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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  June 17, 2018 11:30pm-12:00am CEST

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the climate used green energy solutions and reforestation. they create interactive content teaching the next generation about environmental protection and were determined to build something here for the next generation movie why do you go multimedia environment series on w. well tented tomorrow today. this week's show is all about differences and similarities we look at gender and the brain are they differences between women and men. also not everyone is born in the body they identify with me as a teenager who's undergoing a sex change. and we find out about the brains role in waking up feeling full comes not from the stomach but from your head.
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from a young age we're taught what's typically female and typically male that means pastel colored home making toys for girls and action figures in. this sense this cash in on this kind of gendered marketing. but our girls and boys women and men really that different the latest research says no. society still has typical roles for men and women deeply anchored in our culture. but are women really from venus and men from mars. with distinct characteristics and very different abilities.
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there is no denying there are some fundamental anatomical differences between the sexes. but do men and women really think and feel so differently. from modern neurological research proves what so many people believe to be true about the two genders. scientists here at the helmholtz research center and yearly are studying the structure of the brain. utilizing a groundbreaking procedure they're preparing then slices from a donor brain in order to highlight nerve pathways and other structures. one of mediate difference between male and female brains is obvious. what they consider the most striking difference is the brain size men's brains are bigger than females but that doesn't mean men's brains before and faster or better. a study from twenty
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thirteen discovered another difference it showed that the exchange of information between the left and right hemispheres of the brain is greater among women whereas connections in male brains are typically stronger between the front and back regions. this explains gender specific strengths such as greater empathy and women and spatial orientation in men. more recent studies suggest however that far from being fundamentally different our brains are more of a kind of mosaic of both female and male components. wonderfully that is in the differences within genders are higher than between genders you always hear of example citing how women have better language skills and how men better deal with spatial thinking that this is it's important to keep in mind that these conclusions often come from smaller scale studies. so if i'm
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looking at a sample of twenty fifty or one hundred people that doesn't provide an extensive picture. so what is the real picture. thousands of scientific studies have attempted to show the significant differences between men's and women's cognitive abilities. the findings showed that there are practically no differences. we are far more alike than we are different. so our differences in our behavior merely acquired through our upbringing. not necessarily there are anatomical differences deep in the oldest parts of our brain stem this is where we find the medial pre-op tick nucleus a control center only
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a few millimeters wide. it's bigger in all male mammals. and about twice as large in human males. this nerve center regulates dominance aggression and sex drives. in men they're connected in women they're separate a difference manifested in our behavior. put a spell on you. for example the desire to spontaneously engage in sex outside a relationship is higher in men than in women. men also tend to be more physically aggressive. when we say men tend to behave more like beasts there is a neural biological foundation for that. you know not just but do
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such instincts actually determine our behavior. many researchers are skeptical. and many cases men and women simply employ different strategies to achieve the same goal. so how useful is it for our understanding of gender to look at anatomical differences in the brain just doesn't i don't think we should be focusing more on real life behavior it's more complex and then focus many more factors than the limited scope behavioral scientists can observe in the lab and the restricted sampling conditions and we need to move away from the strict definitions and generally avoid the preference to distinguish between the male and the female brain . our brains constantly change over the course of our lives depending on what we learn and what we experience.
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whether our interests and our behaviors are more stereotypically female or male depends largely on our upbringing and on our cultural role models. many societies recognise more than two genders like this that protect culture in one of her mexico for instance. and on the other continents throughout history there is the three four or even most sexes. scientists make a distinction between biological tender and gender identity sometimes they're not the same and that given rise to this symbol for transgender. this is les on he's eighteen years old he chose the name himself birth he was given a girl's name. but even in primary school he knew it didn't suit him. he
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wanted to have sort ham and he hated the dresses that his mum would put him in. and i missed by cake i started secretly buying my own clothes you don't have my push them in my school bag and as soon as i got around the corner i go into the car park it will change into my boy's clothes and then continue to school because he had an after school i do the same in reverse and arrive home and girls' clothes because of. his teachers and fellow students accepted him the way he was strange is just presumed he was a boy anyway but he didn't tell his parents until he was fourteen. or and i was adopted and my parents had always wanted a girl that made everything harder because i didn't want to take that away from them father and he's not like they haven't been able to have a child of their own and can become that was the first blow to them. of a cd so now i didn't want to come along and say the nice i'm surprised it's like
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hey you don't have a daughter after all. and i was afraid of hurting them really badly and disappointing them for let's listen to him. but his parents were keen to help him they took him to a clinic that specializes in treating children and young adults with so-called gender identity disorder it's the clinic is part of munich's new think maximillian university. it's headed by alexander cortez he says the challenge is to identify where the desire to belong to the opposite sex is permanent and where it's just a faint triggered by psychological or cultural factors. studies indicate that up to eighty percent of children can experience such a face with crime the problem is there are no objective criteria and no psychological testing procedures. have to learn lab results or scanning procedures that can really. reprove transsexuality. star anderson one of the
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difficult issues is that a diagnosis and usually leads to prison treatments or. the. they in turn have side effects and long term consequences not least infertility. i'm sure and one for work hard the first time lay on went to see dr corder he had already reached puberty and was developing breasts that meant he could no longer pass is a boy it was a devastating time. of in the evenings i often sat on my own looking out the window at least the brain has got to make me wake up the next morning as a boy to them i just thought this might this is going to be my life for the next eighty years i'm not interested it was very painful but. lay on read online that hormones often call puberty blockers could stop his breasts
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from growing. but first dr quarter wanted more time to assess him he was also concerned that administering hormones at this stage could be problematic. for your body is a phase where a lot of things are still in flux we know that structures in the brain central nervous system undergo change during puberty. we don't know what impact hormone treatment might have on that process. but transgender advisory sentence and self-help groups take a different being they're convinced children and young people are quite capable of knowing their own gender identity really going to work for a berlin counseling center she's calling for the approval of puberty blockers where the effects reversible. to young people should have the option of interrupting their puberty early on if they self identify as transgender in order to suffer discrimination. that would allow them a way out of this difficult situation where each day their body is developing in
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the wrong direction. as a result it's harder for them to think about anything else even become suicidal. in many situations treatment like this could be life saving regardless of what happens later. but alexander quarter didn't believe lay on was a risk of committing suicide so we had advised him to undergo a trial year where he could try out life as a boy with a new name and have psychotherapy at the same time. that's in line with medical guidelines for treating children and young people with gender identity issues. but those guidelines of drawn vehement protests. were the transfers on this idea that transgender people are mentally ill label to make their own decisions and take responsibility for their lives is very hurtful and a violation of their independence. and especially affects young children who are
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less able to protect themselves from. so what does laon think i'm friends like. first i was angry that i couldn't start the hormone therapy right away and had to undergo the trial year. looking back it was very helpful for me to try it out for myself that it really was the right path for me. and it was helpful to have a therapist during that process discuss very personal things were. things i couldn't talk to my parents or friends about. in the trial year. became convinced that is indeed transgender and gave the go ahead for a hormone therapy. parents still needed time to adjust they had to sign for him to undergo treatment as he was legally a minor just before his seventeenth birthday they signed off the bad things went
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very fast within two weeks. to get deeper and he developed facial hair his parents even paid for him to have his breasts removed so how do things stand now. i'm still considering further aspirations i definitely plan to have all of them right now i'm not fully satisfied with the options that are available. but the fact that he now looks like a man in addition to feeling like one has made him very happy indeed. now to a. musician and performer she's a twenty eight year old transgender woman she was born a boy but has lived for the past year as a woman she says she's a typical. transgender woman with turkish roots so what's the fuss. leah told
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us about her unusual life. it was the slap in the face like the ground being whipped out from under your feet . well you don't know what to do with yourself and you feel the stigma from society in your own mind and you're just wretched and miserable. manton for instance there were two responses first people congratulated me and were impressed the type managed for so long but then there were people who weren't sure how to relate to me like i was a different person. their own major and minor things that bother me like the way i eat i ain't like i'm sorry but i just ready for asked so i get comments like when you're going to start eating like a woman. who. grew
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. up and i haven't started hormones her appeal yet though i will do soon so i can only talk about my inner coming out this year and there i can say a lot has changed physically mentally my eyes the way i smile my psyche has been restored i'm true to myself i'm really looking forward to finally undergoing real. human like first started in africa from there we spread right across the world. as human beings we still share over ninety nine percent of our genes regardless of where we come from so the differences between us a relatively small. junket chariot from kenya had a question about one of those differences.
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people have different skin colors. in fact that wasn't always the case. early humans will block. all of our ancestors come from eastern africa. but around a hundred thousand years ago homo sapiens spread out from the region and before long had reached practically every corner of the planet. and the process some humans changed outwardly in many ways for example the skin color altered. at some point homo sapiens arrived in europe and europe in places like here on germany's baltic sea coast. and by the time they got there their skin had turned pale. nowadays of course some people deliberately head out into the sun to get a towel. these masai in eastern africa are still as dark as the early humans. dark skin protect you more effectively from powerful ultraviolet radiation
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in the tropics. skin that's darker contains a larger amount of a natural pigment called melanin. under protection it provides is important. because u.v. rays destroys the demand in the body that is important to subdivision for example during prenatal developement. up in the high north because u.v. radiation is so much weaker than in africa people of altaf pale skin with less melanie. because the body also needs u.v. rays to produce with minty income that plays an important role in building bones and helps ensure the immune system works optimally. if outlet is right why i have a class only thing do you have a question then just ask in return will things you a small surprise send us your question by getting
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a text message over or still we love to hear from you. you'll find us a d w does concept of science drop us a line at. underscores site tech on facebook d.w. science. easing habits have changed over the centuries but even ancient romans had fast food from snack bars called. they sell hot food for a quick bite while out and about good modern fast food came in with the advent of twenty four seventh's society it's changed our eating behavior now we often snack our way through the day that might be practical but it's not always healthy. alexander pito is one meter seventy eight tall and weighs close to one hundred
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kilos he rarely finds the time to eat proper regular meals and often ends up craving junk food there covers out your body tells you eat i'm hungry it's a compulsion you can't resist i was working on the. one that christina eagar also knows all too well she's one meter seventy five and weighs ninety five kilos while at work or if she's feeling down she often begins to crave something sweet that is absent it's not hunger it's more a kind of reward and something to help you focus. i think you can say that the sweet character of chocolate is addictive. but researchers now know there's a direct link between how you feel and what you eat impulses from the brain tell you to eat food that also feeds your emotional appetite. cleaning your plate eating sweets to cheer yourself up both are habits frequently instilled at an early age mention one people want to control their emotions especially negative ones and that
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often happens subconsciously things like loneliness sadness and frustration that you now as of now want to these days eating has been divorced from feeling hungry or full. that's a problem. because people lose their sense of what the right amount salt and they eat too much and so that. scientists at the university of new bac have discovered that habits and feelings influence what and how much we eat and also the brain and its energy consumption in industrialized societies where food is plentiful our brains no longer notice when we're fall. the team launched a study involving thirty test subjects half overweight the other half slim all were given an infusion with a sugar solution around the number of calories in a standard meal. if we wanted to know if energy levels in the brains of overweight people rise differently than those of people who aren't died. thirteen then
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conducted scans to measure whether and to what degree the sugar intake changed energy levels in the brain. although all the test subjects received identical infusions their brains responded differently among those of normal weight energy levels rose by twenty percent and they didn't feel hungry after having it. in. the overweight subjects however exhibited no increase in brain energy levels were still hungry. we were able to identify a fundamental disorder in the brains metabolism among overweight people the appetite control centers are chronically activated so they have a constant urge to eat. which means the higher someone's weight and body mass index the more food the brain demands but the researchers still don't know exactly why is
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it due to upbringing or other factors whatever is causing the phenomenon the team wanted to know whether it's possible to alter eating behavior by manipulating the brain. in an additional experiment they stimulated the brains of test subjects with zero calorie energy via electricity half received electrical stimulation for twenty minutes a day for eight days and they subsequently ate less than the other test subjects. we discovered that electrical stimulation increases the brain's energy level. or subjects who had it eight. and fourteen percent less food that's a lot and you didn't get to the middle so eating habits can be altered via the brain the researchers therefore say behavioral therapy makes more sense than just trying to diet then you learn to examine what and how you eat and why. you just.
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every new learned behavior is reflected in the brain it's like new highways being created that need to have traffic. when there's more traffic they'll automatically be selected. viewed on a scan it's a scenario we also see with other illnesses such as anxiety and therapy also leads to changes in the brain. and alexandre pato are eager to train their brains to register when they're far they're no volunteers in a study involving fifty people altering their eating habits for six months each week the subjects learn a new rule of contact their researchers monitor their blood levels weight pressure . the subjects also get a phone app to help them put the new rules into practice. i want to avoid the yo yo effect. i once live at least twenty more years and as healthy as possible.
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and xander has learned how to eat calmly and deliberately three proper meal times a day he rarely has cravings now and can tell when he's genuinely hungry. or more conscious eater and that which is a great feeling you don't have to change your entire lifestyle you just have to eat a bit differently on the. coast you know has no manage to sever the link between working and eating and if she does have a sweet treat it's only during her break moderation. if you've been yes i now consciously choose what i eat and do without the chocolate that's major progress. also. both lost three kilos in the first month at the same time their blood pressure dropped by around five percent christina and alexander are now determined to make the eating rules a new healthy kind of habit. next
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week we look at the astonishing capabilities of this truth. in winter they shrink their body size to get by with the next food even they get smaller and they regress in spring. medicine learn from shrooms. more on that next week make sure to join us see you then cook i. move.
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from the. i'm going to. move. green destinations is majestic mountain scenery. the lowliest turns on the. yukon stealing issuances back. scales the peaks. explodes the banks. is pushing the fallen angels constant. thirty minute.
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crimes first against humanity. civilian society come witness six of. their recorded edges travel around the globe yes social media. but what is propaganda picture than what is fact digital investigators combed through the flood of images they combine sources to try to reconstruct what happened and to substantiate claims of crimes by seeing this video recording of the soldiers who shot the young man is on trial now st. paul's forensics between bits parts. truth detectives starts june thirtieth on d w.
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bang bang. bang. theory. this is g.w. news live from berlin disaster for germany at the world cup in russia mexico sons the reigning champions defeating them one at nil germany were among the favorites to take the title do they still have a chance to bounce back. also on the show. conservative given two k. has won colombia's landmark presidential election his victory could have implications for the country's historic peace deal we'll have the latest from bogota.

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