tv Doc Film - Secrets of the Stone Age Part 2 Witnesses for Eternity Deutsche Welle July 12, 2018 3:15am-4:00am CEST
eight. of. the human race has been building stone structures for eight years. what are the origins of these structures. what were they used for. and how did people move them into place. to place. about ten thousand years ago humans became sedentary they started growing crops and raising livestock. the people were no different from ourselves they appreciated the. finer things in life the statistics
the legacy of the neolithic age endures to this day. the new people were the first to become heavily dependent on material goods just as we are today. our knowledge of this period is based on archaeological discoveries. news and stone structures are a key to understanding early civilizations. much of the archaeological evidence has been buried for example our ancestors concealed their large stone tombs today these sites resemble hills. such landmarks were meant to last any turn to. the oldest evidence of sedentary cultures has been found in what is now jordan syria palestine northern iraq and southern anatolia. nine
thousand years ago this region was probably more humid in densely forested than it is now. archaeologists discovered several prehistoric settlements near the ruins of the ancient city of patron in southwestern georgia. my yacht is about ten kilometers west of why the move for the valley of most. it was an extremely important find. now for the first time archaeologists mario unbends and her colleagues are trying to reach the excavation site during the winter. complete. with the site is located on a plateau twelve hundred meters above sea level to reach the part of the team has to hike through a gorge. sometimes the gorge is blocked by rain water or snow. but today the
weather is far. from benz is a member of the research association x. oriental which is affiliated with the free university of berlin. this site was discovered more than twenty years ago by the german archaeologists hans-georg able was also the director of the excavation project and the chairman of x. oriented. media. so far the team that carried out excavation work at six different sites in the area and have taken samples from several others. the entire site covers one point five hectares. the evidence recovered so far indicates that coopt were growing here. not only large is either one of the big questions for us is why would people want
to settle up here. but possibly to protect themselves gorgeous can be closed off very easily. because it's also possible that the surrounding area has become overpopulated so these people move to the potato. as recent as now it was a founding society and people also raised cattle sheep and goats good search to see if. they developed specialized methods of farming and breeding livestock bomba there was a social hierarchy but we've not yet been able to determine the presence of a differentiation in social status is not it's not like his income. was. the houses are all about the same size and that indicates that this was an egalitarian society it also appears that
they were built close together there was no room for pathways between them. the rooms of the houses were very small. thanks. people seem to have spent a lot of time on the roofs. thank you. chad . the small chambers were used to store food and house livestock. from this side was very carefully planned for example we determined that all three of these passageways of the same height the small axes and the masonry is quite neatly layered in places so it's likely that specialists did it in the early days of the settlement as fears even then i
got tired as i understand also on the other hand they knew nothing about using support be institutional at the wools this last month so they kept the balls from falling down by building the structures that you see him. so hard when that was the one. since the boyar settlers built with stone part of their history can be reconstructed. but these structures tell us nothing about the people who lived here their thoughts and beliefs. tunes are better suited for this. archeologists have already discovered nearly think graves here and in summer two thousand and sixteen the team made a discovery that revealed much about the way that this community buried its dead. on these new homes there with foundering that had three different graves and one kind of it was a collective site where adults and children were buried together and the guns have
all they was also supposed example of an individual site which contained a rich assortment of burial items. we also found a grave in which to relationships among the deceased. but it's not yet clear whether the bone material will provide enough d.n.a. . for the. archaeologists spend a lot of time analyzing the data that they've compiled. their primary goal is to document the original state of the site as accurately as possible. the excavation work at the but ya site indicates that it was an autonomous settlement that had no recognizable social hierarchy. if so that was a remarkable achievement. was it first and yet i'm just imagining a settlement of more than a thousand people that lasted for more than five hundred years in
a similar area surrounded by deep gorges as they lived in a very confined space and they did so without major conflicts that's an enormous social accomplishment for people who had only recently become sedentary. wouldn't. it's not yet clear why the settlement was later abandoned. there's no evidence of communal violence. it's possible that the residents depleted the local forests and grazing land. or perhaps the area was hit by a major drought. there are many possible explanations. scientists have proven the existence of one major climate phenomenon that changed living conditions throughout the mediterranean region.
six thousand in approximately sixty two hundred b.c. and ice jam in north america collapsed and that caused two huge lakes to pour their contents into the atlantic ocean stock up the crude this major inflow of water interrupted the gulf stream for more than a century and that in turn produced cooler temperatures in the mediterranean region perhaps one or two degrees celsius the middle of a and there was a big drop in precipitation. these phenomena posed a real threat to early neolithic peoples who does include two and on. i don't know if the poor dog. perhaps that's why people abandon the by ya settlement even today jordan suffers from water shortages and in summer temperatures often rise above forty degrees centigrade. a climate change and student that took place about
a thousand years ago has left its mark throughout europe the middle east and north africa. since the end of the last great ice age sea levels have been rising continuously. just four thousand five hundred years ago the water level on france's brittany peninsula was several meters lower than it is today. or. over time the sea moved about five hundred meters further inland. french archaeologists costs and believes that many stone age relics have been covered up by the sea listen i'm in the hole that you need to rise in the sea level certainly depends on fluctuations in climate including the ice age and post ice age phases of the ice a few sea levels have been rising in this part of brittany for more than sixty thousand years the sea but in the last thousand years of hunter gatherer societies
it rose especially rapidly on a lovable good to see a hockey that you. know the only supposed engine over just one generation entire fishing and food gathering ground simply disappeared key destroyed a serious set of will take. between forty five hundred and three thousand b.c. an advanced megalithic culture developed along the coast of britain. there are three large stone structures. near the village of local arioch in the air gras passage great. men here and it term called the tabla demo shot. no human remains or burial objects have been found at the marshall site but there are a number of impressive rock engravings. over the full benefit of several symbols were carved into the ceiling there are three separate groups of symbols stone there's an
axe with a handle so. you can see the polished blade and its edge you can also see the pointed handle pick. it end of the handle is curved in the shape of a snail and the ruby heap of the me above that a crooked stick or crook you know through and finally a drawing of an animal like you'd find on the island of gavriel nice new symbol for a good. governance lies in the gulf of more beyond so the local residents must have had boats they could transport huge rocks with. poorly in them all. to get from here to the island and it really was an island at that time you had to have a boat it was but not just a raft or a dock out those and so particular government exceeded save. i think they
needed a proper water craft to get that had planks tied tightly together shall source of the governess capstone weighed more than twenty tons so you can imagine that the boat had to be pretty large into up and see that you also get back to. the megalithic tome site on governing once contained a stone structure that was even taller than the ground men here of local arioch. the column was later torn down but some of the stone was later we used a tribute to the symbolic importance that the structure once held.
her and. also to go to the coal business or one of the men here of aircraft is certainly the greatest example of this kind of monumental stone structure the city. several hundred years after it was a wreck did the men here fell over and broke into four pieces no one seems to know exactly how or why this happened. the men here had towered eight hundred meters over the countryside. at the time it was the tallest upright stone structure of its kind. that's adding on and see here is the guns and these
monumental structures played an important role in the collective memory of society and they continue to do so even fifty generations after they were built the lagoon that had been later generations probably associated the structures with something entirely different now and didn't knock we're going to get ever to learn from ticketless guns on the destiny to boom. we can only speculate on the thought processes of the olympic peoples. how did they have madge in the world that they live. did. the engravings on these huge stone that the money lead site also. may provide some insight. at first glance they may seem unrecognizable but a closer inspection shows that each has a story to tell. you see now here's one both. the c. and s.
and another the paranoid vertical lines represent the crew got keith cinci to keep . images of boats waves and whales is it possible that these neolithic people had developed certain aspects of maritime culture. he says he has an image of a whale the body including a square feet and is clearly visible if you know the sheep. taking a city on the left and up here you can see the spout which is depicted as a diversion to office to fuzzy it could be a conventional depiction fall. we can't say for sure whether the local residents thought that whales were dangerous wild animals war were merely a symbol of marine life in the gulf of moore being all.
ancient peoples often painted or carved images of animals. did they do so out of respect and admiration or simply because they enjoy doing. some of this art. including paintings engravings and relief decorations is beautifully done. the farmers and herders who moved west from asia minor did not do so directly it was an irregular process that took place over several thousand years.
does i know the only thing these neolithic immigrants first encountered local european hunter gatherers about seventy five hundred years ago at the latest. the original inhabitants had been in europe for forty thousand years they'd probably seen archaic human species such as neanderthals and had experienced various periods of glacial activity as it can feel. the hunter gatherers were there first guns and they were genetically distinct from the immigrant population. their last common ancestors probably date back thirty thousand years or so did let's get mines on for fun of the land certainly enough time to develop their own culture language and even physical appearance into beacons on an authenticity because i often want to see the differences between these two groups were quite obvious janusz then the new forest in. europe's original inhabitants were hunters to.
the new immigrants had been farmers for several generations. and hunters and gatherers left behind little archaeological evidence. later they probably migrated to. fertile regions perhaps near newly populated areas . along the coasts of northern europe they found rich fishing grounds and decided to settle.
here in the colony model region on the west coast of ireland archaeologists are researching this key transitional phase. this is the only mound of this type targeting was stretch of coast here so this is clearly a very significant place that has survived in the landscape it's likely to be much bigger in the past. so i only need to show the shows pointed to a seasonal occupation site as part of a seasonal round of living on the shore here we have all the shell middens on the shoreline here but they're inches or centimeters deep this is a monumental mitten if you like or like any other one along the shore i hear so it's it's it's a particular sites and has a sacral are sacred dimension to us. hopefully we get to explore in time but as the site has been ruled an alibi by the elements. but it looks like a core site now archaeologists have uncovered a number of small treasures here. that they are pushing it's
a kitchen midden which is a site that was built are the result of cooking here between six and maybe eight thousand years ago to create a barely farmers here are the preceding population of hunter gatherers living on the shore of galway bay or sewer right along its line to coles the our night is out behind us and is very boring granite landscape very in fact i growing saw fish resources and shellfish resources huge importance of some of the areas sites in europe and the areas investigated archaeological sites in york are shown in the very north of denmark but over the last two hundred years to be. investigations carried out on shell mounds with this is a classic example of. for years experts disagreed on the origins of these accumulations of shell's size of mice with some thought that they'd been washed ashore over time by ocean waves but now the majority opinion is that they were created by humans. as we suspect it is and mesolithic our transition
site between the ms lake to hold together world is really the question european archaeology designs are gatherers bill is the new music to the adopt a new think already displaced by early farming groups coming in from the consulate this isn't going to be political and from one of the great unanswered questions about the neolithic period is whether the farming peoples emigrates to this region of the hunter gatherers turn to farming and became city entry and insufficient gene it's difficult to say for sure but in many cases we can assume that it was both from us out of this evidence to support each of these theories biases can is first a box of bias could just believe in. between thirty eight hundred and twenty hundred b.c. neolithic peoples in northern europe built a number of massive stone structures. german
archaeologist speculates on why they did that. because from what i flung. it was during the ice age glaciers deposited huge boulders throughout northern germany and large parts of north central europe. this didn't bother the hunter gathering peoples but as soon as they became seven terry and began to cultivate large fields the boulders became a big problem fish died it would manage to hunt less even as we have beat me. by this time people had learned how to move heavy objects like boulders. this was a major development. given that was to get up to a bit of food and get nearly think people's discovered the concept of traction and approximately four thousand b.c.
this is just about the time that the first megaliths were built as well get the good people who had used teams of oxen to pull the boulders out of the fields. and they use these boulders to build cold sites or tune sort of men heres these large single structures. so they found practical uses for these boulders and when they cleared their fields as well. they used the same teams of oxen to plow those fields and became incredibly productive much more so than southern european peoples who hadn't discovered that kind of ploughing yet you know how a. farming at this time was hard work particularly for those who used simple tools to till the soil. and since people were living more closely together in small spaces they ran an increased risk of contracting disease. still the population of farmers grew more quickly than that
of the hunter gatherers. and there was a big increase in construction in scotland the first stone circles were built. burial ground began to appear in northern germany. and huge stone columns were erected in brittany for example the men here are just showing don't know. the structure is nine point five meters tall. and the component parts were hauled from a site that was at least four kilometers away. and all. the men peered out tom de lay is eight meters tall and weighs about one hundred sixty tons. it leaning slightly to one side because it was built on soft ground. this structure and two others near it were said to guard the entrance to hell.
there are more than three thousand men here as in the area around car now. why did the local residents build these structures. to. search cussen has been trying to answer that question for years. and sort of get all of the click of the local residents place the trust in those who are able to ensure their survival. and they were willing to work to put up which will structures to one of them. and few security is still you see examples of this just about everywhere to one extent or another say used to do so because it was a way big sis we presume when they see clear. this is the barn in a burial mound in northern brittany. it's one of the oldest structures of its kind
and was often expanded over the course of one thousand years. the mound contains eleven dole men's or single chamber tombs. the structures consist of at least two vertical megaliths and a horizontal capstone. it's often difficult to spot them from a distance but they are either part of a large stone complex or they've been covered over with soil. draft animals can haul large objects only on a flat surface. sometimes neolithic peoples built ramps to make this possible. good. look in the.
large stone slabs like these can weigh up to one hundred thirty tons. they took huge teams of workers to move these objects even just a few centimeters could you could imagine the amount of work that was required to place a huge capstone on top of the vertical pillars of all these projects were fired an enormous amount of planning and organization. so why did people build these structures but. it was just at the level of the diluted i think they wanted to create something that was truly monumental get able most of these structures were built at grave sites it wasn't enough to simply bury the deceased people wanted to put up some sort of memorial later generations have no idea that it was a burial site but the structure did last for centuries been illegal to disappear jewish food even kids who bought.
the first meal with it farming peoples continued to migrate across europe some even made their way to northern scotland probably by sea. the nests of broad gar is a major archaeological site in the orkney islands. the nests and the air. around it were designated a world heritage site in one thousand nine hundred nine. days just on buildings means all pieces of all content should be viewed to fully constructed and it's not just an overnight sensation this site was special for over a thousand views. this is what the nasa might have looked like stone buildings
covered with pete. as far as we know these were not residential structures just. excavation director nick card and his team can only work here for two months a year because of the bad weather. the rest of the time the site is covered by protective sheet. the archaeologists have unearthed hundreds of beautifully decorated relics. found on. each item could shed some light on what life was like here. at this point archaeologists are still filling in the blanks. on a. what were these decorated stone slabs used for there
are indications that some of them were painted. a large amount of animal bones have been found this indicates that the local residents organized feasts here. and. experts believe that the nest of broad car was abandoned and partially dismantled by about twenty two hundred b.c. archeologists have found no evidence of bronze age culture here. seems to be in a very important part of the everyday life of me to think people. in some ways been lucky the names that some of the trees of a. particular areas of the site has been very cute and so we managed to pick up evidence for calling not just in the ceramics but also actually in the walls of the buildings. nick carter and his team have found evidence of painted walls. the use of decorative paint or dye has also been confirmed at neolithic sites on
the mediterranean island of malta. the first large temples were built around forty five hundred b.c. and all were colorfully decorated. the color red is the color of blood so if as we are assuming there was an element of item of the sacrifice in the collection. blood in some form then one could be led to believe the thread represented the color of blood which represents a life or represents the thought the sacrifice of anonymous so there may be this link between kala ritual. these beautiful relief artworks were carved in sandstone and indicate that animals were important to the local residents both game animals and pets.
why did neolithic artisans choose these particular subjects. that are all a number of food results including the. the wish ship of nature the worship of fats and it's the idea of a mother god this comes from the. cover of a number of statues which i believe to represent the first sign woman. the idea coming from one's mother have a mother of a mother but the origin of mother is mother. these images indicate that women in military society enjoyed a special status. defy all its. women represented not only fertility but also strength and political power this is
because this image would change later of course but it was stable for at least a few millenia in the early think times it was an age where gender equality was the norm and men didn't dominate women and men defile the mutant. peoples also developed an interest in acquiring personal property. in near little corner on demand during the nearly that period people began to define themselves by their material goods. they put a lot of time and effort into this process. side of an industry and for the first time they began to attach economic value to these goods. and that value became the basis for trade talks on bets done with these about five hundred. the new all the six settlement of by god and southwestern jordan is guarded by
a narrow gorge of red sandstone. the local residents use that sandstone to make distinctive semi-circular handicrafts. that these people would carve out a disk shape. and then they create these items out of the material that was left over. a pulley out but sundown each end until they were quite certain and so far the hardest thing there was and these items were probably too delicate for people to wear on their very fragile. well there's nothing to a place not to my sign if one does a thing it does have it's possible that these rings were used like money so that i . was in exchange for food over all materials for example an addict and i am to tell us what. perhaps the way ya settlers chose this site because of the color of the rocks. red colored artifacts have been found at other sites and this indicates
that the yacht may have served as a model. a people's war or limited objects made of teeth animal horns and plant fibers they also used flint jadeite in obsidian. the use of axe heads made of jade was popular at the time the trade in jade items was widespread and they maintained their beauty even today. since shimron x. was a lustrous stores of value. they were used for up to fifteen hundred years and constantly reshaped. one of our colleagues. determined that all this jade came from monte visa and the western elks club and woods it was extracted there and
then traded over an area of up to fifteen hundred kilometers house order four hundred. some jade ax heads were also discovered on the southern coast of brittany near karnow. people who are gathering muscles came across for acceptance but it ended up in what was in the olympic times alou veal soil. it did so to. see these acts heads were probably actual work tools at one time but they were later reshaped and assigned. areas other functions. both see the local residents smooth and clean the plates to make the most shoppers possible. also sometimes they broke the ax heads into two parts a good old piece of tissue nothing will salt. in the summer of two thousand and sixteen french archaeologist found
a deposit of jadeite in the asian region. the material may have been mined there up to nine thousand years ago. patrick comes to scupper he provided new historical insights. but trading was not limited at this time to jade obsidian or sandstone rings which the shells of spiny oysters were also used. here austrian archaeologists marco prosecutor uses a reproduction of an ancient tool to make jewelry out of the shells of. the shells are found all the way from the black sea to the coasts of central europe . neolithic people fashioned them into pendants bracelets and belt buckles three. and they were
popular as gifts. if. you include. the neolithic period covered several thousand years. that's not very long in the timeline of history but archangel ancestors had the same spiritual and emotional needs that we do today. this period saw fundamental changes in everyday life. and the ways that people lived and work together. they began to bury their dead and to honor them afterward they built houses they raised crops and livestock. they organize themselves into construction and erected huge stone structures and some of these have survived to this very day.
he said she was a woman shot on the transition to civilization in europe and began with the arrival of the migrants from the east in short migration produced civilization and cities it's. the indigenous hunter gathering peoples either merged into these new societies or adopted sedentary farming culture on their own. there was no turning back. just want to see that was absolutely a major step forward and says of just this neolithic sadan tree culture provided the basis for the development of later ordered farms civilization strophe most movie ticket it also created a number of challenges but people dealt with them successfully for giving.
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