tv Doc Film - Germany 68 - A Year Like No Other Deutsche Welle June 30, 2018 9:15am-10:01am CEST
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nine hundred sixty eight was an important year for this man students protesting the english germany. line it. was passed. on don't pop singer hunch had his first. audience. the slogan of the mood was explosive a lot of people were restless but i was at the opposite end of the spectrum from the moment. the song mama hit the charts on january fifteenth nine hundred sixty eight. on the same day thousands of students demonstrated in braman against a prize fight for tram tickets it led to the new year's first street battle between junk people and police. you was
was. that it was was. it germany sixty eight the start of the transition to a modern society and a year of stark cultural social and political contrasts as average germans enjoyed the music of high and students took to the streets with their demands for change last year heinz eamonn celebrated fifty years on stage with a christmas concert tilla. it was his duties. and city fired at one thousand nine hundred sixty eight was his year i think kind she had for number one hits on the german charts or she hit back and my mother like all middle aged women at the time love time gentlemen are she wished she could have
a son like i'm sad for her and she is one and the music on it is your. villain vic shan has always been a bit of a rebel nowadays he works as a yoga teacher and fifty years ago it was the protesters not cruncher who impressed and influenced him. for the not so often this is just one thousand nine hundred sixty eight was a wild time device and i was thirteen years old when at that age you question everything people were saying to think for yourself think outside the box to start behaving and being practical quite hard to let a thousand flowers bloom that's bloom box. as hunches music played on radio stations across west germany demonstrators held protests against the government coalition and demanded social reforms.
times humans grew up in many of poverty in the netherlands the student protests were completely foreign to him. i was raised in a small town and people didn't talk much about all that much and when they did they clearly didn't like it much they didn't understand what was going on and they had no time for god and it's arguable. west germany was a prosperous country at the time. they lead a quiet life she likes to knit he enjoys handicrafts but still working. in the west german countryside there were few calls for radical change most residents of up of the variable particularly skeptical annamarie be sure later became a conservative m.p. in the state parliament but in one nine hundred sixty s. she wasn't terribly interested in politics me. as a bit we discussed politics at home. my father was
a district government official and the local mayor as it was i thought politics was kind of a bore and so on the thing it reeked of. annamarie was nineteen at the time and studying home economics at school was germany's new emergence. general strikes street battles in france and the vietnam war were not on her list of top priorities but these issues were certainly important to a lot of other people. if i did side talking so much with we started wearing buttons and badges that had a political message like i'm against the vietnam war people didn't join the big political parties but they didn't want to be part of the political structure they paid a sign and hit the streets and i thought it was a refreshing approach. efficient finish. up the sun and it seemed like those people were against everything that we worked and they protested they went to
university but they got all upset about things we started causing trouble. and we didn't understand it was this hope of getting that first one father my father was a coal miner we let a fairly quiet life we were isolated from all that on. some local residents would see young people sitting around and say if they had jobs they wouldn't come up with all these stupid ideas within. fifty years ago barbara cursed i would not have taken such comments kindly she was studying sociology at the time and was drawn to the protest movement many of the student demonstrators were concerned about the country's nazi past. when etan bernard says my parents were not used ideologically at least i was always arguing with them about it and sometimes it got nasty that i get so mad i didn't read in the face but i do it anyway. if i did
screw up being. told we have been discussed i was attracted to the socialist german student union or s.d.s. a left wing opposition organization the group was especially upset about what he considered the rigid structure of questioning universities. if you do it and i voted for you they would stand up during a lecture and interrupted you'd be sitting there and someone from the s.d.s. would get up and start asking questions and that would put a stop to the lecture they called it blasting and i thought it was great it would get fired after. i was soon joined the s.d.s. she supported the organizations message but didn't care much for the messengers. but this interests me they weren't classy guys who drove around in sports cars and they really didn't appeal to me as men as the hamley if that's true in this book
before they were rather scruffy. on the other hand they looked like intellectual or most people's image of intellectuals they were smart and they were captivating speakers or at least that's what i thought at the time in other talk give us come get us a. pretty detailed was a prominent s.d.s. spokesman did screw demanded radical changes in west german society. of. our countries undergone a process of restoration since that in forty five it is there but there has been no process of democratization in all sectors of our society. and that is why we can't speak of a democratic authoritarian state the fascism of the past does not exist today but it has crept into various institutions and continues to function there because the
people who work in those institutions have been trained to blindly accept social reality of. accepting it as it is. the main thing was this anti hora tarion concept and this movement opposed to thora of any kind and family courts of law in lecture us between the sexes. that was basically the concept oppose authority. that included the authority of the police. those who fail to comply will be subject to arrest and possible prosecution. was a police officer for more than forty years and nine hundred sixty eight he drove around west berlin in a patrol car like this one. was moving out i joined the west berlin police force in one nine hundred sixty. back then it was a very respectable job one knows what it says or one hears you. think of it.
but in one thousand nine hundred sixty eight students saw the police as representatives of state authority and confronted them you know more and more not accomplished there were demonstrations almost every day in one nine hundred sixty eight you gave to the stand half of them were not peaceful for us the police reports show. here. but i think this all started the year before in one nine hundred sixty seven for you on. your drawers things really started heating up on june second one thousand nine hundred sixty seven when the shah of iran visited west berlin before doing routine or not as he was asked if those photo you were shot was all or if i was one of the officers assigned to the shah's motorcade and those who. were born and. i was students protested against the shah's visit they said that iran was
a dictatorship that allowed the use of torture in prisons so the police responded with force to demonstrations that turned violent i one protester benaud on us or was shot and killed by a police officer who was one of our club that was a real shock jock i thought it was going to be open season on demonstrators and seats to play in once all. the foreigners old's death was more throughout west germany he became a martyr of the protest movement as it continued its campaign against state authority. with the talent we've been subjected to police brutality as well it's good and in future clashes with the police will be expected to intervene soon and perhaps even the military. we will have to respond in an appropriate way that sphere don't unfold. in the ivy
quietly for. many young people rejected authority and they didn't want to fifteen in societies throughout the western world the winds of change was sweeping through politics fashion and music in britain some angry new bands were making exciting music. evelyn physio from criminal lived through here in london and photographed some of these bands like the who. said the. prison it was amazed by what she found in britain especially the fashion design and. the chemistry none none will others in london anything was possible and nobody got upset about this that some people were very conservative and some were really bizarre but they seemed to get along is the fellow's name i learned that yes things were changing in britain no but west germany still lags behind so i provided people with the fashions that
hadn't arrived here yet this is not new stuff. friends you know i can do pretty ingrained in nine hundred sixty seven. we knew that we made the craziest clothes you could imagine for men and women as my father thought i'd lost my mind about it and that i could not possibly go out dressed like that thinking. skirts and trousers were becoming tighter and shorter they've been enough of a very aware and the memory of be sure lived. this volatile that was the start that we saw that right away we could be but we were more moderate than people were in the big cities we did things more slowly. so we might shorten our skirts by stunt. some things that one.
can still remember how men would get excited because women are wearing a short skirt even their own partners by want you are going for. i don't want to see anything like that really you know absolutely not. enough just cause i'm just people would come up to me on the street and call me a prostitute because i wore a short skirt and smoked cigarettes that's just wrong when you're twenty one things like that affect you. first you're shocked and then you decide to fight the package like they did to me not since as i guess as first. it was even easier to cause
a scene in east germany in one nine hundred sixty s. in the town of show. me for example. in fashion and music managed to penetrate the on curtain for students got together and founded a group called the rolling stones club shows. we felt like we didn't fit in because we like western music so much and we tried to express that in the way we dressed. for the coat shouldn't because some people applauded others just shook their heads up but. we attracted attention to ourselves in school but we didn't back down especially in civics class with others as we were all. together and made quite an impression on the local residents as well glued. to the gina vague also like the steins the singer songwriter was
just twenty years old in one nine hundred sixty eight her best known song is kinda . being out. of money to love god and. the song can be seen as a protest against authoritarian oppression of vague not a mother of three grew up in a spilling my own land like her parents she is a committed socialist and her parents became increasingly dissatisfied with the situation in east germany and started speaking out. of my needs our. own advantage. we were trapped in a communist system. we would like to have experience communism socialism would have been fine to. but without censorship rules so that you can decide for
yourself what you want to read and so forth stored for us nish. they'd never trained as a librarian but she focused on her music and even sang. to me. then my time in the east german communist party ruled the country with an iron head and. made a vow to all great had been party leaders since nine hundred fifty. we're going to vote in this totalitarian regime there was no freedom of expression or freedom of the press i don't buy that the rich can have one party control even extended to daycare centers and kindergartens. or describe it was pure indoctrination but i didn't get anything like that and i think what i
did in kindergarten and later in school. there are all sorts of slogans like we are the better germany there are no nazis here. so that was a lie. in the nazis but. the communist party had less influence in the town assuredness valda near the czechoslovak border the catholic church saw to that. for the kids in the rolling stones club it was a mix of music and religious faith. but i'm so little because our parents told us that the government lied all the time to make itself look good but the church gave us a place where we could experience truth while we could talk to each other without being afraid to. tell you what the church stood for freedom of expression or use and also for western youth culture. freedom of expression without
fear or without having to keep quiet or stay out of sight so. young people were rebelling against the political and social system that was then in place. times written. in the rules valley. was a steelworker and then one nine hundred sixty eight hollings was a trainee at steel giant. working class young people were also fed up with our stuffy society we want to hear whopper tuner days across the board. people were demonstrating for change even on the cultural sectors. what i couldn't take part because i was working at a crop i was a trainee clerk so i have to wear a suit and tie on. that's the way it was a. heinz
began his training in the middle of a crisis in the steel industry there was less demand for coal in the one nine hundred sixty s. and west germany was producing too much steel tens of thousands of steel workers would soon lose their jobs including three thousand in boca malone by december nine hundred sixty seven. had had enough. and that's when they shut down the blast furnace and all the workers were crying like they just lost a loved one. the situation turned me overnight into a left wing radical and i didn't have to read karl marx to do it so when i wanted to change the world and i wanted to keep those still jobs the company could not treat its workers like. there were strikes and protests much in sixty eight saw an increase in tensions between the
generations and between economic and social classes and those tensions spilled out onto the streets. in january school students in bremen protested an increase in the process of trying t. cuts they occupied the city center for a week and blocked the tracks the police were ordered to crack down on the hot. students set up but even in prison as fashion boutique before the demonstrations the phrasing of it was about more than money thanks this kinko's poncy it was a matter of principle the students didn't like being patronized they said this can't go on we won't stand for it bit. i i think the protest was
a success brendan smith cancelled the fare increase. meanwhile students and trainees in bochum also protested against fare increases. took part in the demonstrations. this was only it was the first time we've done anything like that i've already talked asked it for two or three days and i was overboard but it gave us new and such we had to deal with police violence but we also learned that we could change that gets larger current of us mom and change was in the air even in eastern europe gives him us but after all nine hundred sixty eight was also the year of the prague spring. people felt that things were about to change that is for it's a first for him and it's to teach us alexander dubcek took over as the leader of czechoslovakia's communist party. in january nineteenth sixty eight and soon tried
to implement some cautious reforms people in other countries were paying close attention to these developments. don't look at. the third way and socialism with a human face while that was really something that people were excited about it just like they welcome the new youth culture you know. so it was great for the off we hope that his reforms would spread through east germany or this and that they would take hold of me as well as the east german authorities put a stop to that in a hurry as that was the end of our hopes but they're not just the hopes of young people in other third go and. you know it's as if she's on bond today i'll tell you what the thinking at the time among our parents and others was be careful guidance as in the political we could talk about politics among ourselves yes but they never would. view your film i think. that some west german students were more concerned
about the situation in viet nam in february the s.t.'s organized an international conference on the war it was held at billions technical university leftists sought to condemn western imperialism in general and u.s. policy in vietnam in particular five thousand people packed the whole this time it was professes we disrupted the event. because maybe we have jeju what's going on here the conference is over i was. there followed a demonstration through the streets of west berlin led by. about fifteen thousand people took part to show solidarity with the communist fighters in viet nam. police officer peter beats guy was on duty that day he couldn't quite figure out what the protesters would try. to achieve. to lose congress more on the whole short
of reform at first they just wanted university reform party then they started getting political with lots of socialist and communist rhetoric so this. puts you as well as a core decision that. the people of west berlin didn't care much for that was brought in and neither did i and organised by the media the most west berlin and saw the us as their main defense against communism counter-demonstrators attacked the protest as they considered rudi ditch a troublemaker four days later more than one hundred thousand people gathered outside the town hall in the shine of the district to show their support for the united states and to express their opposition to the student demonstrators is especially to achieve my cock up on a still weekend was shot in the head by an assailant reported to be an anti communist died years later from complications. that
time. we knew there were going to be protests. no wiser if i was on duty for five straight days that's. the choice of the course we were where we saw the pictures a students in west berlin links arms a march to tell you dr oz was. oh. he built side to what you're dumb on the newspaper build whipped up sentiment against the students and some said this contributed to the attack on dutch gotta. built up with good shots and. this led to the easter riots demonstrators much to the headquarters of the spring
a company which published build some wanted to stop the delivery of newspapers others wanted to break into the building there were clashes with police a student and a press photographer were killed four hundred other people were injured right before. it was tough for my wife to see all that violence and so far as that talked life finally got off duty at three in the morning on easter sunday. and i went home to change my clothes my underwear. student anger had been building up against the spring of publications for months there were calls for the government to take over the company which was. later mentioned we were being used but i didn't think much about it this slogan expropriate spring or today oh it's a big deal someone else will take over but we didn't think like that at the time
there was no way that i wanted to see a communist takeover but i was right out there shouting communist slogans i guess we didn't have anything better we could say vive you hahaha didn't the news of the student protests spread to east germany the kids in the rolling stones club made tape recordings of western radio stations mostly music but also news reports on the demonstrations they couldn't understand why the students were so angry and spoke for those of us when we couldn't figure out why people who hate freedom would get so upset that i couldn't anyway i didn't find out what it all meant until much later. bit of it because i didn't look with. more so in school by thought they should come to east germany and study. as well my office on. this spring a company was not broken up and the newspaper continued to sell but demonstrators in munich stepped up their campaign. visit to five we went to the spring our
headquarters in munich and to our great surprise we actually managed to get inside . yeah it was well what were we going to do now i had no idea and neither did anyone else see that it's not like you discussed it in advance having we didn't put up a flag or anything but we did get inside as i was you valentine. in the end the protests against springer didn't achieve very much. and the west german middle class seemed blissfully content. they watched peter alexander and lost on t.v. and too few realized that the country was descending into political and social chaos. back i it was
a year old i was too young to understand what was going on so i went to school and played football i figured if they want to demonstrate lot of. the villain vich them took a very different view of that he is offense otherwise he wouldn't have become a yoga teacher inventor and the victory card to the mobility of the spine indicates how well do you feel. there was more to nine hundred sixty eight than just confrontation. does it exist i believe the events of that year went well beyond politics of. the messages of nine hundred sixty eight for me were go to san francisco and put some flowers in your hair and all you need is love all you need is love.
residential communities usually consisting of perfect strangers with organized in big cities it were. an indication that society was becoming more open and commune served as an alternative to traditional family structures. that's why because if you look at the same girl twice you were already part of the establishment in the commune and you could sleep with any woman that was actually quite sexist the women didn't have that choice but didn't necessarily want to. have one guy told me that he hated that because he was in love with his wife oh but he was only there on tuesday but otherwise it was anything goes that just doesn't work can false and yet. still it was a popular phenomenon in rural communities young people withdrew from consumer based society and the conventional social framework.
of a few home experiment people experimented with different lifestyles and some tried organic farming or meditation or political work or social work people tried out different structures but i don't know whether it worked for them on a few boats if you could come. up with i mean while the s.t.s. continued to try to change west germany's political and social system i imagine a nine hundred sixty eight they took to the streets again to protest a series of emergency laws that gave increased pounds to the police and military they also demonstrated against the grand coalition government of chancellor court. i think. the more i hear this kind of screaming the more i realize how important it is can maintain order in our country. i the protests
didn't achieve much but people in east germany were watching these events closely. so. we did like to be able to demonstrate. but everyone knew that we have been charged with unlawful assembly impact off to jail. so if i was all the. we knew that we'd never be able to do it. but we still watch the protests with interest in it and with some sadness and hope. of he went to homs a huge but the demonstrators in the west didn't care about us at all as of yet once you cared about them. we watched on t.v. as they occupied their universities and this was that. we actually dreamed about doing that. meanwhile the communist authorities were moving ahead with a massive renovation project at leipzig university volatile albright is said to
have personally ordered the destruction of the historic change of simple on the university campus martin luther led the dedication ceremony at the church in fifteen forty five and yohann sebastian bach served there as a music director from seventeen twenty three to twenty five. meanwhile some two hundred kilometers away in sugar's father the four members of the rolling stones group were outraged. that. they found out from a closed she member that the church was to be destroyed. this year with a local clergyman told us about it was so if we knew right away that we had to do something so we decided to make some posters. as it were if we drew a silhouette of the church our church. then the question had they ever heard of the
university church of leipsic it. and that it holds had already been bored in the walls for the explosive charges. well then the main point of what allied bombers had failed to destroy was about to be obliterated by our own government yes what our church be next it was striking we wanted to get people's attention. as well and that's what you. a small protest in a foul way town had no impact on the authorities in leipzig on may thirtieth nine hundred sixty eight the church of some pull was destroyed. back in sugar's filed a police question the four young men brothers mathias and andreas were publicly criticised at school and expelled. from the home where the headmaster
came in and all the other kids said we don't want that guy in our class. the headmaster said a few words and i left the room i was close to tears. and i played football and other sports with those guys but is not one of them stood up for me it just i guess they were afraid of what might happen to them if they did so we had to change schools it was for the new foods. so we were humiliated right there in the classroom with them all right. in the aisle. and then we had to go to the auditorium and fall under still stare condemned us for slandering the east german states it is time. he said. that the same time in west germany the demonstrations against the emergency laws will reach a new climax. students in frankfurt occupied
the university campus. barbara post was there. and hope the board it's just like the rector's office was located in the main building of the protesters and broke down the front door it was made of glass. and after they broke it down they ran inside it. if i was there in fact i broke down the glass door to my i'm glad the statute of limitations has run out i broke down the door. i tore down a plaque and through with through the glass when that story i the occupation continued for two days then the police moved.
there were protests in and students and workers join. forces the students broke into the local office of the german confederation of trade unions the protesters said it was part of the authoritarian structure but for some work because the demonstration went too far. i could. not get off someone said oh my father's retirement files are in there and they're throwing stuff out the window so now he's not going to get his pension oh but we were fighting for issues that were important to us the workers didn't seem to understand that. the split between them and us. at. the emergency laws came into effect on june twenty eighth the protest movement was starting to lose momentum international events now took center stage. in all this the soviet union supported by four other states invaded czechoslovakia this
marks the end of the proxy spring and the hope of the free socialism. between if they've now had just given birth to her first child she and her friends were horrified by the invasion and held protests against it. some of my friends handed out leaflets and were arrested. and then i thought if someone else hands up the leaflets maybe my friends won't be held guilty. under someone who believed in socialism i decided that i have to do something. the list of what must be. very rushed her own leaflets by hand and then distributed them. at the same time in czechoslovakia communist party chief alexander to check
urged his people not to resist the warsaw pact invasion because support among the population was so great that the citizens engaged the occupation troops and political discussions and street fighting. soviet leaders tried to get to change to roll back the reforms. matina vigneault was arrested convicted on charges of slandering the state and sentenced to a year in prison. if you wish to talk to rage to wish those in court the judge asked me whether i thought about my child's future i said i had to i did what i have to do for the child's sake. but this was a major political and moral decision for me. i thought if my son at the age of twenty had asked me what did you do to resist them i could tell him the.
protests in west germany against the soviet invasion didn't attract much attention some radical german leftists even expressed support for the soviet union. in your view what you just d.s. was a unified movement for just a short period of time i got seven spot into a salvation smaller groups more good for both of these s.t.s. women's council as appeared in one thousand nine hundred sixty eight and took up the cause of women's rights part of it stated many s.d.s. members claimed that their male counterparts didn't take them seriously and also complained about gender discrimination within the organization activist helka senda took action too and i hope not really i don't think our initial efforts to correct the situation failed so we've. out of the s.d.s. and it started or an organization i got out. in november nine hundred sixty eight the s.t.'s organized
a big demonstration in west berlin to coincide with the trial of a protester who'd been arrested during the easter riots the demonstration soon turned violent the debate over whether it was appropriate to use violence created deep divisions within the student movement some activists favorite among radical approach these included some future members of the red army faction the guys for sixty eight meant different things to different people the art and that is if the embassy there was absolutely no justification for the way that some people express their anger and other emotions to decide if it indeed could if it take the level of there wasn't a revolution as such but it did lead to some form for the store solution space where i learned that it's important to speak out of. his own. and find. fifty years after he first hit the charts his comeback album went straight into the german talk. to me it
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