tv Doc Film - Germany 68 - A Year Like No Other Deutsche Welle June 27, 2018 5:15pm-6:01pm CEST
the v.a. all review in the second half gave nigeria the chance from the spot chelsea's victor moses stepped up kept his nerve and celebrated in style i got this point nigeria had one foot in the knockout stages but center back marcus rocco smashed in the win a full minutes from time. to finish second setting up a heavyweight clash with france in the next round. thanks so much. for. the language courses. any time any.
nine hundred sixty eight was an important year for this man students were protesting in west germany for. the last my pub sing a hunch i had his first became it was. the fault of the mood was explosive a lot of people were restless but i was at a opposite end of the spectrum. the song mama hit the charts on january fifteenth nine hundred sixty eight. on the same day thousands of students demonstrated in braman against a prize fight the tram tickets it led to the new year's first street battle between junk people and place. you. oh.
my. god. i. wish germany sixty eight the start of the transition to a modern society and a year of stock cultural social and political contrasts as average germans enjoyed the music of high and students took to the streets with their demands for change last year heinz human celebrated fifty years on stage with a christmas concert to la. times. and cities by it at one thousand nine hundred sixty eight was his year i think kind she had for number one hits on the german charts or she hit back and my mother like all middle aged women at the time loved hijack of an art she wished she could have a son like i'm so fond of her and she is why and the music wanted to zero. the
villain has always been a bit of a rebel nowadays he works as a yoga teacher and fifty years ago it was the protestors not cruncher who impressed and influenced him or not so often this is the one nine hundred sixty eight was a wild time divisive i was thirteen years old then at that age you question everything people were saying to think for yourself think outside the box to stop behaving and being practical quite hard to let a thousand flowers bloom last bloom boxen. as hunches music played on radio stations across west germany demonstrators held protests against the government coalition and demanded social reforms. you. find simmons grew up in many of poverty in the netherlands the
student protests were completely foreign to him. you. know i was raised in a small town and people didn't talk much about all that money and when they did they clearly didn't like it much they didn't understand what was going on and they had no time for god and it's our true. west germany was a prosperous country at the time. they lead a quiet life she likes to knit he enjoys handicrafts he was still working. in the west german countryside there were few calls for radical change most residents of up above area would particularly skeptical annamarie be sure later became a conservative m.p. in the state parliament but in one nine hundred sixty s. she wasn't terribly interested in politics me here. is a bit we discussed politics at home. my father was
a district up. fishel and the local mayor as it was i thought politics was kind of a bore and so on the thing it reeked. annamarie was nineteen at the time and studying home economics at school was germany's new emergency laws general strikes street battles in france and the vietnam war were not on her list of top priorities but these issues were certainly important to a lot of other people. if i did side talking so much with we started wearing buttons and badges that had a political message like i'm against the vietnam war people didn't join the big political parties but they didn't want to be part of the political structure they paid assigned and hit the streets and i thought it was a refreshing approach. efficient finish. not to screw up the sound and it seemed like those people were against everything but we worked and they protested and they
went to university but they got all upset about things we started causing trouble. and we didn't understand it was this hope of it interesting my father my father was a coal miner we let a fairly quiet life we were isolated from all that. some local residents would see young people sitting around and say if they had jobs they wouldn't come up with all these stupid ideas within. fifty years ago barbara costo would not have taken such comments kindly she was studying sociology at the time and was drawn to the protest movement many of the student demonstrators were concerned about the country's nazi past. when it unbalances my parents were not so used ideologically at least i was always arguing with them about it and sometimes it got nasty that i get so mad i'd be red in the face but i do it anyway. vowed to screw
up being. told we have to. do was attracted to the socialist german student union or s.d.s. a left wing opposition organization the group was especially upset about what they considered the rigid structure of questioning universities. if you do it and i voted for you they would stand up during a lecture and interrupted you'd be sitting there and someone from the s.d.s. would get up and start asking questions and that would put a stop to the lecture they called it blasting and i thought it was great it would go fine after. i was soon joined the s.d.s. she supported the organizations message but didn't care much for the messengers. disintegrates and they weren't classy guys who drove around in sports cars and they really didn't appeal to me as men as the hamlet as if they were rather scruffy.
on the other hand they looked like intellectual it's most people's image of intellectuals they were smart and they were captivating speakers or at least that's what i thought at the time in the other talk they give us can get us off in a. pretty detail was a prominent s.t.'s spokesman demanded radical changes in west german society. of. our countries undergone a process of restoration since ninety forty five it is there but there has been no process of democratization in all sectors of our society. and that is why we can indeed speak of a democratic authoritarian state the fascism of the past does not exist today but it has crept into various institutions and continues to function there because the
people who work in those institutions have been trained to blindly accept social realities are to. accept that as it is. the main thing was this and through our tarion concept this movement opposed to thaw out any kind of shot in family syria in courts of law in lecture on us between the sexes. that was basically the concept oppose authority. that included the authority of the police. those who fail to comply will be subject to arrest and possible prosecution. was a police officer for more than forty years in one nine hundred sixty eight he drove around west berlin in a patrol car like this one. i joined the west berlin police force in one nine hundred sixty. back then it was a very respectable job among those who did this or the newseum. was.
but in one thousand nine hundred sixty eight students saw the police as representatives of state authority and confronted them you know more and more not a one safety there were demonstrations almost every day in one nine hundred sixty eight you gave to change half of them were not peaceful therefore as the police reports show. you who. but i think this all started the year before in one nine hundred sixty seven for you on. your door things really started heating up on june second one thousand nine hundred sixty seven when the shah of iran visited west berlin performing routine or not as he was asked to explain to you what he charges. or if i was one of the officers assigned to the shah's motorcade and those who. were born or. i was students protested against the shelves visit they said that iran was
a dictatorship that allowed the use of torture in prisons the police responded with force to demonstrations that turned violent i one protester benaud on us or was shot and killed by a police officer was one was all that was a real shock shock i thought it was going to be open season on demonstrators and see it's to playing. foreigners old's death was more throughout west germany he became a martyr of the protest movement as it continued its campaign against state authority. we have been subjected to police brutality as with it's a good and it future clashes with the police will be expected to intervene soon and perhaps even the military. we will have to respond in an appropriate way that's field and vocal in that i did quite well for.
many young people rejected authority and they didn't want to fifteen in societies throughout the western world the winds of change was sweeping through politics fashion and music in britain some angry new bands were making exciting music. they have been freezing air from bring me live food here in london and photograph some of these bands like the who said they. presume it was amazed by what she found in britain especially the fashion design. the catalyzing are none will i live in london anything was possible and nobody got upset about this that some people were very conservative and some were really bizarre but they seemed to get along just need my landa yes things were changing in britain oh but west germany still lag behind so i provided people with the fashions
that haven't arrived here yet that's not me stuff. friends you know i can do pretty ingrained in nine hundred sixty seven. we made the craziest clothes you could imagine for men and women as my father thought i'd lost my mind about it and that i could not possibly go out dressed like the ticking of the. skirts and trousers were becoming tighter and shorter people in up of the variable with anna maria to be sure lived. you know the value of that was the start that we saw that right away. we were more moderate than people were in the big cities we did things more slowly. so we might shorten our skirts by stunts. something. i.
can still remember how men would get excited because women are wearing the short skirts even their own partner by one they are going for. i don't want to see anything like that really no absolutely not the name. has been up there is because i'm just people would come up to me on the street and call me a prostitute because i wore short skirt and smoked cigarettes that's just wrong when you're twenty one things like that affect you think first you're shocked and then you decide to fight back like. they did to me not zones as i guess is pushed. it was even easier to cause the scene in east germany in one nine hundred sixty s.
in the town of show. me for example. western fashion and music managed to penetrate the on curtain four students got together and founded a group called the rolling stones club shows. we felt like we didn't fit in because we like western music so much and we tried to express that in the way we dressed. shouldn't because some people are part of the others just shook their heads up but. we attracted attention to ourselves in school but we didn't back down especially in civics class with others as we were all. he's together and made quite an impression on the local residents with. between
a vague also like the steins the singer songwriter was just twenty years old in one nine hundred sixty eight best known song is kinda. thing out. of money to love god. this song can be seen as a protest against authoritarian oppression in vague not a mother of three grew up in a spending money they don't like her parents she is a committed socialist big and her parents became increasingly dissatisfied with the situation in east germany and started speaking out. government needs. that. divine intervention i would call more or less if we were trapped in a communist system. we would like to have experience communism socialism would have been fine to. but without censorship rules so that you can decide for
yourself what you want to read and so forth. and invade not trained as a my friend but she focused on her music and even sang. to me. then my times. the east german communist party ruled the country with an iron head and. made a vow to all break had been party leaders since nine hundred fifty. we're going to . show in this totalitarian regime there was no freedom of expression or freedom of the press i don't buy that third one party control even extended to daycare centers and kindergartens. thought. it was pure indoctrination but i didn't get anything like that and i think what i did in
kindergarten and later in school i was. there all sorts of slogans like we are the better germany there are no nazis here force. is that that was a lie. gets caught in the nazis but. the communist party had less influence in the town of show this fall don't need the czechoslovak border the catholic church saw to that. for the kids in the rolling stones club it was a mix of music and religious faith. but i'm so little because our parents told us that the government lied all the time to make itself look good but the church gave us a place where we could experience truth while we could talk to each other without being afraid. of what the church stood for freedom of expression or use and also for western youth culture. freedom of expression without fear or without having to keep quiet or stay out of sight he said.
young people were rebelling against the political and social system that was then in place. times written. in the rules that only. was a steelworker and in one nine hundred sixty eight hollings was a trainee at steel giant. working class young people are also fed up with our stuffy society we want to hear whopper tuner days across the board. people were demonstrating for change even though the cultural sector. what i couldn't take part because i was working at a crop i was a trainee clerk so i were a suit and tie on. that's the way it was a group of. heinz
began his training in the middle of a crisis in the steel industry there was less demand for coal in the one nine hundred sixty s. and west germany was producing too much steel tens of thousands of steel workers would soon lose their jobs including three thousand in boca malone by december nine hundred sixty seven. had had enough. that's when they shut down the blast furnace and all the workers were crying like they just lost a loved one. the situation turned me overnight into a left wing radical and i didn't have to read karl marx to do it so when i wanted to change the world and i wanted to keep those steel jobs the company could not treat its workers like. there were strikes and protests one hundred sixty eight saw an increase in tensions between
the generations and between economic and social classes and those tensions spilled out onto the streets. i. in january school students in bremen protested an increase in the process of trying to cut so they occupied the city center for a week and blocked the tracks the police were ordered to crack down on the odd. student set up at evelyn praising his fashion boutique before the demonstrations took phrasing out it was about more than money thanks this kinko's plenty it was a matter of principle the students didn't like being patronized they said this can't go on we won't stand for it. thank you. i i the protest was
a success brendan smyth cancelled the fare increase. meanwhile students and trainees in bochum also protested against fare increases written maya took part in the demonstrations. but one of the indeed it was the first time we've done anything like that i've already talked yesterday for two or three days and it was over a boy but it gave us no end such we had to deal with the police violence but we also learned that we could change that so i think of us my home and change was in the air even in eastern europe gives him us but after all nine hundred sixty eight was also the year of the prague spring some people felt that things were about to change is for it's a first for him and it's to teach us alexander dubcek took over as the leader of czechoslovakia's communist party. in january nineteenth sixty eight and soon tried
to implement some cautious reforms people in other east bloc countries were paying close attention to these developments. don't look at it. the third way and socialism with a human face that was really something that people were excited about it just like they welcome the new youth culture you know the object. was great i don't feel off we hope that his reforms would spread through east germany or this and that they would take hold well the east german authorities put a stop to that in a hurry that was the end of our hopes but they're not just the hopes of young people in other. you know it's this issue on to they are tired of the thinking of the time among our parents and others was be careful guidance as in a politician we could talk about politics among ourselves yes but they never would mark. your feel like. that some west german students were more concerned about the
situation in viet nam in february the s.t.'s organized an international conference on the war it was held at the ins technical university left as sort to condemn western imperialism in general and u.s. policy in vietnam in particular five thousand people back the whole this time it was professes we disrupted the event. because maybe we have jeju what's going on here the conference is over i was a. they followed a demonstration through the streets of west berlin led by rudy about fifteen thousand people took part to show solidarity with the communist fighters in viet nam. police officer peter beattie was on duty that day he couldn't quite figure out what the protesters would try. to achieve. two new skin
because normally who should reform at first they just wanted university reforms and put it to assure you then they started getting political with lots of socialist and communist rhetoric so this. is what it is a cordless ocean dick. for the people of west berlin didn't care much for that was brought in and neither did i. miss being near the most west berlin and saw the u.s. as their main defense against communism counter-demonstrators attacked the protest as they considered rudy ditch a troublemaker four days later more than one hundred thousand people gathered outside the town hall in the shine of the district to show their support for the united states and to express their opposition to the student demonstrators is specially to which i was. on a still weekend was shot in the head by an assailant reported to be an anti communist died years later from complications.
such cuttack. we knew there were going to be protests. there weren't sure if i was on duty for five straight days. but that was just how good the course we were where we saw the pictures the students in west berlin links arms the march tell ya. was. the beaut citing what you're dumb of the newspaper build whipped up sentiment against the students in the summer so this contributed to the attack on gotcha. butat negotiates and. this led to the easter riots demonstrators much to the headquarters of the spring
a company which published build some wanted to stop the delivery of newspapers others wanted to break into the building there were clashes with police a student and a press photographer were killed four hundred other people were injured by the floor. it was tough for my wife to see all the violence and so far as a bit out of life finally got off duty at three in the morning on easter sunday. and i went home to change my clothes my underwear to fix the. student anger had been building up against the spring of publications for months there were calls for the government to take over the company which was. later mentioned we were being huge but i didn't think much about it this slogan expropriate spring or today oh it's a big deal someone else will take over but we didn't think like that at the time
there was no way that i wanted to see a communist takeover but i was right out there shouting communist slogans i guess we didn't have anything better we could say five. hundred news of the student protests spread to east germany the kids in the rolling stones club made tape recordings of western radio stations mostly music but also news reports on the demonstrations they couldn't understand why the students was so angry and spoke for those of us when we couldn't figure out why people who had freedom would get so upset that i couldn't anyway i didn't find out what it all meant until much later. bit of that because i didn't talk with each other. it's all in school i thought they should come to east germany and study. as it was while my office on. this spring a company was not broken up and the newspaper continued to sell but demonstrators in munich stepped up their campaign. visit to five we went to the spring our
headquarters in munich and to our great surprise we actually managed to get inside . yeah it was well what were we going to do now i had no idea and neither did anyone else see that it's not like you discussed it in advance i think we didn't put up a flag or anything but we did get inside as others volunteered. in the end the protests against springer didn't achieve very much. and the west german middle class seemed blissfully content. they watched peter alexander and all she class on t.v. and too few realized that the country was descending into political and social chaos. back i it was
a year old i was too young to understand what was going on so i went to school and played football i figured if they want to demonstrate lot of. the villain vich them took a very different view of that he is a fence otherwise he wouldn't have become a yoga teacher inventor and the vehicle the mobility of the spine indicates how well do you feel. there was more to nine hundred sixty eight than just confrontation. and i believe the events of that year went well beyond politics of. the messages of nine hundred sixty eight for me were go to san francisco and put some flowers in your hair and all you need is love all you need is love.
residential communities usually consisting of perfect strangers well organized in big cities it will. an indication that society was becoming more open and commune served as an alternative to traditional family structures. that's why because if you look at the same girl twice who were already part of the establishment in a commune she could sleep with anyone and i was actually quite sexist the women didn't have the choice but all we didn't necessarily want to open. one guy told me that he hated that because he was in love with his wife oh but he was only there on tuesday otherwise it was anything goes that just doesn't work that can reach and yet. still it was a popular phenomenon in rural communities young people withdrew from consumer based society and the conventional social framework.
of a few home experiment people experimented with different lifestyles and some tried organic farming or meditation or political work or social work people tried out different structures but i don't know whether it worked for them gun if you what's it you could come. up with i mean while the s.d.s. continued to try to change west germany's political and social system. in maine nine hundred sixty eight they took to the streets again to protest a series of emergency laws that gave increased powers to the police and military they also demonstrated against the grand coalition government of chancellor court key senior i think it's the more i hear this kind of screaming the more i realize how important it is can maintain order in our country i the
protests didn't achieve much but people in east germany were watching these events closely. zone. we did like to be able to demonstrate to you. but everyone knew that we have been charged with unlawful assembly impact off to jail. so we've got four eyes or the visor as a whole we knew that we'd never be able to do it. but we still watch the protests with interest in it and with some substance and hope the top of the one d. holmes a huge but the demonstrators in the west didn't care about us at all as of yet once yeah we cared about them. we watched on t.v. as they occupied their universities and this was that. we actually dreamed about doing that. meanwhile the communist authorities were moving ahead with a massive renovation project at leipzig university volatile albrecht is said to
have personally ordered the destruction of the historic church of simple on the university campus martin luther led the dedication ceremony at the church in fifteen forty five and johannes sebastian bach served there as a music director from seventeen twenty three to twenty five. meanwhile some two hundred kilometers away in sugars filed or the four members of the rolling stones group were outraged. that. they found out from a clergyman that the church was to be destroyed. this year with a local clergyman told us about it was we knew right away that we had to do something so we decided to make some posters. i said we drew a silhouette of the church our church. then the question had they ever heard of the
university church of leipsic it. and that it holds had already been bored in the walls for the explosive charges. then the main point of what allied bombers had failed to destroy was about to be obliterated by our own government yet what our church be next it was striking we wanted to get people's attention. just what i'm best at you. a small protest in a far away town had no impact on the authorities in leipzig on may thirtieth nine hundred sixty eight the church of some pull was destroyed. back in show because of all the police questioned the four young men brothers mathias and andreas were publicly criticised at school and expelled. from.
the headmaster came in and all the other kids said we don't want that guy in our class. the headmaster said a few words and i left the room as well i was close to tears. and i played football and other sports with those guys of the but is not one of them stood up for me i guess they were afraid of what might happen to them if they did so we had to change schools as well the new from there as it evolved into at least the. us i three were humiliated right there in the classroom with them all they need. in the aisle . and then we had to go to the auditorium and fall i understand there are condemned us for slandering the east german state they have these kind of families and. at the same time in west germany the demonstrations against the emergency laws were reaching their climax. students in frankfurt
occupied the university campus. barbara post was then. thank you in public about it it's just like the rector's office was located in the main building of the protesters broke down the front door it was made of glass. and after they've broken down they ran inside it. thank. you for telling me i was there in fact i broke down the glass door to my i'm glad the statute of limitations has run out i broke down the door. i tore down a plaque and through it through the glass patch jewish i the occupation continued for two days been the police moved.
there were protests in boston and students and workers joined forces the students broke into the local office of the german confederation of trade unions the protesters said it was part of the authoritarian structure but for some were because the demonstration went too far. i could. not get off someone said oh my father's retirement files are in their mentor throwing out stuff out the window so now he's not going to get his pension oh but we were fighting for issues that were important to us the workers didn't seem to understand that i mean these that led to the split between the losses of. the fight at. the emergency laws came into effect on june twenty eighth the protest movement was starting to lose momentum international events now took center stage. in all this the soviet union supported by four other warsaw pact states invaded
czechoslovakia this marks the end of the proxy spring and the hope of a free social. between a big now had just given birth to her first child she and her friends were horrified by the invasion and held protests against it. for in the form of the throop let off some of my friends handed out leaflets and were arrested. and then i thought if someone else hands up the leaflets maybe my friends won't be held guilty or. spy your mind on us or. under someone who believed in socialism i decided at the time i have to do something. very rushed her own leaflets by hand and then distributed the. at the same time in czechoslovakia communist
party chief alexander to check urged his people not to resist the warsaw pact invasion his support among the population was so great that the citizens engaged the occupation troops and political discussions and street fighting. soviet leaders tried to get to change to roll back the reforms. matina vigneault was arrested convicted on charges of slandering the state and sentenced to a year in prison. or three additional. in court the judge asked me whether i thought about my child's future i said i had to i did what i have to do for the child's sake. that this was a major political and moral decision for me. that what if my son at the age of twenty had asked me what did you do to resist then i could tell him.
protests in west germany against the soviet invasion didn't attract much attention some radical german leftists even expressed support for the soviet union. to reveal what you just d.s. was a unified movement for just a short period of time i got some spot into a thousand smaller groups more good room for both of these s.d.s. women's council i support in one thousand nine hundred sixty eight and took up the cause of women's rights part of it stated many s.d.s. members claimed that their male counterparts didn't take them seriously and also complained about gender discrimination within the organization activist helka sanda took action to help not only undermine our initial efforts to correct the situation failed so we've called out of the s.d.s. and of started our own organization i was. in november nineteenth. sixty eight the s.d.s.
organized a big demonstration in west berlin to coincide with the trial of a protester who'd been arrested during the easter riots the demonstration soon turned violent the debate over whether it was appropriate to use violence created deep divisions within the student movement some activists favorite a more radical approach these included some future members of the red army faction the guys for sixty eight meant different things to different people the art and that is if the embassy there was absolutely no justification for the way that some people express their anger and other emotions of the elephant in the thicket if it did the level of there wasn't a revolution as such but it did lead to some form for a good stores in space where i learned that it's important to speak out of to back this up. and. fifty years after he first hit the charts his comeback album went straight into the german top ten.
in germany in thirty minutes the. crimes fists against humanity. civilians become within six feet. on their record which is travel around the globe just social media. but what is propaganda fiction and what is fact digital investigators comb through the flood of images they combine sources to try to reconstruct what happened and substantiate claims of crimes thanks in this video recording one of the soldiers who shot the young man is on trial now st. paul forensics between bits and bytes.