans and animals even plants follow what's called s acadian rhythm. but sometimes our internal biological clock gets out of kilter. that takes
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a toll on our physical and mental well being. and prehistoric times humans lived and slept outdoors the rhythms was synchronized with the sun we were active during the day and we rested at night that was still the case after humans began farming animals and growing crops around twelve thousand years ago midday was timed by when the sun was at its highest point but that changed over the millennia. just. like the invention of railway trains in the early nineteenth century people were able to cover huge distances across land departure and arrival times had to be coordinated together with timetables. passengers were now forced to reset the cops at railway stations a logistical headache and just one of various reasons behind the need to establish a universal to. time which had far reaching consequences.
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as industrialization progressed people so less and less sunlight instead of working outdoors many now spend the day time in factories. the sun no longer played the role of alarm clock and lamp as it had done in the past. people now have to act against the natural sea kadian rhythms and organize their days and nights according to the new time regimen. the cost of the machines in the factories meant they had to be run at maximum capacity leading to the introduction of night shifts. that in turn depended on electrical lighting which revolutionized people's lives in the early twentieth century bringing light to the factories and into the night time streets.
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people are now working at times when they would previously have been asleep their lives now run contrary to their body clocks as a result biological repair and regeneration processes were compromised. that's still the case today and the emergence of notebooks and smartphones means we now even take out official light to bed with us we deceive our bodies into thinking it's still daytime. meanwhile we live in twenty four hour consumer societies with round the clock supermarkets and hotline services and a growing proportion of the global workforce working in rotating shifts. we may believe that we can be awake or sleep whenever we want but it's our health that pays the price for this unnatural behavior. night or day today's world never stop spinning we travel across times out and we're
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up to date with news whenever and wherever it's happening. much of modern life is made possible by satellites some of them travel in sync with the earth's rotation. around show vieira from brazil sent us the question. what's the usual distance between satellites and how far are they from earth. the first satellites were launched more than sixty years ago and there are currently thousands of them orbiting the globe at different altitudes depending on the job they do. most are in low earth orbit or leo an altitude of up to two thousand kilometers in the lower part of this region are satellites that monitor the earth the international space station also orbits in the stone. medium earth orbit or meo accommodate satellites at distances of two thousand to thirty five thousand kilometers from
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earth this region of space is frequented by navigation satellites. the next level at just under thirty six thousand kilometers is geostationary orbit satellites here follow the direction of the earth's rotation they're typically used for telecommunications including global television broadcasts each geostationary satellite is assigned to a box around one hundred kilometers wide the distance to the next box is around five hundred kilometers geostationary satellites have a habit of drifting out of orbit due to factors such as the earth's uneven gravity distribution. once a geostationary satellite reaches the end of its mission or has become redundant it can end up in a graveyard orbit this is located several hundred kilometers above its operational altitude. the problem here is the resulting space junk that's accumulated over the decades scientists are intensifying their efforts to dispose
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of the on wanted debris. if outlet is red white i mean i don't mean. to you have a question then just on sc in return will send you a small surprise send us your question by. text message or voice mail we love hearing from. you all find us at d w dot com slash science or troublesome sign at d w underscore sidetrack. or on facebook d w science. time now to hold our breath and go diving in the depths of the north sea for pounds these are european oysters. they can change sex in the course of their lifetime.
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and fish lay eggs inside their shells. and they can filter an astonishing two hundred forty liters of water a day but they need a happy time. until one hundred fifty years ago the species austria edel is populated huge swathes of the north sea european flat oysters thrived on seabeds off the coast of germany and the netherlands. but then overfishing decimated the natural oyster population disease and cold winters also took their toll. now the species is practically extinct here in the german bite a bay on germany's north sea coast. but not dead from the alfred vega institute for polar a marine research has teamed up with germany's federal agency for nature conservation their aim is to reintroduce european factoids to to the german point. yes.
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it's a big challenge but we want to resettle the species there starting on a small scale in selecting which locations make most sense in terms of environmental factors and then we need to decide how big a scale we want to work with. european flowers to each filter over two hundred liters of water per day. they form reefs structures on the seabed that can provide a habitat for a range of other species. this is another reason why the scientists are so eager to resettle them. but they need to conduct some background research before the oysters can be returned to the sea. they grow best on the shells of their deceased predecessors. as these are now long gone the researchers have to find substitute
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materials to serve as artificial reefs. to find out which substrate is most suitable the scientists provide a range of samples for the oyster larvae to live on. under the microscope they can see how many oysters have attached to the substrate indicating which material is the most attractive for the animals. seed is those types at least the aim is to produce oysters on a suitable substrate. and that will involve adding the substrate that proved to be the best one in our experiments to a breeding facility. the larvae will be able to settle on it and grow to a certain extent. and then the substrate with the living oysters will be taken out of the german bite to the areas that we've chosen to resettlement is also bearing. the european flat oysters used by the scientists are sourced from farms in fronts.
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the larvae supplied from there that are now growing in the lab have had no contact with sea water. this generally and shows that the young oysters are free of pathogens. the researchers have several thousand of these so-called seed oysters to experiment with. he also doesn't yet have the oysters are now half a year old it's been six months since they were brought over from france they'll likely be transferred to the field experiment in the north sea in the autumn instead experiment and not equal. the first field experiments are aimed at identifying suitable locations for large scale resettlement. areas around offshore wind farms are attractive because there is no trawler fishing in the surroundings. the research is generally lower the oysters in cages down to their new home. here
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they will be exposed to currents tides and other environmental conditions on the sea floor. how well will they grow in the new natural habitat. a few weeks later divers retrieve the oysters the cages the nets used to keep them in place on the seabed have practical advantages. because. it wasn't there could be a lesson that's beyond also that all we have to guarantee that we can always find our least is and carry out measurements and health checks and in the long term of course the idea is to resettle the oysters down there without any cages he fixed talk to i don't want to see. her colleague having fun not time is the department head at the federal agency for nature conservation. the two frequently attend
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meetings with colleagues from other countries who are running similar projects. time is optimistic about the chances of successfully resettling native european oysters in the north sea. it evokes in the hope the animals grow six to eight centimeters in one year at the age of three four or five years they become sexually mature as with boys of years. and that means that if we can manage to establish an initial batch on the seabed we'll be able to produce baby oysters in a cycle of three or four years ideally and that's promising for the future idea of music were to pass. a future in which the european flood or star may once again benefit the ecosystem of the north sea. next week we'll be heading into space with astronaut alexander gast astro onyx.
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the international space station's first german commander. come with us as we go where no show has gone before. until then go back.
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entered the conflict zone. i guess this week you mean telling me because the film israeli prime minister whose home was fewer than the invasion of gaza in two thousand and eight what are you still it's not about the recent violence along the border and the first from an israeli prime minister who went to jail for corruption how is it that he has no regrets conflict so for him thirty minutes d.w. . how the germans came together in one nation
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from shall the money going to chancellor although from bismarck. the history of the germans has been shaped like great learners. i swell always to bring my royal college of that to protect christendom and spread this line truth. if you please will learn to focus. all week so call back the people of the enemy in job. and stand by courageous decisions the close ups toes your masters we have received the crown of our own from god not from his presumptuous servant not the elements of his whole fucking soccer player he must forge peace. the germans every week w. . played.
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we have a terrible problem with biofuels right now in this in that they're eating they're taking food. so i've made a prediction that about a century from now maybe two. we have a new industry that grows up that supplies carbon for industry. if you can imagine making synthetic fuels out of carbon that you broke. with plants it will be in salt water comes to syria will be in the ocean and the reason it goes if it's on fresh water supplies water it competes for food that is a perfectly possible scenario.
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this is d w news coming to you live from time is running out to find survivors of guatemala's massive volcanic eruption the death toll is close to a hundred and many others are still missing and there are warnings of the volcano erupt again in the days ahead also coming up today one point four million turkish citizens living here in germany begin.

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