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tv   DW News - Live Speech by German Parliamentary President Wolfgang Schauble  Deutsche Welle  October 3, 2018 12:00pm-1:15pm CEST

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this is debut news live from berlin day of unity germany marks the anniversary of reunification following the fall of the berlin wall nearly thirty years ago up to a million people are expected to flock to today's festivities in berlin the government calls german unity a success story but they're also urging germans from the east and west to show each other more respect also coming out i'm scared to go inside a house myself at least go with my parents if they not with me i won't go in there's no time soon as the death toll from indonesia's earthquake goes up to more
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than fourteen hundred our correspondent visits one of the thousands of families trying to deal with both trauma and hunger. british prime minister theresa may prepares to face critics within her own party who are pushing for a harder form of brags that it's her last chance to rally support before a final stretch of talks with brussels. and the nobel prize for chemistry has just been awarded to three scientists for their work on proteins that quote salt humankind's chemical problems our correspondent will explain. i'm sumi so much going to get to have you with us here in germany people all over the country are marking the twenty eighth anniversary of the nation's reunification on october third one thousand nine hundred capitalist west germany and communist east germany formally reunited after over forty years. of division a less than
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a year before that on november ninth one thousand nine hundred nine the berlin wall had crumbled. earlier today german chancellor angela merkel joined other leaders in berlin cathedral for a church service to start official celebrations. and let's take a look here at those official celebrations here live pictures here at the berlin state opera right in the heart of the city celebrations kicked off with a play and now the opera's resident orchestra that's the stuff capella they will also be playing beethoven and we're expecting as well the speech from for lin's mayor in a short while. well our correspondent hans front is following all of the festivities for us in central furlan hi hans so how is reunified germany i'm marking this national holiday. well apart from the church service that has already been finished and the official in the state oprah that is about to start there is
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a first of all you have a t. here at the brandenburg gate where concerts are being played plays are being staged and there's a whole set of. exhibitions of art installations of games for children it's a festival atmosphere here and it will continue throughout the evening and the day here will finish with a fireworks display hans-peter twenty eight years after political reunification a lot of talk today about the differences between the former east and west what still divides people. well i think you have to say that simply there is a difference in mentality there were people who grew up in the east of germany in the former communist germany forty years of that country laich to a different socio it says here lies asian people have different attitudes to certain to life basically from people in the west and those differences seem to
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continue today still you can see that especially in the political field in the east german countries in the federal states in the eastern part of germany the right wing politics politics are a lot stronger than in the western part of germany which seems to indicate that within those federal states in the east it's still quite a lot of dissatisfaction with the situation the way it is today even after twenty eight years of unification so significant differences remain what is the mood then today said salvatore or more resignation. but obviously here where i am it is celebrate three but if you look at the mood generally in germany i think it's a mood of uncertainty because of the political situation that i just indicated the rise of the right wing alternative for germany party right wing populist has led to a weakening of the established parties and a weakening in the sense of the political system that germans have become used to in the last few decades and it's not quite clear how all these things are going to
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change it's clear that. conservatives and the social democrats who at the moment are ruling together in a coalition government are both losing significant support amongst the population it's not clear how that's going to play out in the end so i think apart from the fact that one is still considering the differences between east and west and there's a certain mood of uncertainty about what the future is going to hold right our correspondent in the us in central berlin up to a million people expected to come to festivities in berlin today thank you hans we'll be talking to you a little bit later. and we'll also be returning to those alive celebrations here in berlin a little bit later in the program. though in a few hours' time british prime minister theresa may will address her conservative party's conference speech is being seen as may's last chance to rally her party behind her brags that strategy was less than six months to go before the u.k. leaves the e.u. conservatives are still divided over the issue. looks back at how the u.k.
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became it became to be in such a position. we got our country that bad. breaks a tear is like nigel for us and boris johnson one of the referendum and the new prime minister promised great being correct and we're right. about that. to see just recently e.u. commission president juncker sounded a little less optimistic how much more did we get the impression that the britons think we are leaving great britain so it's exactly the opposite. but why are you so negative. because the e.u. is chief negotiator and the u.k. gregg's it minister have been negotiating. and negotiating. then the u.k. changed its bragg's it. and we are not yet there is
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a document. we must or should prepare for forty two because the conversation on our future russian ship you can see all of this is borderline literally we mean the border between northern ireland which is part of the u.k. and the republic of ireland that belongs to the e.u. this remains the main sticking point in the negotiations everybody wants to avoid the border the e.u. has suggested pushing it into the irish sea but to reset may rejects an external border. parading to parts of the u.k. that could be avoided if the u.k. as a whole were part of the european single market and customs union but tourism a says the only workable solution is her so-called checkers plan where she calls for the frictionless movement of goods between the e.u. and the u.k. that of course is one of the principal freedoms of the e.u. single market the problem is she rejects all the other freedoms and that's what the
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u. commission here calls cherry picking and that won't fly e.u. council president don't not even made fun of me on instagram to drive that point home no cherries with no solution for ireland and future trade ties to recent may isn't a very difficult situation if she gives in to the e.u. breaks a tears will eat her alive if she doesn't there's no deal. right so a lot at stake for theresa may she is due to make a major speech before congress of her conservative party in birmingham england and the mosque is there for us to get good to see you so her speech is an attempt to reassert her authority over a conservative party that's deeply divided over breakfast and the strategy going forward what kind of reception will she receive based on what people there have been telling you. i spoke to a lot of delegates here at the party conference who she oversees trying to win over
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the have and have to say very mixed feedback i got from them some people went out of their way to tell me we are not divided and we are not crazy we are the conservative party we don't want revolution we don't want to rock the boat we want to have orderly relations with europe we don't just want to throw the baby out with the bathwater but then there are others and they have very very determined to leave at any cost really they regard the e.u. as absolutely unacceptable as on the elected bureaucrats the e.u. by some i have to say here are some fringe events of the parties being stylized as as as the bad guys the ones that the conservative party in the country really has to fight against the building up these antagonistic relations between the u.k. and you and there are very strong voices in the party that as mark said in this report exerting a lot of pressure on to reason may to come out at any cost even
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a hard breaks in a car crash they really don't mind one of the most critical voices that has been the former foreign minister boris johnson and he gave a speech yesterday calling teresa mayes checkers plan and outrage how big a threat is he to may's leadership. he has really been quite a threat and people in the conference and have been queuing for four hours who for two hours and move in order to get in for many brick city is boris johnson is the hero he's the savior he gave a speech that was quite wide ranging so many regarded as the speech of of a prime minister in waiting he didn't just cover bricks it he covered a lot of domestic affairs he was talking about the need to be more confident we need to stand up to the european union and to to draw back on the conservative and british values are quite strong on the values and as such she's blind that's reason
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may was too timid and that if only a leader who has more confidence than all the negotiations would go much better he had not quite the rousing applause that i think he would have hoped for many people here commentators are saying he's dead he's not a threat anymore but i don't think that he himself believe that he really did make quite quite a speech in order to to threaten and to challenge to resume a not just now but maybe in the future all right did his birth at mass for us in birmingham where theresa may is expected to speak in a little less than an hour's time or will come back to you in the course of the day . now to some other stories making headlines around the world. where is the place i don't remember. u.s. president donald trump has mocked the testimony of christine before and who last week testified that supreme court nominee brett kavanaugh had sexually assaulted
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her when they were teenagers at a rally in mississippi trunk ridiculed for its inability to remember details of the alleged attack. french interior minister has announced he is resigning he's the latest senior official to leave the administration of president manuel mccall the popular cologne said he intends to run for mayor of the city of twenty twenty. indonesia has raised the number of dead in last week's quake to more than fourteen hundred survivors of the disaster of facing their fifth day with little food and water some aid is now being delivered to the region but the government admits the relief effort is slow and blames widespread damage to infrastructure and a lack of fuel. and heartache reports from public. all morning routine has been running from one government distribution center to another but he keeps being turned away the aid is being taken to other places there's food and water in this
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truck do you know where they're going down at the moment i don't know what we do know is all the aid from this place is going to the main relief center. he shows us a whole list of things he desperately needs for himself and his family twenty four people that signed in stem but he still ends up with nothing. in it and so i registered and started queuing yesterday but i was told to come back today. when i was here early in the morning they told me i'd come to the wrong place. they said i should have gone to a different distribution center. to get a lot of the. distribution centers like this one all around the city people are lining up to get supplies but because according nation of aid distribution is still an issue many end up empty handed. like noureddine he takes me home to meet his family they've all been living under a tarp since the earthquake especially the children are traumatized.
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by it but they don't go there because even when there's no earthquake off to shock i always feel like the ground is moving around like i'm really afraid sad and then i realize there's no earthquake but because i'm so afraid i'm imagining it didn't always feel like it's moving i'm scared to go inside a house by myself at only go with my parents if they're not with me i won't go in it's him i see. they're telling me they're running low on food and drinking water it's the smallest who suffer the most many of the children are sick and hungry the youngest tiara is only one month old. my baby isn't in very good health at the moment she has a rash because of the heat we need milk diapers medicine and other things for her. nordin family are not alone in their fear and despair all over paul who thousands
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are camping out and supplies are scarce at every turn. nowhere is this more obvious than at the city's gas stations. the distribution of the valuable commodity is heavily guarded. prices at this regulated pump are as always but on the black market gas sells for up to five times as much fuel is a lifeline. some people here have been waiting for seven hours just to get five liters of gas they need it not only to power their motor bikes and cars but also generators that create electricity so they can charge for example their mobile phones to stay in touch and receive updates on the situation from the authorities the lines here are endless at the moment we're at number seven hundred eighty nine and there are many more canisters and serif here is the one writing the numbers on them but at the moment he can't because his pen has run out. yet another hick up if
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ever so slight in their attempt to organize the chaos. but with more help promised the people here hope they can soon start to rebuild their ravaged lives. now the world swedish academy of sciences in stockholm has just announced this year's nobel prize for chemistry the three recipients are francis h. arnold and george p. smith of the u.s. and britain gregory winter you see the faces here coming up on the screen now the nobel committee said they've been given the prestigious award for their work in developing proteins that solve humankind chemical problems. and we have our expert with us that they're going from didn't you sign stark was this an expected choice for chemistry no it was once again not certainly not a group of researchers that i would have predicted it's interesting actually more and more i think at the very beginning to say that the nobel prize for chemistry
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often resembles very closely that for medicine or at least the research that was done actually has more of an impact in medicine almost than it does and what we call in organic chemistry things involving batteries or carbon nanotubes or something like that and so this is definitely one that settled firmly in that in that area ok so tell us more about the science that they're being awarded for well basically you have to look at evolution it's a lot about evolution evolution is the evolution of organisms is really about the evolution of proteins now proteins or fulfil they are the basis of life and the thing is in evolution these processes for for the development of proteins happens in a randomized way and it happens over generations many many generations the thing is is that because many organisms share many of the same proteins you can actually direct that in single celled organisms because they have very short lifespans and they reproduce very quickly you can actually go into the laboratory and force
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certain proteins select for very certain specific characteristics and you can make proteins evolve very quickly in an artificial environment and that's exactly what francis arnold did with her directed evolution now with the phage display which is the second half of this particular prize that is in some ways a similar process but the proteins that are coming out at the end are not arnold's enzymes which create which which cause certain chemical reactions to happen more quickly they're antibodies which are. very key in for example modern medicines biologics so two important bodies of research here do you think this was worth being awarded the nobel prize for chemistry that certainly was because it's really the. the antibody research the phage display research that was done is really was the founding stone of the whole field of research had made it loud researchers to begin to select for particular antibodies and of course directed evolution the fundamentals of it really have allowed us to optimize enzymes so that they're able
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to do a huge variety of different things for example washing powder as they are able to wash at low temperatures this kind of thing industry so they're also finding applications all across modern life all right the nobel prize for chemistry awarded to three scientists for their work on proteins are derek williams thank you very much. now if you've ever attended or participated in an endurance race like a marathon you know what a mess they are to clean up especially at the water stops where hundreds maybe thousands of plastic cups and bottles clog the road the solution a company in london might be on to something. this little boy could save the streets and the seas from the scourge of plastic cups and bottles so-called. made from plant and seaweed extracts making them entirely edible and if they're not actually consumed the producers say great in four to six weeks at the richmond
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marathon in london the jelly like globe use went down a treat. runners and event organizers have long known what a pain plastic can be for them in particular these biodegradable drinking vessels are an important innovation regard they're. real like removing the bottles from the right because you just. throw it away. these weird little water bubbles are due to be trialled running events in the near future if they continue to receive a positive reaction they could be a permanent replacement for plastic. ok. helena's here with business now and helen of the italian debt crisis still in the spotlight absolutely last week ever i was spock had concerns for brussels after the announced it was going to increase its public deficit that certainly was a concern for the european union and now cloudy abortive the economic head of the
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ruling elite party said the country would be better off leaving the eurozone altogether i tell you prime minister edges if a contact was quick to counter that taking to facebook to say that those comments were not the position of the government as a whole all the same the prospect of italy having its own currency once again was enough to see the euro slide to a six week low on choose to. return to the lira no one is taking italy's thought experiment of ditching the euro and reintroducing the leader a seriously in this commission the northern league's economic spokesman claudio borg he claimed on monday that italy could solve most of its own problems with its own currency the euro has since come under pressure a rise in the interest in government bonds saw them come close to reaching a four year high on tuesday prime minister just up the conte has no affirmed his country's commitment to the euro but his government has also made expensive
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promises to voters including tax cuts to raise welfare spending and roll back unpopular pension reforms. moves that are likely to cause italy's public deficit the second highest in the eurozone to jump to two point four percent in the coming years. to a treat from two point four percent would mean saying to italian so you will not retire we won't raise your pension we won't compensate those who were cheated by the banks and were not establishing a basic income but we won't go back an inch and if necessary we'll explain this economic budget in public squares but that defiant tone may soon ring hollow italian media is reporting that rome will likely trim some of the fat from its budget. for more on this we can bring in it going he's the chief economist at zurich insurance mr miller have you borges said if he would be better off leaving the eurozone prompting the euro to fall to a six week low a serious consequence that but how seriously should we take his comments.
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well that makes good headlines but i think the reality is highly unlikely clearly were it lead to try in the euro and it would be a prohibited expensive they would result in italian assets selling off dramatically and unfortunately put italy into a tailspin leading to a severe recession and what happens to italy and what is bad for italy frankly is also bad for the euro zone so it would have grave consequences in the eurozone and globally i mean you say that it's highly unlikely but we do have to recognize the fact that it's only has a rebellious and euro skeptic government so surely you must be treating the prospect of italy needing the eurozone as a risk and wouldn't the consequences be catastrophic. absolutely the consequences would be catastrophic i think you're also right in terms of saying this new government is much less predictable but i think there's a difference between rhetoric and reality i think what we're seeing really in the last week since the latest budget deficit was announced we've seen spreads versus.
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versus government. really believe to more than three hundred basis points and that's an issue for the cost of carrying that huge amount of debt that at least bill has and is a big issue for the italian banks which are still very vulnerable talking about the issue of public these public deficit and that criticism from the you was young wrong to criticize that because it is within the current limits that increase in the italian deputy prime minister. accuses you of pushing out rooms cost of borrowing by likening italy to greece to his right in this particular spot. well i think there's no doubt that the deficit surprised the markets and it surprised investors generally given what the finance minister been speaking about in the weeks before when speaking about potentially a one point six percent deficit you saw spreads come in the financial markets were rewarding what was deemed to be a conservative and reasonable budget deficit target the trouble is the budget
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deficit is two point four percent for each of the next three years that is likely to actually push up debt to g.d.p. the reason that the finance minister and others are saying it's ok because there are groups assumptions italy is much higher than i think reality will be it all depends on how well it's lee does briefly italy is the second most indebted nation in the eurozone how much of a risk does it pose to the overall health of the current countries like germany for example. i think is a huge risk because the financial into linkage are incredible are vast there are bigger than they were the financial crisis and eurozone crisis the target to mechanism means that all you are is the zone countries are intertwined and therefore what matters to italy doesn't matter for germany it doesn't matter for the rest of the euro zone and i think any move any further talk about leaving the euro zone i think would lead to financial disruption potentially risk the group
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dynamic viewers which is still pretty good so important to watch what is said as much as what it is down when it comes to the health of the euro zone going down chief economist at zurich insurance good to have your perspective. well the italian government has found one way to bring in some extra cash is just auctioned off its ultra fast five g. frequencies raking in an unexpected six and a half billion euros that's well over two and a half times more than eight had hoped for vodafone italy and telecom italia say they have committed around two point four billion euros between them the surprise income is a boon for rome meanwhile other countries are planning similar auctions with germany set to sell off its fifth generation frequencies next spring. inflation in turkey has hit another high according to government figures it surged by almost twenty five percent on a yearly basis and that is the highest point in a decade and a halt month a month in september it hit six point three percent far exceeding four costs by
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need is a deepening currency crisis dorking the country the turkish lira has lost forty percent of its value this year alone. now w seven has hit the london stock exchange or rather the maker of his famous sports car aston martin has it just nineteen british pounds a share the issue price was at the low end of the spectrum equivalent to a market capitalization of around four point three billion pounds well if its market value stays at this level over the next few weeks the luxury car maker won't meet the threshold for entering the footsie one hundred persons top share index after several tough years after martin only started making profits again in twenty seventeen in its one hundred year history the company has gone through seven bankruptcy. you're watching news still to come we'll go live to festivities here in berlin celebrating the anniversary of german reunification and a highly anticipated speech by one of germany's most senior politicians.
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after a short break see we will be back thanks for watching and do stay with us. in the last hope into the later it's ok but this time and. i'm looking forward to the fun rides and parties and and of course i want to try typical october first beer journey into the festival's history. and see what it's like well come on the map next is that. she was. sixteen.
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climate change. bleached. pollution. isn't it time for good news eco and africa people and projects that are changing the environment for the better it's up to us to make a difference let's explain. the committee the environment magazine. on d w how to cover more than just one reality. where i come from we have a transatlantic way of looking at things that's because my father is from germany my mother is from the united states of america and so i realized fairly early that it makes sense to explain different realities. and now here at the heart of the european union in brussels we have twenty eight different realities and so i think people are really looking for any journalist they can trust for them to make sense
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of. my limbs myself and i work at the w. welcome back you're watching the news now here in germany people all over the country are marking the twenty eighth anniversary of the nation's reunification on october third one thousand nine hundred capitalistic west germany and communist east germany formally reunited after over forty years of division less than a year before that on november ninth one thousand nine hundred nine the poland wall had crumbled. now earlier today a german chancellor angela merkel she joined to other leaders in berlin is cathedral for a church service to start the official celebrations. let's check in on those official celebrations you see these live pictures here at the berlin state opera
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right in the heart of the city they kicked off today with a play there was then. the opera's orchestra playing beethoven and this is speaking right now is mayor. he is speaking to a crowd of dignitaries and here who have gathered at the state opera to see these festivities up to a million people expected to gather in berlin to celebrate germany's reunification . and we have our political correspondent and young with us in studio to talk about these festivities the celebration today but also simon the question how unified is germany really twenty eight years on well of course it's a lot more unified than it was back then when the wall came down but of course there are still differences i think the the tenor in political circles in berlin at least of the moment sees to focus on understanding recognizing of knowledge ing
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those differences particularly the fact that you know it boils down to the essential point that people in the east of germany he lived under a communist regime not all of them suffered but many of them did for decades suddenly pretty much overnight had to get used to a completely new reality in a new system and that has. put it the other day in an interview you know that does something to people and these are upset people it's broken biographies in certain ways for people for instance in many cases to move to the west in search of jobs because that's where the economic center of germany still ease in the former federal republic of germany as it was west germany as we knew it so i think the differences are all very much to be noted in the in the economy there is there are many few of businesses many fewer job opportunities. and you know there's an aging population in the east so there's
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a different kind of profile on the other hand of course if somebody comes to germany drives around you won't notice necessarily that much difference if you're visiting dresden all rural parts of eastern germany. you might see in munich or rural parts of western germany what a german saying when you look at polls and reports that have been in german media about how unified they feel their country is today yeah i mean most people say that they're happy with the process of reunification and they think it's been generally a positive story and of course that idea is raef reinforced every year on this day the third of october when when we see these moving pictures of the the protests in the popular uprising essentially that led to the fall of the berlin wall and people coming together the trouble and striving across the border and so on all of that is where there is
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a kind of focus in the public mind i think you know certainly if you look at political polling we see that the constant trend of a drop in support for the traditional political parties and certainly in pause that is put down to a loss of faith in the old system and that is partly to do with the demographic changes that i've talked about in particular you seen of course the rise of the far right party in eastern germany where they have around twenty seven percent support according to polls so that it's sort of protest response and an expression of dissatisfaction in many cases with the economic pressures that people have faced since germany reunified so still very different perspectives and simon our correspondent on going to kettle she actually talked to some germans about their experience of reunification and division let's take a look at what she found. when the war came down aquash of all germans were not yet
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born or like me they were too young to feel any connection to this important event anyone who wasn't there back then can now relive history here in berlin at the origin of the locations along this two point five kilometer stretch the war wren right in front of the right stock visitors can learn more about the fall of the berlin wall and the time after that on a tour through their government district and some can cast them minds back. well that was very emotional. yes we all know that while he's starting to do so now for three months artist new figures that should never be forgotten many families were torn apart and many were reunited with german reunification it was a great party test system a vibrant and strange piece of history here you're right in middle of it just an indescribable feeling even with all these charities here and bits of the wall you still can't imagine it's. david
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hasselhoff song looking for freedom to him a free union is the only thing i remember. the fact that i and others who were children in the west at least can recall much goes to show how incredible those events were it was a peaceful revolution on the ninth of november east germany eased its travel restrictions to the west faced with mass demonstrations east german gotz open the border. what followed was a unique period in history the eleven months between the fall of the wall and the form of the reunification of east and west germany shown in this exhibition called half time it was a time in between two political systems and two societies both what's meant here in berlin a city that was no longer divided but also not yet fully reunited. finally
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on the third of october one thousand nine hundred ninety germany was formally reunified the brandenburg gate as the iconic symbol of that moment for three days this installation by street artist j. r. is a reminder of when the war came down this year's party is less about celebrating and more about remembering this is good as road it's good that we think of it today or on the third because we have a democracy that we have to defend it which is in danger right now. if you have the awareness that what we have is not a given that we have a united country you can't take freedom for granted and you have to keep that in mind especially today me now says well it's our history and our history is part of our identity and we should always be aware of that. i think there are still differences find out about them when you start talking to people. today of the third or fourth told us our national holiday for many it's just
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a day off for no special reason to celebrate perhaps that's because reunification isn't simply a beauty for story that's a feeling of freedom yes but also with the after effects of division which you can feel like no way it's. going to kettles reporting there and these here are live pictures you're looking at the festivities taking place here in berlin today that is at the berlin state opera in the heart of the city and this is berlin's mayor michel speaking to a large crowd of people we saw german chancellor angela merkel in the crowd a little while ago also of the president. other dignitaries members of government on hand a behind him in the orchestra that was just a short while ago played tolson there was a play and we are also expecting more advanced as part of these festivities including a speech we see some of it just finishing up here he will be followed by another short film and then we'll be hearing from the president of the bundestag. we'll be
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going live to his speech on german unification as soon as he gets up to speak. but first let's go to our correspondent hans bronte is near brandenburg gate where we saw in that piece there where our reporter was walking on taking a look at some of the lead up to today's festivities hans give us an idea of what's been taking part place today. well there's falzon as tens of thousands of people milling around in the festival area along the brandenburg gate which exterior extends for about a mile down the road from the brandenburg gate right behind me there are obviously there's food and drink to be had but they are exhibitions of various sorts from various departments of the state but also things such as helicopters and fire engines a game areas for children they're going to be called pop concerts and theater presentations during the course of the afternoon and evening it's basically
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a day off for seventy's a festival area here and a festival atmosphere what's the atmosphere that you get their hands is the mood more celebrate tory or is it more one of resignation as we've heard there are a lot of questions being asked about how unified germany really is twenty eight years later. well i must say here in this festival area there is more of a sense of celebration or more of a sense of enjoyment of enjoying these the food here the music presentations and so on but obviously the whole day is in some sense overshadowed by the changing political situation in germany and the question to what extent the right wing populist parties and right wing sentiments are going to gain ground in germany and in fact in some of the speeches that have been held in the state opera in the last half hour or so including by the governor by the mayor of learn there has been some . warning that these sentiments are spreading and that the german state and german
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democracy needs to defend itself against those kinds of sentiments what are the feelings that of the biggest differences today has between the former east and west . well i think what what lies at the core over it is the difference in mentality of people in the east even though it's not twenty eight years ago since unification still in some sense. children of the communist germany of east germany the way it was for forty years since the end of the second world war a communist state under protection by the soviet union by russian by soviet union russia a very different kind of society a very different way of life to the west and this difference is still to some extent noticeable today in people's mentalities in the way people approach life and then the way people in the expectations that people have of their society and of their states so i think what one can say is that a nice and germany are still is
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a sense of. this satisfaction that is very much stronger a sense that in some ways the east of germany has been pushed to the sidelines and that the german society is in a sense determined by western values so by the west german way of life right our correspondent in the heart of berlin where we see those festivities taking place behind you hans thank you will be speaking to a little bit later. and if you're just joining us germany is marking the twentieth anniversary of its reunification and these here these are live pictures we're just we're looking there at some live pictures of a celebration at the state opera in the heart of berlin they were just showing a breeze silm it's all part of the festivities that are taking place at the state opera there we see it there we can see the film being played the orchestras on stage and as we mentioned a short while ago
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a crowd full of dignitaries including the chancellor merkel and the president. after this film concludes this hearing is. a homage to the rooftop bar in berlin so i could neighborhood that's in the southern. southern part of berlin former west berlin and that's the joy down a lot of she's a singer let's listen to what she's saying one to the lessons was a. dimension to her mission but i'm sure it was one of those saying that when we listen to each other let's move forward by she's going to sing a song as well as the sheet. and thin for light since the sleeping on the lips the salute and it become the body hug almost like just mom here to join them on a. hand that they give our hands out to each other and that's what we're going to do here today.
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this. plan. that this. was. not. right if you're just joining us those are pictures from the southern part of berlin here where joy down a lot of the singer you just saw is not taking part or part of the festivities for
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the twentieth anniversary of german reunification and our political correspondent simon young is with us here in our studio simon we've been looking at this facility as we talked to our correspondent hans front in the center of berlin as well and he touched upon something that you were talking about a little bit earlier which is the site. d.-a. difference in mentality that still seems to exist between the former east and the west and we seem to see that more pronounced than avar yeah i think it's something that people in eastern germany optically hold onto the sense of the they had something special they had something a bit different they were the other germans as many people sort of referred to them and so there's a we often talk about. the german term high mot you know. the sense of belonging to your own particular part of the world and of course that's not just about germans talking about feeling homesick for germany when they're elsewhere around the world and also in a sense. is
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a way for people within germany from the different regions of germany identify themselves and so it's important this kind of idea but unfortunately in the case of east in germans it's become associated with negative thoughts with the sense of being second class citizens some people have seen themselves treated in that way one thing to mention perhaps play on average in the east in germany is fifteen percent lower than in the west that's just a fact of course it doesn't mean that everybody's lower earning and indeed there are many high tech companies and you know some senses sickly in the biggest cities where people are doing really very well just as well as any west germans but and i should also mention there are there are areas of economic deprivation across the country in eastern germany so these this difference if you like in perception is really about how people talk about this difference as much as it's about you know
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some of the realities that people face. perception is everything as you're saying sam and i made the point that this division seems to be more pronounced than ever i should say you made a very good point that of course germany is far more unified now twenty eight years . later than it was right after unification happened but to a lot of people around the world they see germany as a wealthy country unified country is it really the economic factor that is still kind of the driver of these divisions that the east the former east rather still lags behind the west well i think i think that is a that is a key point is of been saying unemployment is still higher in the east although it isn't it isn't as dramatic as it was back in the one nine hundred ninety s. but what you do see is far fewer job opportunities and for instance i go america was pointing out in agriculture the number of people in east germany employed in agriculture back in ninety nine he was thirteen percent of the population i mean it
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was it was an agricultural economy to a great degree now it's one point three percent so it's a tenth of what it was and of course that that just means the whole lot of job opportunities related to agriculture that just not there anymore nuts are a function not so much of german unification i suppose as of automation in agriculture and other factors the way the businesses you know do they do their business nowadays so i think to a certain extent you are seeing multiple trains demographic trends of people moving to cities because there is increasingly economic reasons to do that that's not a german phenomenon it's around the world that's the case you are seeing for instance people deciding to have families later which is part of the explanation for why birth rates in the east have dropped because people have moved away to find work before they started families and so you've seen
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a more stable population in the western part of the country in less in the east where the populations on average are a aging and so these are complex sort of demographic movements and as i say it is about perception. you've also had this phenomenon which i go americal has recognized of the challenge of migration that is a challenge to the whole country because we've had large numbers of people arriving in germany as everybody knows of the last few years and that is a challenge to the whole country it means that people have to sort of rethink what it means to be german who my neighbors how do i get on with people in the supermarket and the and on the bus you know and but of course particularly it is challenge people in the east which is a country which is close to the world for many decades and where people perhaps wound up for this for this new thing and that helps to explain the rise of the far right particularly in eastern parts of the country where paradoxically there
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aren't nearly so many people of foreign origin who actually live there right all of these factors that you've been mentioning simon that these divisions between the former east and west they really have manifested themselves in some of the political divisions that we see today as well tell us more about that well yeah i mean as i mentioned the rise of the f.t. the alternative for germany party which is a party that essentially has. posted itself as the defend of germany against islam german identity it's an identity theory and sort of party it's a it's a party that talks about high mot in a particular way and you know. one of the leaders of the party was giving a speech just just a couple of days ago in which he was saying you know. the lesson of german unity is exactly that we must continue to sort of work on our own our concept of high margin
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a sense of belonging and mis defend it against outside interests you know certainly twisting as most people would see it the message of jim and. unity day which is an attempt by the german state to you know convince people that we all belong together we've all got to get along together somehow and that's not a message that the if he wants to really talk about it well for our viewers who are just joining us germany the entire country today celebrating at twenty eight years are marking twenty eight years since the reunification of the country to former east and west there are celebrations taking place across the country but especially here in berlin today where more than a million people are expected to celebrate this day and there are festivities going on right now in the state opera let's see if we can bring up some of those pictures if we have them or we don't have those pictures at the moment this is the sale
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that's currently showing at these tests that he's after this film we're expecting the president of the bundestag. to speak and simon as you can see here these are historical pictures we're looking at yeah i mean as i mentioned these are the pictures we always get on this day you need to be reminded of what an incredible event it was as east germans who for so long just. accepted the reality of the berlin wall suddenly decided that the moment had come they could sort of challenge the border guards and stormed the wall and the rest is history as they say and these are some of the pictures of that peaceful demonstration peaceful revolution we could call it that is remarkable for that reason as well. so when those bloody scenes the soviet tanks in the barracks and so on there were
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moments of nervousness absolutely and it wasn't at all clear and indeed it wasn't clear for a long time when the results of that process of the fall of the wall would be would result. reunification not everybody see that in the d.v.d. we're asking about how people feel about it today i mean even today you'll see the polls show more east germans. unhappy about reunification and they have got a nostalgia for the g.d.p. than is true in the west so that is a is a different perception that still divides divides people of course when you when you prompt them to give an answer like that that's what they'll say but these pictures i think of political leaders of that time and the and the people who sort of emerged from the undemocratic morass of east
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germany. you know who to become faces in the in the in the political see it was the normal period of normalization and for some people a period of great sort of political shock and turmoil some of them perhaps still not entirely recovered from the remarkable pictures that were being taken through history here and perhaps a reminder you know we've been talking about much has been made about the fact that many divisions still exist that we can't forget what a remarkable achievement it was to bring together two separate countries under very different political systems a lot has worked well it has i mean as i say the process of transition it was peaceful that in itself is a remarkable fact and of course the laws of germany. and the soviet union had to you had to be part of that process indeed the whole international community and indeed of course it's all happened within the context of the european union and
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the development of that. uncontroversial idea and also a fact as a people's sense of their identity but today we're focusing on germany. i mean to say it's a success story is almost a. team is is is to is to but all too simple really because what is happening in germany in the last fifteen years is way more complex but i think we can talk about germany has become grown up in a sense it's become a more self-confident player only international stage is a political entity and you were coming back to the speeches now i have to see the president at about a stock value gosh i was looking what sort of hades and charlie i'm going to come patrick it's twenty eight here is. not a long time if you look at the history of the nation now if it makes all the difference in the lifetime of ireland beings so it's not just the division and also
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the years of german reunification left their mark on people's lives both professionally and in their private lives i mean some dreams came true also and the little voice or however some hopes didn't want to realize people lost their jobs they lost their homes and they lost their confidence in themselves and each other but first and foremost they embarked upon lots of new trajectories some times these trajectories were straight ahead sometimes they were low as winded and where you have lots of different lives young and old generation your and the rural regions and they say ts we have optimists and pessimists of. every experience in our lives is counts and the german reunification is a mosaic of all these different stories and the ration is it's a multifaceted overload full of contradiction with what's right now we
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completed the drama of unification however. we always need to generate a new consensus with regard to what unites us. this third of october is a day of i miss real celebrating the you know a billion a unison of our country and the foundations of our democracy and we should remember that none of this comes automatically none of this can be taken up with hasn't really worked on a third of what type of law the way you. are a history in the past like in germany one hundred years ago on this that of october one thousand martine marks on you will get. the government we saw a lot of this which was no longer just a response were to the powers that be but was responsible to the people who
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represent haitian representatives nobody felt that this was a day of celebration because there was a pointless war and the success of the parliamentarians came at a dire price they had to singlehandedly assume the responsibility for a military loss and that wasn't disastrous and so the third of october nineteen eighteen was overshadowed by the momentous events of history and from shi'ite a man on the night of november announced the republic the ninth of november the sixth day is a day which opened up a new chapter in german history and. nineteen eighteen broke started a new iraq it was a day in which was marked by revolution across someone of europe or train international relations some of our european partners. in two thousand and eighteen celebrate their one hundredth anniversary of the national independence and
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political freedom including but not limited to a polling. their contribution towards the peaceful revolution in one thousand eight hundred nine and. the demise of the island curtain should never be forgotten. so i am contributing to the contribution of the polish people and other. people's. event tomorrow and. so despite all the disagreements we should never forgot may be the biggest achievement of german of european of german reunification i overcoming the divine i division of europe however in the mid nineteenth is most of the young democracies had already seen their demise many had top. down into orthoptera to retire in regimes and the relationship is not just in germany now in hindsight we can see much clearer what should have or what must have been back then and of course we know what the disastrous consequences was back then all of this is
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history right now but it's not an ancient history it's our history it's a history that unites us as a nation it's part and parcel of our identity and our country came into being because it was courageous enough to face the past facing the past was never an easy task but we're. determined we have the commitment look it created international confidence and allowed us to enjoy a second chance this is what this down a star scholar described it when he spoke about the gift off reunification he had to leave present when he was twelve years of age. because of his jewish descent so he got a second chance and we need to this live up to full potential said john. thanks
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in some ways six movies and we have to remain very sensitive and very acutely aware when people try to turn a blind eye on the responsibility which results from history or which or trying to question the liberal democracy liberal democracy is a leo is a chore and it's fragile but it's the underpinning of our success which is the source of envy across the word i mean it's not something that should make us rest on our laurels or become people complacent because nothing is can be taken for granted we always need to remain determined to continue that success story and thank just to face the fact. that i had to give him a jointly so liberal democracy is an obligation for each and every individual for us so we need to code the term in the video and all of
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that is based on their own on see action to violence the reality of opinions the high ranks of respect the majority governance part of the will of the majority is applied to other principles of division of violence and the division of power and the protection of minorities these these are the boundaries of our joint consensus that. we have our throats. that should unite all of us because mark what becomes very visible is that old certainties start to get shaken as though we hunt i would also like you to the believe in the division of power all the. powers derives from the people i mean this is tied right back you need to need so on your sense of pride of freedom and constitutionality. part of
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a balancing act and it's part of the you know you really fake asian process many people have painfully become aware of that i mean when it came to. the suffering how suffering and compensation for past suffering and nowadays again our legal understanding is always put to the test but sentiments need to be taken seriously at the law protects the weaker the more final both parties and it's part of the current political job offer constitutional state to implement this protection this requires as a country it's your senate run on respect. your respect of the institutions of the powers and the. monopoly on violence of the state and whoever tries to question this tries to question. the system. we have to learn secure the majority alone does not seek your freedom and this
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becomes very visible wherever democracy is used as a trade off against the constitution. i mean. we need to protect the rights of the individual rights and very often people say well the way of being of the nation is more isn't it is more important than the constitution i stated as very often people try to be a pop. populistic approaches try to all of this try to instrumentalists peter but nobody can say you can claim that they. represent the people they are the ones who represent. us who are in is trying hard so there is no single entity suffer and their
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suffering as a result of contradictory forces and the will of the people is only something that can be created in a debate a majority second sometimes going to shifting shifting allegiance and this is why a nation that only shows democratic maturity when it can be assured of its foundations when it embraces the to our city diversity and none the less embrace as joint action through compromise and joint decisions however which are not into stone and so in praising diversity diverse embracing diversity of legitimate interests our opinions and stances and not to demonize the precepts as the single benchmark this is a precondition for do no more common understanding without a mere child willingness to listen to each other without the willingness to understand the your counterparty it will never work and this becomes even more difficulty in an increasingly polarized society in
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a society where people who strive for individual interests is right and forget the common place. we have the very. development of digital communication means which provides us with new freedoms we are linked with the entire global world without actually our noticing the opposite number either of those stations in the elevator up on. the family dinner table if you get out in the media neighbors and all this globalization so there are no longer any commitments and sometimes freedom can overtax us and very often we. succumb to exaggerations we always need. tines relations people are human people are social beings and the freedom of the opposite number limits our own freedom and we need to ensure the equitable social participation and
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this is why the increasing social polarization in such a serious force for concern we are talking about here are social divides and cultural universes which are totally divorced that demographic. is put to the test and day and age of conflict but what really creates a danger is when we don't talk to each other any more democratic formation of will is based on public debate and exchange of opinion and wherever this no longer takes place this question the legitimacy legit of nation of lucy while it takes our environment also society is becoming ever more complex and this makes rules all the more important also rules based performance and the implementation of the use rules standard city is not just a word in order to name two don't complexity but diversity is a value it's
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a principle which requires curiosity mutual interest and exchange of ideas and opinions in order to allay certain fears which are the result if people are faced with extraneous forces i mean interest being interested in where somebody is coming from it doesn't mean that the you reduce that person to that route where they're coming from but you should never use that diversity in order to ostracize. sightline. was this is something where in new york to take affirmative action with the tools of the constitution it states whenever aggression takes to the street regardless from which side that. is coming from so we need to focus on al qaeda it's how we want to co-exist how we want to live together this also has something to do with the education in the family we can find a profound source of way of being and happiness and we notice that the desires and
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the wishes of the opposite of our counterparty are not a burden politic policymakers can create incentives and we need to face the fact or face the question how can we create new spaces and platforms and opportunities for people to meet from different backgrounds coach with and social environments and where they can meet because we need these meeting platforms we need to join the coalition we also need an understanding for the growing complexity of our society and for the complexity of this word in which we're living in this. the west and our social model has to prevail now other forces try to get in the outback and they want to determine what's going on they promise affluence and by being but without democratic code determination without the protection of individual freedom our
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order is focused on the individual on the freedom of the individual also on. the fallibility and dad dignity and this is the good here for us and the openness of our society is put to the test when it comes to recognising mistakes admitting mistakes and correcting mistakes as a response to change this is what we proved and there is occasions in the past and this is why we can. rest self assured and we can all use a play for us in this world free we can preserve freedom and constitutionality if we do so with other this and this is why we as germans need a europe which is capable of taking action and vice versa the european union. depends on germany a strong germany and. the european union. for.
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a historically we feel that a sense of belonging and. bowed when it comes to the complexities of globalization we don't want to renounce it is we don't we cannot we now know this but on the other hand we need to face the facts and the rest of the word the evidence which we started so it with of our hard work is based on global trade and we benefit from the global development also due to the fight that we have been able to better adjust to the changes but the speed of the change creates a very stressful environment and in wake of globalization we are going through many experience that well already of the rule of the day for many west east after the reunification and the source of grain great concern however the word has also grown closer together with the war in conflicts with the consequences of climate change
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and migration is linked to the increasing concerns with regard to. the impact of migration on social cohesion but we cannot turn a blind eye on the word we are living in the day and age of globalization so we need to face the facts and we not assume greater responsibility because whatever we need in terms of stability is what you need to bring to the region surrounding europe based on our afghan. because after all we are much better off and this is precisely the reason why we need to become more committed we need to lend effective and help provide economic assistance and this is the only assurance war ensuring our affluent future and politicians policymakers and i head to task they need to make things understand understandable and meaningful and they should not pretend that they are simple solutions they should not have found new york
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kokanee bates because after all that does not live up to the complexity of the changes which we are facing how can we ensure change management in the way in the wake of demographic change reckon affair and all the who is going to take care of my dependents and if maybe in the future of myself what are the opportunities of my children and grandchildren in a globalised digitised word we can and. we should of said the central few good forces and this is why we should not create a mock debate concerning. the issues so. we count them out i tell you advice safe motto of course it's part of the democratic at the bait and it's important that we told you who are coming from different backgrounds and therefore everybody needs to face the fact that their values are always need to live up to an ethical standard and this should not prevent
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a technical i'm going to problematic this discussion. one hundred years ago spoke about politics and ethics and the ethically pure motive is that more important than the. effect of your actions i mean these are very uncomfortable questions which we need to face day in and day out we have to provide assistance and. and that's an obligation as human beings that's part of the. christian religious. occidental occidental belief this is the crew poor the crux of the social state principle this applies to citizens who are vulnerable and who listen to people who come to our shores in order to seek refuge but we have limited possibilities because we want to. protect the asylum rights we
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need to tell my friends come to our shores for other motives that we can only accept. as far as this doesn't engender the future of iraq country we want to protect people from drowning but we on the other hand we want to approach prevent human trafficking across the seas and this is something this is a conundrum a contradiction that we need to face tolerate as a human as a society and everybody needs to find their own compromise because you only way when between can keep up the political flexibility to take take action it's now.

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