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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  July 5, 2018 9:30am-10:00am CEST

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you're somewhere every day and seeing more rubbish each time you see gives me everything by the way who wins i have to give something back to my life. surfers fighting against unseen to see storage joy for t w. h e n t the science magazine on d. w. welcome to tamara today here's what's coming up. biomolecules in the nights illuminated by the world's biggest x. ray laser in hamburg. a chemist goes to finland to find out what fine particles in the air do to the cells in our bodies. and every mobile phone i know once faster internet but who wants to live near the transmitter
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towers. and. find g. is the watchword the new networks will make everything work faster and better on your mobile phone at least that's what providers are claiming. just look at the time needed to download a high definition film. it could take up to seven hours and three g. three minutes and forty and in five g.b. just two seconds but that requires new transmitter technology and the five g. antennas may pose dangers. this is the kind of antenna needed for new five g. wireless networks which promise to be much faster and more powerful but what about the electromagnetic radiation that five g. systems will emit many people are already scared of the real or perceived risks of current networks. i would never live under such a big antenna it's dangerous. getting up it gives you cancer.
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in the body and destroys stuff in the cells. so i went out there. more research is needed i'm worried what the effects might be. fifth generation wireless networks promise greater speed and data volumes will be able to surf the web at speeds up to one hundred times faster this will accelerate reaction times for autonomous driving and speed up data processing in industry but to make this work industry is calling for an easing on transmission safety limits. increased radiation levels has some experts concerned dr carlos quinto a board member of the swiss medical association says it's too early to ease restrictions. and strongly we know that radiation has both a biological impact and in some people a psychological one as well. there is evidence to that effect. we
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can't be certain at this stage research is complex. so we're calling for monitoring and further studies. decisions about limits should only be made once the results are in. today's two three and four g. mobile networks operate in the seven hundred ninety megahertz to two point six gigahertz range. five g. will need to use much higher frequencies to provide system capacity and bandwidth this will speed up the transmission of immense volumes of data starting at three point five and later expanding up to one hundred gigahertz. however starting at about six gigahertz the waves shorten so significantly they're easily blocked by solid objects such as walls and trees so the transmitters need to be much more powerful for the signal to penetrate obstacles. environmental
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epidemiology martin rowsley is an expert on mobile phone radiation his office is at the swiss tropical and public health institute in basel overlook a mobile network transmitter when it's eventually upgraded to five g. that will raise his groups level of exposure to radiation. we know today there is no risk to your health but we need to factor a wide margin of error because there's still a lot of uncertainty in this area so is the radiation from five g. antennas benign or can it make us sick the evidence regarding radiation from current mobile networks is patchy and far from conclusive so far there's no concrete evidence linking radiation to brain tumors but five g. creates new variables higher frequencies means shorter waves and they're more easily absorbed by the. skin unlike the current longer way forms which penetrate the body and are absorbed within. the skin absorbs radiation differently
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and that could mean other kinds of damage perhaps skin cancer right now we can't be sure. there haven't been any good studies on this yet. so at the moment we don't have enough information to be concerned or i'm concerned. martin rowsley says antennas are usually not the problem but smartphones themselves when he makes a call with a phone that gets a strong signal he measures lower radiation levels but when he calls with a phone that's getting bad reception radiation levels bike. the reception is bad there is much more radiation. because of all the electromagnetic radiation our body absorbs ninety to ninety five percent comes from electronic devices in use around us some people already trying to protect
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themselves from such radiation. never have a phone in my bedroom however. i don't keep my phone in my trouser pocket up against my body. can't escape radiation in the digital world you would have to give up your phone for a start. but with all the new bells and whistles five g. offers it may prove even harder to get people to give up their devices. smartphones are said to have ever greater internet capacity we asked our fans on facebook how fast a mobile internet would improve life in the everyday. francisco from mexico is skeptical he says that even the fastest internet in the world won't help and this user behavior changes first. he got a lot of likes for that from other uses. but the telegraph says faster internet means getting news faster which he relies on these days he's happy about fast
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internet in kenya. limited to in the area it says foster mobile internet will make connectivity and accessibility easier. and much to do edna's penya in colombia is optimistic that fast internet will give her the opportunity to learn new things on him about. now here's a fun fact austrian born american actress katie lamar was not only a glamorous hollywood star in the one nine hundred forty s. she was also an inventor who helped develop the technology known as frequency hopping spread spectrum without it we might not have why fight and be tooth today. from the woman who was ahead of her time to some traditional images of women decades ago. on clouds housewives may seem antiquated but their battle against dust in the home continues to this day. and
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quite bright too because as researchers are finding out tiny particles in the air can pack powerful punch. sometimes researchers have to travel a long way to find the answers they seek. zimmerman's inquiries have brought him to finland. the analytical chemist has come to study the air here it's considered the cleanest in europe. but the objects of his investigation are airborne fine particles and dust. whether in studies on humans or epidemic or logical studies we know for certain that particulate matter is harmful but we don't exactly know how it acts so we're trying to get a. detailed picture including the biological mechanisms doing something for public
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health is a big motivation for me. simone says the conditions here are ideal for a cutting edge experiment. here with colleagues at the university of eastern finland and quite b.-o. he's studying the effects of fine dust on the human body. the research project underway here is unique. the findings are likely to put pressure on the authorities. especially regarding aerosol particles released from burning wood. said my man and his team are analyzing the dangerous substances and wood smoke. doing that has presented them with a number of challenges. finding out exactly how these particulates harm our cells and our bodies is an even bigger effort.
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the experiment will probably challenge our romantic view of the quaint and cozy wood stove. the research team at the university and have bore weeks to complete the study. each day they burn different types of wood including birch beach and spruce. tubes and hoses guide the flue gas through a series of measuring instruments that analyze the components. the fine particulates themselves are dangerous to health but they're even more hazardous when they're loaded with chemical substances from the smoke. some of the chemical components are easily identified however it takes time for the scientists to analyze the full spectrum of chemicals in the wood smoke. besides the carbon so that the instruments detect numerous salts and metals as well as
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a whole cocktail of noxious organic substances including turpin's. from aldehyde and poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons zero one two we have here is definitely not healthy. the chemical nature of the substances is the crucial thing . while it's clear that the smaller the particles the deeper they can penetrate into our bodies the damage they actually do there depends on the additional toxin the state carry. in the second part of the study the researchers hope to learn exactly how the cocktail of toxins affect the body at the cellular level. the smoke is blown through human lung cells to see what it does to them and to learn of the smoke damages the genetic material d.n.a. . the cells are exposed to the smoke for four hours.
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dose that we typically get on a daily basis. then the researchers examine the cells using all the bio analytical methods out there disposal. the results are on him big us. smoke has a critical effect on human lung cells. the cells exhibit inflammation. a number of aggressive molecules form inside them triggering what the researchers call oxidative stress. the cellular metabolism undergoes an abrupt change as the cells attempt to defend themselves against the toxic substances. and there's also damage to the d.n.a.
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molecules the strands break up in places. this is due to the poly seqlock aromatic hydrocarbons in the smoke which are known carcinogens. as my first of any wood smoke is harmful so when we compare the different types of word we see that soft towards the conifers spruce for example release slightly more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons other words such as birch released greater amounts of turpin's which trigger inflammation and loss and even if and when was also the. overall worrying results that need to be chased with a tall glass of cold finish beer. most alarming is that the damage occurs even with small amounts of the particulates matter the take away we need to do much more to protect ourselves from these harmful substances.
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even without harmful toxins all organisms take plants in nature's never ending cycle of birth growth and decay. old blooms with the inevitable end of life is death then omar from the rocco sent in a question about that. what is death. many people live in fear of it. death can be an occasion for sorrow and for ritual celebrations many religions preach life after death. but determining the moment of death isn't simple. dying can be a lengthy process doctors distinguish between different phases of death the term a clinical death is often used when breathing ceases. the pulse stops.
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signals grow weaker and consciousness is lost. some people brought back from near death report out of body experiences seeing landscapes or being in a tunnel with a light at the end. people who've been clinically dead for a few minutes can sometimes be resuscitated and even recover fully. another phase is brain death. here neuronal activity in the brain has shut down. the pupils no longer respond to light and vital organs can only be maintained by life support machines this is the point at which donor organs may be removed but critics say it's hard to establish that brain death has indeed occurred. then there's what's called biological death in this irreversible phase tissue breaks down and the body becomes stiff cold and discolored. that is also
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programmed into the trillions of cells in our bodies by edge and at some point they aren't renewed if this happens on a large scale biological death is unavoidable. but throughout history people have sought to defy death with remembrance nowadays many people are memorialized on the internet with come. memory to videos and virtual candles. coats on gravestones and facebook pages help keep the dead alive at least in memory. because what is right why. do you have a science question that you've always wanted on set we're happy to help out send it to us as a video text ovoid smell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you count on you just ask. you'll find us a d.-w. dot com slash science drop us a line at d w underscore suntech on facebook d w dot science.
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the big bang the origin of the universe how did that happen this excess for us to come the big bang theory has certainly made it a popular catchphrase with its nerdy characters it's been credited with making physics cool to teenagers character the show features real life geeks like my m.b. olic but since the mirror scientist may not know all that much about cosmology let's consult an expert about the real big bang theory. art reconstructed the big bang professor. no no no no no no no it's not that easy the big bang wasn't like any explosion we can imagine an explosion takes place in space but space didn't exist yet let me show you how the universe came into existence. they were are we. we are we have the
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universe doesn't exist yet from a physics point of view we are absolutely no way according to theory at this point there is no space nor time and certainly no matter. can calculate what happened right after the big bang but we know nothing about the moment the big bang happened. so we don't know why the universe came about. to be honest we have no idea. does that mean there might have been another universe before the big bang. it is certainly conceivable maybe there are even other universes parallel to ours ones that might also contain life. but this is just speculation there's no proof. although it sounds absurd most physicists assume that the universe rose out of nothing there's no such thing as before the big fact
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and no such thing as beyond the universe with the big bang this is what came into existence. but it's so tiny according to our calculations in the beginning the universe was so small that billions of them could fit inside an atom which. yes one hundred trillion trillion degrees. everything in the universe was squeezed together into. what was that was cosmic inflation within a fraction of a second the universe trillions and trillions of times bigger matter spread throughout space then the universe stopped expanding so fast and began to cool. this cosmic soup the first particles of light and matter came into existence how old is the universe now just a few billion some
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a second. after one whole second the universe's diameter was as big as that distance between the earth. and all the matter in today's milky way would have fit into this coffee cup there weren't even any atoms yet it took a few minutes before it was cool enough for them to form. a i can't see a thing. there was a thick fog across the entire universe photons bounced off atomic nuclei and electrons and were trapped they were stuck there for three hundred eighty thousand years. three hundred eighty thousand years of fog. yes but then the universe expanded and cooled off long enough for matter to bind together into an entire atom. the photons had enough room to fly straight ahead from everywhere to anywhere. this light can still be measured today the cold long
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wavelength radiation left over from the early cosmos and that's the strongest evidence we have for our big bang model of the expanding universe. radiation from far away in the universe can be picked up by orbits in space telescopes that includes x. rays emitted by messing around black holes like to collisions. x. rays were discovered by very him common happened and came to the medical revolution thanks to their ability to penetrate human tissue and make those visible now scientists are using x. rays to make cinematic images of metal down to the molecular level. the world's brightest x. ray pulses generating them was the supreme goal for researchers here at the days of the silicon in hamburg spent eight years setting up germany's biggest scientific
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experiment. the exparel x. ray laser included drilling a three and a half kilometer long underground tunnel. the control center at daisy runs the laser one staff member who was involved in the planning from the start is there nola. in. in our exhilarate or modules we have electrical potentials of twenty five million volts that speed up the electron beam me entire apparatus has an alignment of better than a tenth of a millimeter. before we've taken advantage of many disciplines in physics and engineering in the us this is off we have the highest this is what happens in the underground operated as. a laser beam is fired at the piece of niobium metal generating packets of electrons that are directed into the tunnel the electrons are accelerated to close to the speed of light in the tube so with the help of ultra cool super conducting magnets the result of intense high energy pulses of radiation
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. that technology uses arrays of special magnets in the tunnel that force the electrons into slalom like trajectories at each curve they emit high energy photons in the form of pulses of x. rays these photons will be used by experimenters from around the world to come to daisy. the radiation that arrives through the final metres of thin tubes in the extel is a world sensation christiane pressler is about to use it for his experiments he says this facility is far more powerful than older ones in japan and the u.s. . the difference is that we've got one hundred times more few could say in other words lots more intensity so we can do studies of much more subtle processes that we used to consider absolutely out of the question is. here in the experimentation setup area researchers want to use the laser light to get
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a peek into. the nano world of atoms. this device is the world's fastest x. ray detector the scientists are hoping to analyze patterns of scattered photons to make the structure of molecules visible with up to twenty seven thousand flashes of laser light per second they'll be making the world's first molecular movie is called the images will show intimate details of how chemical reactions take place that will enable chemists and materials scientists to tailor molecules for specific applications here's one example. i need him we have a chemical compound that we want to look at us and it's interesting for energy research for solar cells and the like and we want to understand why some of these compounds function efficiently in solar cells and others don't and that is up in the. one application of the x. ray laser that particularly interests the researchers is to observe the way bio molecules react in the human body one can actually lasers off of the light
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intensity that enables you to investigate biological molecules the radiation sources we've had so far required for example proteins to be grown in crystal for a solution that's not the way they exist in the cell and cells they're in a queer solution and the intensity density that we have is high enough to measure them in solution. and this is the dream using the knowledge gained here to design by a molecule for better medications with the help of the super x. ray laser. not all parts of the facility are ready for use but when they go into operation in the upcoming years they're expected to produce lots of new insights insights into the finest details of molecular structure. that's it for today. next week we'll be joining a citizen science project in switzerland the volunteers are monitoring the spread
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of. these shiny fish each his have returned to areas where they were sold to be extinct join us for that next time till then. move. on. to. cut. cut. cut cut.
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cut. cut cut cut cut. cut cut cut. cut cut. the mob. enjoy the conflict zone the for kids two years since the breaks a referendum in britain lose my guest this week you're in the movies mickey morgan a former education minister and now a troll remain conservative m.p. why does she continue to profit off of the prime minister who has failed so spectacularly to unite the party and conflict so for the few minutes the c.w. for. forty more old.
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me who do you think is going to be a little chip that. matches the scores. of eighteen soccer world cup on t w news. every journey begins with the first step and every language but the first word in the nico case in germany. why not. it's simple mind on your mobile and free. t.w. is a killer in course. german made easy. it's tough fluff. mangum from people make fun about their own social economic and
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political problems. in mozambique we say that you have to laugh so you don't write it's how people called we think they do people things. as a journalist i often talk about these folks in the back finds the lessons of katrina. i like to stack my date by checking on all those jokes finding out what people are talking about what is moving them. my father taught me how to ask uncomfortable questions about my country and about books that is what i keep doing to state my name's fadi self and i work at that believe.
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me i'm. going to take you to. this is d. w. news coming to you live from berlin another couple apparently poisoned with a deadly nerve agent on british soil police say the pair are in critical condition after they were exposed to the nova truck which was developed in the soviet union but they don't know if the incident is linked to the attempted assassination of a russian spy of his daughter with the same substance just months ago.

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