tv Doc Film - Secrets of the Stone Age Part 2 Witnesses for Eternity Deutsche Welle July 24, 2018 11:15am-12:00pm CEST
move closer to the human race has been building stone structures for ages the mother. of what are the origins of these structures. what were they used for. and how did people move them into place. on. earth. for. about ten thousand years ago humans became sedentary. they started growing crops and raising livestock. people would no different from ourselves appreciated the finest. things that he
likes the astray six the legacy of the neolithic age endures to this day. the neolithic people were the first to become heavily dependent on material goods just as we are today. to how it is tied to. our knowledge of this period is based on archaeological discoveries. and isn't a stone structures are a key to understanding early civilizations and. much of the archaeological evidence has been buried for example our ancestors concealed their large stone tombs today these sites resemble hills. such landmarks were meant to last an eternity. the oldest evidence of sedentary cultures has been found in what is now jordan syria palestine northern iraq and southern anatolia. nine
thousand years ago this region was probably more humid and densely forested than it is now. archaeologists discovered several prehistoric settlements near the ruins of the ancient city of patron in southwestern georgia. the yacht is about ten kilometers west of wa the move or the valley of most. of. it was an extremely important find. now for the first time archaeologists mario unbends and her colleagues are trying to reach the excavation site during the winter. and. the site is located on a plateau twelve hundred meters above sea level to reach the part of the team has to hike through a gorge. sometimes the gorge is blocked by rain water or snow. but today the
weather is far. baen's is a member of the research association x. orient which is affiliated with the free university of berlin. this site was discovered more than twenty years ago by the german archaeologists hans-georg abel was also the director of the excavation project and the chairman of ex oriented. so far the team that carried out excavation work at six different sites in the area and have taken samples from several others. the entire site covers one point five hectares. the evidence recovered so far indicates that coopt were grown here.
is either one of the big questions for us is why would people want to settle up here often from troops but possibly to protect themselves gorges can be closed off very easily. because it's also possible that the surrounding area has become overpopulated so these people move to the plateau. has risen it was a farming society and people also raised cattle sheep and goats it's safe to. say they developed specialized methods of farming and breeding livestock and there was a social hierarchy but we've not yet been able to determine the presence of a differentiation in social status is not it's not like some kind of. the houses are all about the same size and that indicates that this was an egalitarian says. diety it also appears that they were built close together there
was no room for pathways between them. the rooms of the houses were very small. people seemed to have spent a lot of time on the roofs. of the small chambers were used to store food and house life stock. up front and this side was very carefully planned for example we determined that all three of these passageways of the same height off the art the smaller axes and the masonry is quite neatly layered in places so it's likely that specialists did it in the early days of the settlement spheres even when i'm not tired as i understand is no hold on the other hand they knew nothing about using support beams to shore up the walls of the run so they kept the walls from falling down by building the
structures that you see here. so hard when that was the only one. since the boyar settlers built with stone part of their history can be reconstructed. but these structures tell us nothing about the people who lived here their thoughts and beliefs. tomb are better suited for this. archaeologists have already discovered nearly think graves here and in summer two thousand and sixteen the team made a discovery that revealed much about the way that this community buried its dead. this economy on these new home is that he thundering that had three different graves and one kind of it was a collective site where adults and children were buried together and the guns how they was also supposed example of an individual site which contained a rich assortment of burial items. we also found a grave in which two children aged three six five years old and
a baby were buried just out to. the. genetic analysis might help determine the relationships among the deceased. but it's not yet clear whether the bone material will provide enough d.n.a. . for. archaeologists spend a lot of time analyzing the data that they've compiled. their primary goal is to document the original state of the site as accurately as possible. the excavation work at the but ya site indicates that it was an autonomous settlement that had no recognizable social hierarchy. if so that was a remarkable achievement. was a foster home just imagine a settlement of more than a thousand people that lasted for more than five hundred years in a small area surrounded by deep gorges. they lived in
a very confined space and they did so without major conflicts and that's an enormous social accomplishment for people who had only recently become seventy. one . it's not yet clear why the settlement was later. abandoned. there's no evidence of communal violence. it's possible that the residents depleted the local forests and grazing land. or perhaps the area was hit by a major drought. there are many possible explanations. scientists have proven the existence of one major climate phenomenon that changed the living conditions throughout the mediterranean region.
six thousand one in the in approximately sixty two hundred b.c. and i stammered north america collapsed and that caused two huge lakes to pour their contents into the atlantic ocean stock up the crude this major inflow of water interrupted the gulf stream for more than a century and that in turn produced cooler temperatures in the mediterranean region perhaps one or two degrees celsius the middle. and there was a big drop in precipitation when the these phenomena posed a real threat to early neolithic peoples who does include one daughter and if the poor dogs could. perhaps that's why people abandon the bay ya settlement even today jordan suffers from water shortages and in summer temperatures often rise of a forty degree centigrade. a climate change incident that took place about
a thousand years ago has left its mark throughout europe the middle east and north africa. since the end of the last great ice age sea levels have been rising continuously. just four thousand five hundred years ago the. water level on france's brittany peninsula was several meters lower than it is today. or. over time the sea moved about five hundred meters further inland. french archaeologists costs and believes that many stone age relics have been covered up by the sea listen of in the whole of the needle the rise in the sea level certainly depends on fluctuations in climate including the ice age and post ice age phases of the ice a few sea levels have been rising in this part of brittany for more than sixty thousand years he says but in the last thousand years of hunter gatherer societies
it rose especially rapidly. hockey did you. know that only supposed injury over just one generation entire fishing and food gathering ground simply disappeared key discoveries series to sit home ok. between forty five hundred and three thousand b.c. in advanced megalithic culture developed along the coast of britain. there are three large stone structures near the village of local arioch in the air gras passage graves the every man here and it till called the toddler demo shot. no human remains or burial objects have been found at the marsh on site but there are a number of impressive rock engravings. over before that occurred you know several symbols were carved into the ceiling there are three separate groups of symbols
this time there's an x. with a handle so. you can see the polished blade and its edge you can also see the pointed handle pick. it end of the handle is curved in the shape of a snail heap of the me above that a crooked stick or crook you know through home finally. a drawing of an animal like you'd find on the island of gaffney nice municipal pool for a good. governess lies in the gulf of more beyond so the local residents must have had boats that could transport huge rocks. don't pull highly if you them on the set of to get from here to the island and it really was an island at that time you had to have a boat is good but not just a rock or a dock out those unsought if you're going to save him or not. i think they
needed a proper water craft to get that had planks tied tightly together shall source of the governess capstone weighed more than twenty tons so you can imagine that the boat had to be pretty large in do up and see it yourself you got to. move. the megalithic tomb site on government once contained a stone structure that was even taller than the ground men here of local arioch. the column was later torn down but some of the stone was later reused a tribute to the symbolic importance that this structure once held.
also to go to the british the men here of aircraft is certainly the greatest example of this kind of monumental stone structure the city. several hundred years after it was a wreck did the men here fell over and broke into four pieces no one seems to know exactly how or why this happened. the men here had towered eight hundred meters over the countryside. at the time it was the tallest upright stone structure of its kind. does everything on and see is the guns in these
monumental structures played an important role in the collective memory of society and they continue to do so even fifty generations after they were built feel again that it's not later generations probably associated these structures with something entirely different now did it not for going to canada to learn from it it must come to understand the trouble. we can only speculate on the thought processes of neolithic peoples. how did they have madge in the world that they lived in. the engravings on these huge stone that the money loot site also mia. may provide some insight. at first glance they may seem unrecognizable but a closer inspection shows that each has a story to tell. the siege and here's one both. the c. and s.
and another the parallel vertical lines represent the crew got to keep cinci to keep. images of boats way in wales is it possible that these neolithic people had developed certain aspects of maritime culture. we see decision. he has an image of a whale the body including a square feet and is clearly visible if you know the sheep. take a city on the left. and up here you can see the spout which is depicted as a diversion to office you could see it could be the new conventional. we can't say for sure whether the local residents thought that whales were dangerous wild animals or were merely a symbol of marine life in the gulf of moore be an.
ancient peoples often painted or carved images of animals. did they do so out of respect and admiration or simply because they enjoyed doing. some of this artwork including paintings engravings and relief decorations this beautifully down. the farmers and herders who moved west from asia minor did not do so directly it was an irregular process that took place over several thousand years but it.
does i need it in these neolithic immigrants first encountered local european hunter gatherers about seventy five hundred years ago at the latest. these are the original inhabitants had been in europe for forty thousand years they'd probably seen archaic human species such as neanderthals and had experienced various periods of clay. activity as you can feel obert is in fact the hunter gatherers were there first guns and they were genetically distinct from the immigrant population on. their last common ancestors probably date back thirty thousand years or so didn't listen to mines and for fun of the land certainly enough time to develop their own culture language and even physical appearance into beacons on and off and to see this is often. the differences between these two groups were quite obvious and his friend forced the. europe's original inhabitants were hunters.
the new immigrants had been farmers for several generations. and hunters and gatherers left behind little archeological evidence. that. later they probably migrated to less fertile regions perhaps near newly populated areas. along the coasts of northern europe they found rich fishing grounds and decided to settle.
here in the colony modern region on the west coast of ireland archaeologists are researching this key transitional phase. this is the only moment of this type. stretch of coast here so this is clearly a very significant place that has survived in the landscape it's likely to be much bigger in the past. so i only need to show pointed to a seasonal occupation site as part of a seasonal round of living on the shore here we have all the shell middens on the shoreline here but there inches or centimeters deep this is a monumental mitten if you like on like any other one along the shoreline here so it's it's it's a particular sites. sacred dimension to us. hopefully we'll get to explore in time as the site has been ruled. by the elements. looks like a core archaeologists have uncovered a number of small treasures here. it's a kitchen midden which is
a site that was built the result of cooking here between six and maybe eight thousand years ago to the creator by early farmers here are the preceding population of living on the shore of galway bay or were right along its line to coast behind us in this very boring granite landscape very unfair to. fish resources and shellfish resources hugely important some of the areas sites in europe and the areas investigated archaeological sites in europe are shown in the very north of denmark but over the last two hundred years to be an investigations carried out on shell but this is a classic example. for years experts disagreed on the origins of these accumulations of shells sized. that they'd been washed ashore over time by ocean waves but now the majority opinion is that they were created by humans. as we suspect it is a mesolithic our transition site between them as
a to hold together war does relieve the question european archaeology does owns a gathers builds the new to the adopted neolithic already displaced by early farming groups coming in from the consulate isn't going to go through one of the great unanswered questions about the neolithic period is whether the farming peoples emigrates to this region. the hunter gatherers turned to farming and became sid entry and its mission field it's difficult to say for sure but in many cases we can assume that it was both from us out of this evidence to support each of these theories by this is confused by just disbelief again. between thirty eight hundred and twenty hundred b.c. neolithic peoples in northern europe built a number of massive stone structures. with . german
archaeologist speculates on why they did that. because not. it was a time during the ice age glaciers deposited huge boulders throughout northern germany and large parts of north central europe. this didn't bother the hunter gathering peoples but as soon as they became seven terry and began to cultivate large fields the boulders became a big problem i didn't get much through and was even and for him beat me. by this time people had learned how to move heavy objects like boulders. this was a major development. good now i sit up to a food vs neolithic peoples discover the concept of traction and approximately four
thousand b.c. this is just about the time that the first megaliths were built as well get the good people have used teams of oxen to pull the boulders out of the fields to cheat us to feed them and they use these boulders to build cult sites or tunes or men hears about these large single structures. would secretly help so they found practical you. as for these boulders and they cleared their fields as well. they used the same teams of oxen to plow those fields and became incredibly productive much more so than southern european peoples who hadn't discovered that kind of ploughing yet you know how a. farming at this time was hard work particularly for those who used simple tools to till the soil. can sense people were living more closely together in small spaces they ran an increased risk of contracting disease. still the population of farmers grew more quickly than that of the hunter gatherers.
and there was a big increase in construction in scotland the first stone circles were built. burial grounds began to appear in northern germany. and huge stone columns were erected in brittany for example the men here shown below. the structure is nine point five meters tall and the component parts were hauled from a site that was at least four kilometers away. for. the many years without tom de lay is eight meters tall and weighs about one hundred sixty times. it leans slightly to one side because it was built on soft ground. this structure and two others near it were said to guard the entrance to hell.
there are more than three thousand men here in the area around karnow. why did the local residents build these structures. search cosson has been trying to answer that question for years. seen the good ole to the local residents place that trust in those who are able to ensure their survival. and they were willing to work to put up which will structures to one of them. country secure favors the easy examples of this just about everywhere to want to extent or not. do so because it is a way big sis the prison where they see. this is the barn in a burial mound in northern brittany. it's one of the oldest structures of its kind
and was often expanded over the course of one thousand years. the mound contains eleven goldman's or single chamber to loose. the structures consist of at least two vertical megaliths and a horizontal capstone. it's often difficult to spot them from a distance they are either part of a large stone complex or they've been covered over with soil that they want to. put on a. good. draft animals can haul large objects only on a flat surface. sometimes neolithic peoples build ramps to make this possible. the ability. to. go to.
large stone slabs like these can weigh up to one hundred thirty tons. it took a huge teams of workers to move these objects even just a few centimeters you could imagine the amount of work that was required to place a huge capstone on top of the vertical pillars. these projects were wired and annoy . armisen lot of planning and organization. so why did people build these structures. it was just a beautiful what did i think they wanted to create something that was truly monumental most of the structures were built at grave sites it wasn't enough to simply bury the deceased people wanted to put up some sort of memorial later generations had no idea that it was a burial site but the structure did last centuries. even codes of all.
the first meal i think farming peoples continue to migrate across europe. some even made their way to northern scotland probably by sea. the nests of broad gar is a major archaeological site in the orkney islands. the nests and the area around it were designated a world heritage site in one thousand nine hundred nine. piece just on buildings these are pieces of all katich are beautifully constructed and it's not just an overnight sensation this site boy's special for over a thousand years. this is what the nasa might have looked like stone buildings
covered with pete. as far as we know these were not residential structures just. excavation director nick card and his team can only work here for two months a year because of the bad weather. the rest of the time the site is. covered by protective shield. the archaeologists have unearthed hundreds of beautifully decorated relics. each item could shed some light on what life was like here. at this point archaeologists are still filling in the blanks. what were these decorated stone slabs used for. there are indications that some of
them were painted. a large amount of animal bones have been found this indicates that the local residents organized feasts here. and. experts believe that the nest of broad car was abandoned and partially dismantled by about twenty two hundred b.c. archaeologists have found no evidence of bronze age culture here. cullen seems to be in a very important part of that don't be a brigade wife people. in some ways been lucky the names that some of the preservation in particular areas of the site has been very good and so we have managed to pick up evidence for calling not just in the ceramics but also actually in the walls of the buildings. nic card and his team have found evidence of painted walls. the use of decorative paint or dye has also been confirmed that neil with its
sights on the mediterranean island of malta. the first large temples were built here around forty five hundred b.c. and all were colorfully decorated. the colors reds is the color of blood so if. as we are assuming there was an element of animal sacrifice and the collection of blog or the use of blood in some form then one could be led to believe the thread represented the color of blood which represents a life or represents death off the sacrifice of anonymous so there may be this link between color and ritual and. these beautiful relief artworks were carved in sand style and indicate that animals were important to the local residents both game animals and pets.
why didn't the olympic artisans choose these particular subset. there are a number of theories out there including the. one the worship of nature the worship of fertility the idea of a mother god this comes from the discovery of a number of such rules which are believed to represent a woman. the idea coming from one's mother have a mother of a mother the origin of mother's mother. these images indicate that women in the society enjoyed a special status. if. women represented not only fertility but also strength and political power in this image
would change later of course but it was stable for at least a few millenia in neolithic times it was an age where gender equality was the norm and men didn't dominate women. meal if they keep. also developed an interest in acquiring personal property. period people began to define themselves by their material goods. they put a lot of time and effort into this process. and for the first time they began to attach economic value to these goods. and that value became the basis for trade talks. of. the new olympic settlement of by god and southwestern jordan is guarded by
a narrow gorge of red sandstone. the local residents use that sandstone to make distinctive semi-circular handicrafts. known as it does so for. people with carved out a disc shape. and then they create these items out of the material that was left over the one on a pulley yes but sundown each end until they were quite thin and. there are signs these actions were probably too delicate for people to wear they are very fragile there's nothing to replace not to this my sign if one does a thing it does have it's possible that these rings were used like money so that i don't. want stuff in exchange for food overall materials for example in riddick don't i'm to tell us what. perhaps the boyar settlers chose this site because of the color of the rocks. red colored artifacts have been found at other sites and
this indicates that the yacht may have served as a model. meal the fake people swore ornamented objects made of teeth animal horns and plant fibers they also used flint jadeite and up city on. the use of axe heads made of jade was popular at the time the trade in jade items was widespread and they maintained their beauty even today. since sheer exquisite lustrous stores of value. they were used for up to fifteen hundred years and constantly reshaped. before one of our colleagues. determined that all this jade came from monte vizio and the western elks club and would swell for
a bit was extracted there and then traded over an area of a. up to fifteen hundred kilometers how would a four hundred. some jade ax heads were also discovered on the southern coast of brittany near carnac's. people who are gathering muscles came across for accidents that ended up in what was in the olympic times alou veal soil. the good stuff to. see these x. heads were probably be actual work tools at one time but they were later reshaped and assigned various other functions over yesterday both. the local residents smooth and clean the plates to make them a shop is possible to prove that also sometimes they broke the axe heads into two parts that good old piece of tissue enough to pull salt. in the summer of two thousand and sixteen french archaeologist pierre petra
confound a deposit of jadeite in the asian region. the material may have been mined there up to nine thousand years ago. patrick constance coverage provided new historical insights. but trading was not limited at this time to jade obsidian or sandstone rings which the shells of spiny oysters were also used. austrian archaeologist marco prosecutor uses a reproduction of an ancient tool to make jewelry out of the shells. the shells are found all the way from the black sea to the coasts of central europe . neolithic people fashioned them into pendants bracelets and belt buckles thieves. and they were
popular as gifts. in. the neolithic period cover several thousand years. that's not very long in the timeline of history but our ancient ancestors had the same spiritual and emotional needs that we do today. this period saw fundamental changes in everyday life and the ways that people lived and worked together. they began to bury their dead and to honor them afterward they built houses they raised crops and livestock. they organize themselves in the construction projects and erected huge stone structures and some of these have survived to this very day.
does it seem as if. the transition to civilization in europe began with the arrival of the migrants from the east in short migration produced civilizations see that is that. the indigenous hunter gathering peoples either merged into these new societies or adopted sedentary farming culture on their own. there was no turning back. just want to see that was absolutely a major step forward and says of just this neolithic sadan tree culture provided the basis for the development of later ordered fonts civilization instead of the multi we did it also created a number of challenges but people dealt with them successfully given.
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