tv Doc Film - The Last Harvest Deutsche Welle November 2, 2018 10:15am-11:00am CET
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soil is a healthy living vibrant ecosystem minutes it cycles nutrients it holds water and it sustains life all life begins and ends with the soil. was promoted by the culture in the big big way and then when a culture on soaring is just not working. where you want us to we need our land but i have a fertilizer nine one one count in the long run you. are going to say it's pretty clear with ice in climate change so it's even more important for the future that we keep our soils healthy marks through. to. me at
all that we eat twice as many festivals as we did in the one nine hundred seventy s. we're taking less and less minerals and trace elements that are down. for only really keeping fruit at a very very low price artificially low price. by deploying very simplistic agricultural systems we have to safeguard them protect with some nasty chemicals. the world's arable land is the foundation of civilization it gives us almost everything that we eat but of our own natural resources it attracts the least
attention and it's being destroyed faster than it's reformed. ten million hectares of land a year or thirty football pitches every minute are depleted and taken out of production. you are putting it said the soil is anything but disposable from the surface wrong takes a long long time to become arab ally head in the wrong cast to crumble it can take thousands of years before you can grow crops and it they go on to something soar in the beam of the smoke on the great. almost glitter loop and they would if we shared the planet's arable land each person would get about two thousand square metres of it but the world's population is growing on me rapidly destroying the soil so that figure won't apply in the long run. suddenly the most important. major of the world he continued to percent of the by ourselves there were around
for his readers or valuing system if there were around any free don't take care of your team when you died and then to the quality of the production. and then we all seek because so you don't seek. this soil is a living system and if unstable will throw everything else out of balance including us human beings. we probably don't realize just how important it is or how much of the land on our planet desirable the entire population of the world is to be fed from an area smaller than russia that's all there is. song is the thinnest layer on the earth in which the trance and the life can thrive so it's a very very shadowy area some places maybe
a meter reading some of the places it's only a few centimeters so it's a very thin layer. good kind of occupies the space between rock and life half of soil is broken down pieces of mineral and half of it is decomposing organic matter that was living and so it's kind of that interface. and then he took the photo so might look pretty sterile but you just can't see the things and see it in each square meter they are more bacteria than people on earth that is the mirror bacteria and you can smell what you everything that comes into contact with the soil like leaves and toxins chemicals that shouldn't be there is processed by the organisms that live in the soil toss you hound don't want any special things you become. a soil. once thought by many to be dead cold and black. but a large portion of all living creatures are believed to inhabit this microcosm. the
length of fun guy my silja is virtually endless an ecosystem that breaks down organic matter whether it's minerals purifies water and services the entire biosphere. doesn't want to yet to be out of it and although it's primarily the bacteria that react with any new material so the millions of bacteria that reproduce if they get too much food. or go on the skin then their funky that break down need to dance so that they're in the perfect condition to be absorbed by plants along with soil moisture braddock's soon gave in my skin. you know it's all about life and death because you need that cycle and that's what the soil food web is.
the plants in the soil need one another they've developed and perfected a mutual balance during the course of evolution that have become a self sufficient entity. if you look at how a healthy soil ecosystem functions it's all about photosynthesis how much sunlight can i capture with living plants those living plants then through photosynthesis pump carbon into the soil and as they do that that carbon then in the soil feeds all that saw alive and allows that soil to produce much much more. photosynthesis is a miracle of nature that extracts carbon and in conjunction with the degradation of organic matter creates humus the soil layer that is a prerequisite for all food production it's in the humus that we find most of the
nutrients but it's also the humus the disappears in modern farming diversity and the number of organisms decrease and the self-sufficient entity falls apart. it seems awkward to regard the plough until it just drags since they traditionally symbolize fertility and good times but contemporary food production has become so industrialized that it causes damage to soil layers deeper down as well. pox name is soil compaction is an increasing problem become more and more specialized which calls for more rationalize ation measures the machinery gets larger and heavier cultivation seasons become longer so we tell the land while it's wet like these factors all course soil compaction yield gradually decreases as the soil is deprived of and to breathe or.
this impacts the layers below ploughing depth which become almost like cement. it creates a kind of lid that won't let through any rainfall and that results in flooding it also prevents water from being filtered and groundwater reserves from being replenished. industrial monocultural food production creates problems. with promoted monoculture in a big big way and there monoculture on saudi is just not working he in europe you have soldiers to have for and the last thirty years never seen another crop than their wheat or maize and when you look at this on as just horrible what we find is the north worms no doubt if hardly any pirates according to tea when the song
became roshan problems and you have a farmer that's telling you that every year he's using more fitted eyes or any he begins on not any better. our food supply chain rests on streamlined farming. one of the conditions for this is mano cultivation the same annual crops over large areas there's no variation in the natural interaction between plants and soil has been done away with. in. the soil decades one third of all soil in europe is said to be under stress. in some parts of the usa california among others plantations and groundwater systems are collapsing the cycle has been thrown off balance.
this is the land of huge cultivated areas taken globally a third of all wheat is grown on the american prairie but there are farmers who work differently who recognize the threats and who are questioning industrial farming. modern agriculture to me unfortunately has become one that's driven by money. i often look at most producers merely as puppets you know they're doing what they're told to do plant this crop use this fertilizer use this chemical grow this model called sure to me that's not what agriculture should be agriculture should be about producing healthy food in a way that actually regenerates the soil but it's just not that way to. just look at this soil how captain it is now i'm
a big guy but. i get a hard at it. but look at the cross on the soil look at the plating us and if you smell lab you can smell the bacteria how rancid it is now this operation same family for fifty years but the only true crops they have grown is flax in spring where you monocultures very little diversity the other thing you notice obviously there was no earthworms there was no life you see you know insects out there. this crap isn't getting very many nutrients at all from the soil the soil is more last just a medium to hold the plant up for their operation they farm approximately forty thousand cropland acres. high i use of synthetic herbicides past it's fun just. look at the right mass. the roots are moving horizontally
they're not move and vertically. look at the ball dance and you can just see the ball fancier the soil how hard it is that's from synthetic fertilizers. and not absolutely yes the flames are some of the most important and innocence in the syllables and the end there are many different species and sizes but they do the same thing that i had they transformed the organic material don't get as they dig tunnels in the soil you know. in these tunnels shall untruths have space to grow and rain can get in if they can even think. it creates a poorest and fine mess of small cavities in the ground with the water can easily trickle down like reach the ground will get purified and not run off the surface
carrying with the topsoil and causing erosion. down in the massive my son will chill go on me and i can. monoculture affects all soil organisms especially earthworms who are immensely important to the fertility and structure of the soil and humus they transport minerals and nutrients from deep down to the surface. in healthy. this means tons of earthworms and countless miles of their tunnels unfortunately they're in decline. without the earth where the humans and the ecosystem lose their most brilliant engineer.
earth runs do not like synthetic fertilizers they do not like pesticides they do not like fungicide they do not like herbicides they do not like model colchis they do not like bare soil they need proper residue they need a healthy home they need soil aggregation. and drink some in agriculture that doesn't use counting the energy but only chemical fertilizes the earth limbs lack food and thank you that they have nothing to eat they need organic material to live without it they die or go somewhere else after the two months. but how does an earthworm move across these vast fields of the surface of the soul that was swept clean of all plant debris and organic matter. ordinary maneuver is no longer a given the only thing that suggested the days of so sufficient farming with
nutrients were circulated by the dung flies enjoying what little code on the still around. the lack of organic matter not only affects earthworms and other soil living creatures but also the all important exchange of nutrients between plants and fungus. in debate here there versatility are so some all of the elements are very important. you have a lot of fungus like oh we call me call these which are very very important because they are the elements that make the link between the new treatments and all the elements you have in this earth and there with the roots of the being aired so if you don't have this a huge family of
a fungus you know have any communication between the sorry and the plants so they really are no communication. from funky have my celiac to absorb nutrients like phosphorus plants have photosynthesis they can't just sunlight and carbon dioxide you see on their own they can't absorb enough nutrients from the ground and also the fungus in the plant swap with each other so beetle might take them on. ninety percent of all plants interact with fungo to guarantee the absorption of vital minerals and other nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus a crucial ecosystem service that is under threat from chemical farming. the home. to prime with my career as is that like any fun guy they are sensitive to from the sides and you know the culture we use
a lot of funny cide especially when we are in will country and once the plants loses this symbiotic association with the micro riser it loses also its ability to take a phosphorous in the soil. only good it's a form beneficial if the mike arise they disappear from the soil it takes a long time for them to return to the creator and recall denies ation starts from the edges of the field. so if. we have large fields it's an even slower process you know some of the process. if this natural exchange is lost we risk becoming dependent on chemical fertilizers particularly phosphorous which is only mined in a few places in the world. we compensate for the lack of natural nutrients with chemistry elements like nitrogen phosphorus and potassium
are manufactured using energy intensive methods. fertility has diminished the crops still grow are we covering the depletion of our soil with chemical fertilizers. so can the chemical fertilizers mean you don't need animals to farm and you can get big harvests even in soils that lack what they need to deliver these harvests through the end of the heart. every three or four calls the chemical fertilisers unlike sugar it's a lot of energy easily accessible but short lived that's being it you can't run a marathon on sugar alone. soils are meant to be there forever that's why we can't fertilize them with think that you're slow or you'll die. and right now we will put you know one hundred kilos of nitrogen and between forty and sixty of those kilos
go somewhere else in the environment they're not taken up by the crop. monoculture and chemical fertilizers constitute a threat to the soil becomes passive in the nutrient and up in oceans lakes and other waterways. dangerous compounds and phosphorous based products it's become part of the food we eat. here we're going to force for us to get it want to problem with phosphorous fertilizers is that they often contain cadmium double removing it is costly. keeping it means lots of cadmium in our food in the future many problems are accumulating in modern agriculture but when you will because. much of what we end up using agro chemicals for insecticides fungus sides things
like this is to compensate for the lack of diversity diversity in the natural system is what prevents diseases from taking down all of the plants. there it's what prevents one insect from just exploding because there's habitats for predators living in other plants and so by by deploying very simplistic agricultural systems we have to safeguard that protect that was some nasty chemicals.
her. her. in production agriculture today. producers are focused on how do i kill at best kill a pest. for every insect species that's the past there are seventeen hundred that are beneficial so here we are in production agriculture trying to kill at one pass when we should be providing a home for the seventeen hundred that if that makes no sense it makes no sense what we're doing in agriculture that. is.
what happened you find everything in diversity but in just over half a century agriculture has become industrialized and reliant on final crease. sources the soil has become a cheap means of production for farmers and wine producers dead soil is a reality. when i started my winery ten years ago it had been rented to a farmer who was not working naturally at all and i realized. that i started to work on were almost dead there was no energy there were very
superficial and there was no life no biodiversity nothing was going on this maybe ten ten percent of the songs are well looked after and then the majority of the soldiers we see anyway when we do source studies our soul is on the working well. and when you use pesticides then it is more difficult for the plan to get a good healthy nutrition because there are microbial communities completely disorganized and then you get into a vicious cycle. is it our way of life that has silenced the law. by wanting the cheapest possible products fruit and vegetables all year round and we threatening miller and thereby
the prospects of future farming. have we been promoting large scale farming and land consumption instead of land management. from day farming that we are having today especially now or as fundraising is moving to be crimes like properties that are monitored by be companies they decide the product for the north of us this is making that we are changing the fertilization in this system of production and this is resulting in our funds that have not sustainable we are using a lot of chemicals not only give me the lies it's also pesticides on and besides this results right now is that we have more of those young less healthy sorry. on these large scale orange plantations the topsoil isn't seen as
a living ecosystem but as a cheap means of production this will come back to bite them. in twenty years time that then soil cover could be gone. but soil is disappearing in countries further north to richen black the bare soil is exposed to the elements wherever you look the expenditure exceeds the income. we're in the process of depleting our soil account of all capital. we're going to say oh it's pretty clear with facing climate change we're likely to get more severe weather so it's even more important to the future that we keep our soils healthy and make the getting from the evil one goldmark's through to. a move historian although much of the soil we have on earth is vulnerable to
erosion it has water or wind erosion erosion has been identified as a very serious threat to our soils because of the cold war movement what i would. therefore the absolute northing is the extent of erosion is increasing or is specially where all the nutrients are in the finest particles party or did their net instead. humus and nutrients disappear in the rain and the wind what has taken thousands of years to create is a rodent away in the blink of an eye what remains is soil that has lost its self-sufficiency its ability to produce it's very white. and that will hurt us. among old men and get out when you grow the frog it can never tell can. more nutrients than the soil contains. the plants can retain
carbon via carbon dioxide through fire to synthesis but they can't produce anything else it's up to the soil so if the soil is depleted of nutrients we get a cross that's depleted of nutrients. and. we're not getting the micronutrient content that requires us to stay well and the consequences are that you're seeing more and more chronic disease conditions being presented earlier and earlier and earlier over a generational change. of force feeding vast swathes of mainly vampiric a fertiliser in a manner that creates rapid growth but doesn't necessarily the plant itself to be as i say my commute tree and so you have a massive piece of prokofiev over a carrot or potato that doesn't necessarily mean that the nutrient content is as dense as it would be in the past.
my guess is i had one account the calcium levels and zinc levels haven't increased but the carbohydrate levels have. that's how our crop yields have increased. although each twice as many vegetables as we did in the one nine hundred seventy s. we take in less and less minerals and trace elements down. selectively bred fast growing crops was shallow and poor a nutritional value. if moreover for saw it was lifeless and capable of delivering minerals and trace elements does it mean that contemporary food production is failing to. carry out its most important task delivering a healthy and diverse food. but boredom only last the
diversity both in agriculture and in our food when we switch to modern wheat for i.z.'s. and the mineral levels have also decreased in these we. move on the hopes means certain. thanks for telling what ensued it we have put too much emphasis on high yield crops there were fifty years ago we had ten tons of straw to four tons of grain. today we have ten tons of grain into four tons of straw but we need to eat twice as much flour to get the same amount of nutrients for your someone magnetics and. more carbohydrates and fewer micronutrients the vitamins and minerals that govern all the functions of our cells and which in small quantities are essential to us. more
sugar less nourishment. is it possible we're eating more because our bodies suffer from deficiencies. always thing more as a result of this nutrient content you know i think we are i think that occur in the body strive towards wanting something nourishing something that it requires. and that is not sated so if you know other words you can be over faith. now nourished and that's one of the biggest problems that we've got. in terms of growing. health related problems within our society. the more than somewhat us just about if it is the biggest lifestyle related cause of chronic illnesses today. and we need to focus on micro malnutrition. you may ask me since micronutrients i'm positive so many functions in the cells
it's difficult to gauge what that efficiency results and it could be any illness. also hands down. we compensate for cereals and rice with low nutritional value. when they're refined and polished they will. even more of the minerals and micronutrients. so we add stuff like i say. in quantities that might not be justified physiologically. missed out on linda's time to live on most processed baby food porridge and formula isn't reached with ion. of the ion we enrich the food with we have only about two percent. the rest goes into the large intestine and the ion changes the intestinal flora. today we link many illnesses in the west to an altered
intestinal flora like allergies loosen intolerance and type one diabetes in children on. minor changes in deficiencies created balances the resultant so-called hidden hunger and chronic conditions. could be reduced nutritional value without food be a fundamental cause. a resource ring from deficiency disease. how did it come to this. shouldn't our food contain everything we need. the tragedy is that actually doing food manufacturing for eternity could create a market nutrient food for the populace is just a game it's arrest rates are cheap there's and it's not been a priority for them to create tougher food. mass farming doesn't help to call the
tree in any sense whatsoever we're not helping environment we're only really keeping fruit out of a very very low price artificially low proms. where has this cheap food let us you know united states spends more on health care than any other developed country in the world yet last time i checked we're where the forty second healthiest countries. were first in eighty to eighty h.t. cancers parkinson's alzheimer's osteoporosis and the list goes on and on. death row for the families means for the cooling down one problem with today's food production and that is that we equate agriculture with any other business conduct
and we can all food products with any other products. and fair montana this has resulted in animals being treated as animal units are and that i'll talk about here and we've lost touch with why we farm it or slung on fire for. everything has been streamlined to be about money only hard. if you're actually see it or can buy a home we've lost all sense of thoughtfulness and care respect. human liberty. respect and you can see. with this production intensive market driven by economic growth our society is rapidly becoming urbanized and that uses of land fertile living topsoil
is trapped beneath shopping centers concrete infrastructure and soil sealed surfaces despite all resource is tarred over. the climate could quickly change our way of life so we need the arable land to store the carbon that's creating the changes to the world's weather systems topsoil have a function in climate regulation that we could utilize and maybe at the same time get ourselves more crops. their fears for sure got us all horror comic from some experts saying that if we increase the organic matter in all songs by two percent we could get rid of all greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. so that's how big the impact of what we grow is on the climate. so you could say that more fertile soil also results in
a better climate before. we could fix the greatest challenge of our time global warming simply by growing more in our fields long we have felt that all. so with nature as our model we can grow more and reduce climate change a shift towards protective crops low tillage cultivation more diversity and quality instead of quantity. annual monoculture and chemical dependency will hopefully soon be a thing of the past there are opportunities for regeneration and climate smart cultivation . sustainable agriculture is possible it's in the sesame. one solution can be found in perennial crops which reduced topsoil use
and are kinder to let basic perennial foodstuffs are part of our future. well this is intermediate weak grass which produces the grain current and it is a relative of wheat it's kind of a cousin of wheat. and it looks like wheat but it has a very important difference we eat is an annual that you need to replant every year and has relatively shallow roots kerns has very deep roots and is a perennial so ringrose year after year after year protects the soil. builds soil or gana matter takes up nutrients very efficiently and provides a lot of carbon or soil or solar granik matter for organisms in the soil to eat by moving the ecosystem the agro ecosystem into a perennial state we think we will not only conserve the sall resource but make
agriculture very very sustainable. one condition for sustainable food production is biological diversity. right no and in the future could species which ecosystems you don't life insurance of humanity. if i lay it out in the legal systems even in healthy soil them all species than is necessary at any given time on that. scale you're done it provides a buffer in times of stress for you. for example climate change. and. the meat always come on biological diversity is of enormous importance of course i would argue that it is an insurance
for the future and to see the. hole with a large biodiversity we know that if something changes in the future and something well there are always some groups and organisms that are ready to take over unfortunate head to keep the system functioning so i just feel the trees are. going to have a set of temples with this stuff the soils ecosystem could care less for the again so which would mean that we could no longer grow crops and that's all and i think you can go with that. not being able to grow things what a horrible thought. and every day we're cutting more of our lifelines. but
traditional locally sourced food is an option small scale production and high nutritional value instead of the cheapest possible support to farmers and growers that manage their land instead of the wasteful large scale production our choices at the supermarket are crucial for the arable land and for our chances of growing anything at all in the future. the worst case scenario for soil would be that. producers and consumers don't realize that that's where the nutrients come from that sustain life all life all life begins and ends with the soil. this is about the immediate future possibly just one generation away. when we live
used up the very thin layer of topsoil that we have at our disposal. we have to do away with the notion that the soil the ecosystem and nature are there to be exploited rather than interacting with if we don't have any kind of future at all. without life no soil. and no soil. if people don't speak about nature as they speak about over and it's not over an assessment when you have humanity and from there to run to st peter's you know we beyond we be young trees and nature so that's that's huge if we destroyed nature we destroy bess i mean it's ridiculous to suggest humanity engine which you know or are together so i truly killing you when you teach because he kills an extra. people must understand that.
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