tv Doc Film - The Germans - Barbarossa and the Lion Deutsche Welle June 10, 2018 11:15am-12:00pm CEST
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for most of the second millennium eighteen central europe is divided into a patchwork of states and only really starts to become unified toward stand it takes centuries for its people to start to see themselves as german. who rather watch his dad passed. my. questions about what counts india has a german history. this is frederick the first of the house of horn dolphin. elected king of the germans in
eleven fifty two his round stretches all the way down into southern italy but he harbors a wider ambition to become empress of the west powerful rivals challenge him one of them is call my ally and lead the land. of the air . an important visitor to the eternal city the citizens of around haven't seen a german king for two decades but the guest from the north is by no means welcomed because of his red beard the romans call him bob as awesome. long as. you state i'm not comfortable among these romans this isn't what sharing looks like
so what are you doing in italy anyway an empire without italy no henrich no emperor without rome. the engine drome end it sees as an eternal role model for europe's later lives the traditions of the roman empire have been associated with the german kingdom since the tenth century the germans have now been comune as of italy for the past two centuries the the ng and has the pope crowned the german king autoload the great holy roman emperor in nine sixty two making hand the protector of christianity in the west. the end of the frederick baba rasa from the house of holiness dolphin is the tenth german king to wed the roman imperial crown the newly crowned emperor. is accompanied by his
cousin henry the lion of saxony from the valve to mistake henry sees himself as an equal to bob at asa. was about you had language. so should i fall to my knees before my cousin. just not before your cousin before your emperor. but bather rasa owes his elevation to dance like henry they have the right to annex the gentle king but the imperio crown puts him above all of them the emperor is crowned by the pope and he wants to be at least his age. the. cause a fatally shot of us have yet integral contemporary sources petraeus emperor
frederick barber also as being of average height with a red face and blond hair and his red beard of course was and he probably wasn't a great beauty but he must have had great charisma and invested a great deal in an imperial aura of it that was unpopular with some companies going on. not least in rome the proud romans are particularly self-confident at this time and an empress who really wants to rule uncontested needs to court their favor but the people of the eternal city we're bound they haven't been asked about who should be empress or the pope had decided ellen possibly influenced by frederick's magnificent gifts. sixty shields to the emperor. of. babel rosslare and his entourage are surprised by the anger of the wrong ones
they're in danger. start. to. think i can read the law and shows his control of the situation. thank you i thank you cousin feel courage and loyalty is everything for the emperor and his route. to lyon proved a worthy of his name he was to not let bob or rather forget it frederick the first has come south his king he returns as empress if baba russell wants to rule in the north and south of his empire he will have to cross the alps a difficult undertaking the end. his empire in the middle of the twelfth century he is king of the germans and
wields imperial power in italy and burgundy but the powerful valve setting and bobbin bed and vittles bathhouses rule in the german world the house of whole inch dolphins' own land a mainly in the southwest. the empty fells castle in the south and polite in it is considered impregnable frederick barasat comes here often the house of polish dolphin who shaped german history for almost a century. and. the king returns home he brings peace to a land inhabited by six million people after decades of up people. ninety percent of his german subjects are peasants living in the most basic conditions. to him. kissing the hem of the king's garment is meant to bring good
luck babar us or is also another matter it came moving from palace to palace like his predecessors there is no actual center of power. in the house and palace on the considered river not far from modern frankfurt barbarossa had it built the red sandstone ruins are evidence of a once magnificent castle compound that combined a courtroom royal court and accommodation under one roof. among the traces the row building left behind we can also find his heraldic beast the eagle. eyed lark by the rats in their antique guise of tights the eagle was already the symbol for a world ruled during the empire in the bible was a. barber also who made great use of ancient symbols and traditions from the roman empire took it up and it has been
a symbol of the holy roman empire ever since sides yet dustin born in the skies of times. a reconstruction reveals the ideal imperial palace it symbolized the very idea of empire architecture and. the end the ground floor the floor for subjects it's the supporting foundation for the rule of the imperial family who live on the first floor above the empress floor is the level of the rush the empire the north opera claimed in this whole this is wes an odd sound imperial diet's take place that's room is reserved for the king and empress the center of the empire is wherever he happens to be and baba ross's empire grows during the years of his reign not least westwards. puts
book in eleven fifty six an event of european importance and troels the bishop seat on the revenue line for a few days. the end. of the. thirty four year old frederick barbarossa is getting married his bride is sixteen year old fatima so fuckin day it's an international dream wedding the minstrels of the realm vied to outdo each other in praising the beauty of the young noble. a woman as witnesses to the events reported. the i am i in. the chronicle of the bishops of votes book says in the weeks after whitson emperor frederick wed banty's the daughter of the count of burgundy inverts book and
consummated his marriage. laws the consummation of the marriage of bad space and frederick is to be witnessed by dignitaries from the empire from england france and poland. in the legal understanding of the day it was an important act of state necessary to vilify the union between the emperor and the contents of both the marriage is primarily a political enemy and. the wedding was depicted centuries later in a monumental sealing fresco in the staircase at the residence the bishop's palace in football burgundy as part of the empire again a peaceful conquest. the end of the north the emperor's cousin henry the lion ruses duke of saxony he has his heraldic emblem erected in front of his castle
in bronze fight it is likely that work on the largest map of the high middle ages measuring almost four metres in diameter started at his court during his lifetime. it's a monumental testimony to the attempt to reconcile the teachings of christianity with new geographical insights the errors in i'm still lies at the center i am i am at the top of the ebb stoff map. is the head of jesus christ he holds the world together a map which is drawn on another base was completed by henry's successes the alms of brown tried the ancestral seat of the both in the state portray a fearsome lion. the inspiration came from the lion monument in front of dunc bada hoda council it was
a bronze wax spectacular for its day that the bronze lion of braunschweig is a symbol of the duke who said of himself in an inscription on a coin i had read of balanced by and the lion and indeed the lion is mankind's oldest symbol of power from the ancient oriental empires to the greek and roman empires bronze is an imperial material and by using it henry put himself on this highest level. on the same level as the emperor barber author and the lion face to face. also made of prongs but gilded the captain bad head of bopper rasa frederick had it made during his lifetime it's more than a man portrayed. his head rests on the walls of rome the symbol of the christian roman empire that he rules but
something is missing a headband that diadem like that one by the roman emperors the. scholars believe it looked something like this it also symbolizes the fact that the pope was not the sole ruler in rome the cup and the captain burkhead of bob ross is a really good way of expressing this new self-confidence of the empire symbolically placed at the same level as the holy mother church bobber also wants the pope and emperor to be equals and pops the guys up. the fight for this aqua librium flares up again eighty years after a previous showdown between empress and pope at cannot this time in business song in burgundy or the road under benelli has arrived is an emissary of the bishop of rome. yes. there are reports of the meeting between the papal emissary and the empress that hinted
a new showdown the words spoken in the name of the pope sound innocuous and fast. goudie most. inane of one hundred four times that there's disagreement about the latin word then a feat which means favor but can also be translated to mean feat in the futile sense. how could i receive my imperial honors a fine if this started by the pope. sunbeams of who else would bestow the crown upon the emperor if not the public perhaps silenced as roman whore . white. emperor frederick in no way sees himself as ruler by the grace of the pope least it was a mouse tell your lord that we have received the crown of our empire from god and not from his insolent servants. the sky the empire a sacred. stockholm sacrum imperium. the
l.s.m. guard. the ruler of an empire that holy doesn't need the blessing of the roman pope. the as the expression sacrum imperio shows up for the first time in an imperial document of eleven fifty seven a short while later this holy empire becomes the holy roman empire their vision of the german nation only comes three hundred years later and of leave all of us a lot of these of this is how an important part of the imperial title was created under frederick barbour also mentions the name holy roman empire emerged and dominated german and european history for more than six hundred years and appreciated. it's not just rome that's part of the imperio territory
northern italy is too but the affluence it is south of the alps ah particularly resistant to the imperial claims barbarossa feels cheated out of his rights and the lucrative tribute. he goes to italy for a second time in eleven fifty eight a conic less said of his entourage the number of troops was so large that even several roads were barely able to hold them all a horde of young men who confronted that this is a child's of war without fear. the intended destination of this march is the center of the resistance man this it is consul has called a citizens assembly to answer the impending threat of the air . yet the new graves citizens of the log do you want to be
a beauty and. to the arrogant germans and the subject to their laws do you really want to suffer this in your lifetimes. not going to let us die like many before we suffer the germans arak and some tearing me. what man could bear the arrogance and conceit of the germans. the arrival of the german knights creates a sense of unity in italy but in light of german superiority most northern italian city has opened their gates sensibly it only the people of man are resolute in standing up to the german and proud will. my hands and i have easier from a land was a huge city of god say my land had a population of a hundred thousand at the time an enormous city fog bigger than anything in germany
once i lined these einsatz dimiter that if you're new to clara and that was precisely why bother also had to have this total victory under his belt in order to prove his imperial position of the tide of four eggs on an album there for advice and condoms and impairing our deposits your own advice or. this siege of man goes on for months after heavy fighting the city and non-body is finally forced to surrender unconditionally. one of the most flourishing said his of the west is burned to the ground the citizens of man can save only their lives and whatever they can carry at the height of his power frederick shows no less a. piece of my land the mule because these people of my land challenge the emperor i was
forced to punish them for that it's they have no one but themselves to blame for this fate just. about it is a good b.s. victory the german on the rampage gives birth to the phrase food auto i taunt of course not least because the destruction is coupled with an historic theft. as a start to what's in there. the mortal remains of the three kings. obviously they didn't want to take them from the people of milan as highly the empire needs holy kings. babar also has the relics of the magi taken to cologne this attracts pilgrims to the city who were later done a whole lot of money from monumental construction project cologne cathedral. and no tradition was any revived at the start of the twenty first century the cathedral
pilgrimage to the shrine of the magi it's one of the most significant pieces at the high end medieval goldsmith's odd containing the mortal remains of those who saw the king of kings casbah. and bath as making them influential patrons of the city who knows that their remains have been looted from long body they help the city on the run flourish pilgrims gave lots of money while cities like cologne grow others are still to be founded. the every the land was given the duchy of bavaria by his cousin frederick barbarossa lang down markings on a green field he decides to found a market town called new mission which means at the house of the monks i
am i in really wants to go down in history as the founder of a city three centuries later the capital of the dutch if bavaria would have a population of more than thirteen thousand. the age when it became a center for trade calmness and culture one of the great citizen news of the alps. eh and after the second world war it became the capital of a self-styled free state that has remained particularly jealous of its autonomy henryetta land has monuments erected to himself in northern germany to heal is the foundations for cities such as lubec braunschweig and fifteen he highlights that there are powerful german digs too not just the emperor. loss of
a foot of it and it's pursued the traditional imperial policies that he had to pursue because italy was part of the empire and read the lie and meanwhile tried to expand his ducal role beyond the borders of the duchy of saxony in the last of idol . in the second half of the twelfth century the duke's troops move north and east slavic territories seen as pagan lands are conquered and colonized. the air even with just the two dutch is of bavaria and saxony the lion is one of the most powerful rulers in europe his advance is just the start of a german expansion eastwards where further dodges will be establishments in the future mecklenburg and pomerania for example but also the state of the teutonic knights. maori and book now mob
or castle near the polish city of the danske a huge fortress one of the biggest brick buildings in europe a symbol of german settlements in the east started by henry the lion and continued by the to tonic knights. and why it was the braunschweig cathedral is also built by the lion the powerful duke exhibits a positively kingly self-confidence in his chosen her own. his marriage to the daughter of king henry the second of england contributes to this. the gospel manuscript that henry has made for this occasion is priceless and confronts his vision of his status one depiction shows henry and his wife receiving their crown straight from the hand of god it was a sign of growing incidents. in
the eyes of other dudes and am proud the lion is getting ready to pounce to create his own that frown the magnificent rooms of his palace seem to confirm his ambitious plans in the nineteenth century damn clodagh hold a council was reconstructed in the style of the time. little blocked with dank quadrotor causal and henry's a line in around eleven seventy built himself a residence that lacks nothing a king's palace would have the power base that line was building for himself in saxony of area and the slavic territories put him in a king like position the scale of the power he wields was increasingly seen as a threat by the emperor and the other dupes he was throwing down the gauntlet from
france hog khosla ka ghosla are the silver. forevers. the lion stands up to barbarossa when the emperor asks him to come with him to italy to put down rebellions and non-body the land makes demands the silver mines of cos not fitted. i ask you as a cousin and friend and fellow fighter that. follow your emperor to italy. so don't charge me it won't be at your expense but you won't get goals were. dismissed without the silver mines in khosla the am pro wouldn't have any funds himself and then you got me in that case may god be with you cousin if i want.
is to be done i must allow you so certain of your power of saxony. this fight the empire has made your greatest. but it can crush you again today it's actually the. way the air. henry refuses to participate in the military campaign he's not violating any lure in doing so but he is still snubbing the emperor. an empire stretching from the baltic across the alps to the mediterranean can only function if barbarossa manages to incorporate the northern italian territories in the long term and he needs the wealth of the italian cities. but the long bods doesn't want to be part of an empath ruled by germans nor be its
paymaster just a few years after man's destruction its citizens have returned to the city and rebuilt it has. blown bad troops face barbarossa near lenny and open fighting breaks out between the free citizens and the imperial forces in may eleventh seventy six the embattled formation to. close the ranks. the long bods aren't just fielding a force twice the size of the imperial army sixteen thousand against eight they're also fighting for their freedom. at stake is how far the junking can actually extend his power as the holy women empress who will set limits to acclaim for that seemingly knows no limits us.
so when baba ross's banner falls he hasn't just lost. the battle. to get the traditional business off the german historians long downplayed the battle of len yarnell as having had little after effect but the actual after effect lies in the victory of citizens over the nights combined with an anti teutonic resentment that persisted in italy for a long time and. every year on the last sunday in may the people of the small town of len yana commemorate the dramatic events of the year eleven seventy six a letter written by the people of milan to that allies right after the battle also confirms the historic victory. beloved fellow countrymen don't put our triumph over the german invaders down to our arms the laurels of victory rest
only unity of all italians whose proud will rebelled against servitude. it's the first time national sentiment has developed south of the alps an italian one in opposition to the germans and their rulers are torn between the duties of a german king and the claims of a roman empress barbarossa has made enemies both in german territories and in italy his dream of a unified holy empire as it failed. to anything. the f.b.i. eleven seventy seven congress of venice marks the biggest peace conference in european history to date its aim is to strike
a balance between the interests of the germans and the italians the empress and the pope is a barbarossa had put the roman pontiff in his place. now the ruler of the holy roman empire asked to submit from now on the motto is the pope is the true emperor . in freedom for the peace of venice in eleven seventy seven and in the emperor's attempt to create direct rule with his own people in office in a saloon in entirety and after bone he lost the trial of strength with the pope from now a scapegoat was needed and that was an opportunity to settle old scores it's a human to big national. sins henry the lion refused to support her in italy he is now held to account at the imperial diet an effort he tries to assuage the empress through an act of submission.
that said forgive me my emperor. a lawyer your remorse comes too late my lord. to feed. your staff you're punishing me because i didn't follow you to italy you got used to if you weren't required to join you said so yourself and doc and yet you're taking me down because of it. it's about the honor of the empire. still hurting stan especially. of course it is a verdict that he has also reached at the behest of the german jukes who felt henry the lion had become too powerful the fool of the duke of saxony is sealed with the gang house undocking and. as
a result of clear insurgency henry of braunschweig is found guilty of insubordination he will be stripped of all the feats he received from the empire by the unanimous verdict of the dukes and you has to have official four hundred and there was no legal requirement for henry the lion to obey the imperial military call but he should. loyally but he had a moral duty of loyalty to the emperor the emperor hadn't just supported him out of a sense of duty either he was right to think henry would do things for him in return we don't know why he didn't maybe he just underestimated the conflict and its consequences he was headed in conflicts on affordable coverage. the law and his exile to england he plays no further significant role in german history henry is buried along with his wife matilda in braunschweig cathedral which he paid for himself but his son will achieve what the lion did not at the start of the
thirteenth century he had the fourth will be the only member of the house of both to be crowned holy roman empress but even then he won't recover the territories his father lost. barbarossa distributes them among the other deals in a way that ensures none of them will ever again become as powerful as the lion. you auto vittles bark shall have area. do you feel it of heinsberg archbishop of cologne shall have westphalia. its this time. next. door and you burn heart of unhealed shall rule in and gun from now on in single take you. but the fact that barbarous abyss does these territories on the german rulers in the first place shows that he still needs their support. the end.
and the more fertile the redistribution of henry's lands demonstrates the rising power of the jews in the empire is becoming increasingly important to them to be able to freely elect the king and therefore the future emperor of it it's a right that never existed in this way in france or england an elected monarchy instead of a hereditary one that's an important special feature of german history and it wasn't long before this principle was in trying to in a historical document on the golden bull of thirteen fifty six heat of the stream. for that is our federalism the strength of the states as if you will it's early roots here. with seven eleven eighty four empress frederick is hosting an enormous meeting of the imperial diet nia minds more than seventy thousand
participants are expected dukes princes knights bishops and their entourages famous poets and musicians it was a soup palate event of which the saxon world chronicle said. it was the biggest celebration ever to have taken place in the german landscape. this yes size and splendor of the diet of minds makes it essential highlight aimed at distracting attention from the defeat in italy proper also wants to demonstrate that the empire is wherever he is and that he is empress is preeminent amongst europe's rulers. twenty thousand nobles are in attendance barbarossa wants to grant the new privileges and bind them closer to him. guarantors of his power ready to defend him in oil and dependable against enemies within and without.
the air. i expect tournaments on just military exercises that the major competitions of that day anyone wanting to make a name for himself us to win here the highlight is the journalist the participants have to bring that own horses they have to control it with bridle and spurs and they have to be able to hold the lawns i get the end. bravery is rewarded with a pools as is a successful hit the lances are blunted so the colorful spectacle isn't meant to cause too much injury but many suffer injuries to more than just that quiet
i . know the diet of minds is also intended to unite the employees. adverse or is under the empire's calmness. but the duke's us don't jenna's of their autonomy they prefer to see the emperor as a first among equals rather than an or gus brewer. comparing knighthoods is a highlight of the diet a ceremonial oath turns thousands of honorable young men into knights including baba ross's sons. if we swear to protect the holy church and always to be loyal to the emperor of the holy empire
our supreme leader lord we swear to protect widows and orphans and to honor women so help us god. i. know you got theirs in the name of god st michael and st george you on our nights be brave stalwart and loyal. god thing goes on and the empires defensed for the protection of the weak and in resistance to the strong stuff it's until it's bed is love and henceforth no other. finite in his two sons frederick hopes to establish who will take over from him and read the eldest on the left here is to be the next roman german king and empress even though the duke's elect the king the empress still wants to get a king from his own house on the trend he wants the world to say that the house of
hones dolphin is destined to rule. at the diet of months the medieval dream of empire seems really gone and. i. but dot clouds are gathering. at the end at twilight on holy whitson a strong wind came from the west and caused many buildings to collapse what the divine power had signaled was not taken as a good sign. these are the words of the chronicler auto of santa claus in a devastating storm causes the backdrops of the diet to collapse many have killed or injured
a bad omen so many and indeed it's the beginning of the end. nothing at. age sixty seven barbarossa sets off on a crusade to jerusalem where the christian west and islam both have their sacred sites although the city is under muslim rule. but the am pro will never get that. he drowns in a referendum at least and never reaches the holy land a tool so in the end what has he achieved the air. they think yeah i don't think the balance sheet looks too good he ultimately had to admit defeat in his struggle with the pope was the jews didn't appear it is court anymore and his italian policies had failed and then hoof. the italian and yet we still have to say that frederick barber also
quickly became a legend and went down in german history as a great man supposedly cutting torch is put on a par with charlemagne no less to cite a counter. school certificate. in fact posterity has made him greater than he really was this morning mint in the kit is a mountain's interest was dedicated to him at the end of the nineteenth century i am legend has it that this is his final resting place and that one day he will return to restore the holy roman empire in all its glory i have a grandiose misconception if ever there was one. the end.
of the end . sixty five years of the doubling of the celebration of the congratulations from the guest of honor chancellor angela merkel once bundled stock that's you know it's a delight now folks the shift is to be a field does not begin on the gods i'm going to go in and helps me some look when starting. from the cold war to the present to sixty five years later bela has
witnessed developments in germany and europe in fifteen minutes long. slog your max highlights. the past. this region just never gets enough last. slice. the highlights. the let's cut the bullshit. germany state by state. the most colorful. the long list. of the most traditional find it all at any time. check in with a web special. take
a tour of germany state by state on d w talk calm. play play . play . kim arrives in singapore officials greet the north korean leader on the tarmac as this plane touches down ahead of tuesday's summit with u.s. president donald trump the story meeting has been described by trump as a quote one time shot and. also coming up is this the defining issue.