tv Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine Deutsche Welle November 19, 2018 9:30am-10:01am CET
inventors entrepreneurs and high tech professionals talk about their visions successes and day to day business the difference. it's in history you know everyone. sees the mathematician but i'm trying to. get you to africa starts december twelfth on t.w. . hello and welcome to tomorrow to day the science show on d w. coming up. breastfeeding nursing doesn't just protect babies but mothers as well. that are basing a teacher from germany on a nasa exhibition get his class on board. and inspiring at sixteen
bolin slatter then idea for cleaning up the ocean now his project has been launched . but first let's take a detour into the animal kingdom everyone knows that elephants interact in complex ways than the head but other species have fascinating social lives as well. chickens for example can recognize over one hundred other birds in their flock and mice often grow up in social nests corporation brings many advantages especially for the weekend members of the group. when white stalks head to their winter quarters they fly together in large groups the ones who spend the summer on a lake constance on the swiss german border set off for spain some fly no further and winter there are landfill sites after
a trip of about nine hundred kilometers. others keep going and fly three and a half thousand kilometers to west africa how come what determines who goes where. biologist and i are fluck is the first scientists who have researched this question in any depth it had to limit and no one had looked into it yet because it's really difficult to gather precise data on the behavior of groups of wild animals. stalks are quite quite you can't get close and stare at them and how can you observe in detail vast flocks on the way dr flock found a way in twenty fourteen she equipped sixty stalks with tracking devices and accelerometers and hope that some of these individuals would end up flying together . she's about to introduce us to one of those sixty birds who has a distinctive manner of flying. their fire a bell. she's on the right when she demonstrates what flak finds
interesting about her. she's not a champion flyer the other one overtakes are with. you have their mirabelle authority mediocre a flying at doesn't matter much in everyday life but when they migrated she struggled to keep up with the others that. mirabelle flaps her wings a lot while the other one coaster smoothly. potter series was that the good flyers who travel fast head for africa and the slower ones who flop a lot only make it to spain. data from the accelerometers let the researches know if the stalks are gliding or flapping. it takes a lot of energy to flap the wings gliding is pretty much effortless. but that's only an option where there are a family that is currents of rising warm air. all
the birds have to do then is bred their wings and be carried upward in a wide spiral. the updraft becomes weaker the higher they go then a coast to the next flapping their wings as little as possible to conserve energy. but how do they find the thermals does each individual look for them as a group follow the lead of specialist scouts who go exploring to find the up drafts . as luck would have it twenty seven of the sixty stalks being studied did form a group flock and her colleague martin knowledge analyze the data from the tracking devices and determine that there are indeed leaders and followers within a group the leaders are martin blue they're experts at coasting and soar high on the thermals among the followers is mirabelle she doesn't fly so high and she
follows the leaders. we were surprised that the slower birds at the rear make use of information provided by the ones at the front they watch how the leaders are flying so they can steer a better course through the thermals. to meet. these were groundbreaking research findings. to keep up with the leaders even the followers have to be quite fast. it's clear that not all stores have the same flying skills. some started practice at a very early age. others prefer to lounge in their nests and where it turns out are more likely to be merely average performers on the wing like our poor mirabelle she has to work really hard to keep up. many posters have followers flap their wings a lot they expend
a lot of energy meaning they have to work harder as they migrate so they can travel such a great distance they tend to stop in spain and go no further while the others carry on to africa africa. the experts on the long haul flight glide most of the way and expand as little energy doing that as if they were standing on their nests. the results of this research project are so rich that it's not possible to predict the destination of any given bird. because in the we've seen these behavioral strategies are so important that shortly after they take off we can already tell how far bird will go yes we only have to observe the first five minutes of flight to know if it will migrate to africa or only to spain. and what about our friend marabout she called it a day in northern spain and winter that on
a landfill site. stalks returned to northern europe every year after chilling in the sunny south for nine months is that perhaps at the root of the myth that stalks deliver babies another theory has it that stalks confuse them with their favorite food frogs really. mother would certainly disagree. they only ever see the best in their babies. and when nursing they produce the best possible nourishment milk that researchers have discovered is tailored to meet their child's needs. it's instinctual shortly after birth of baby will move towards its mother's breast in search of milk and latch on to her next. ideally the first breastfeeding session should take place within an hour of delivering hormones are stimulated in response to the baby sucking that regulate the release of milk. is just five months old and
being exclusively breastfed by his mother ricardo. it's always arrives at the right temperature it's always hygienic i always have it with me i can't forget it i'm facile and the medical emotional aspects were really important to me and harvesting. breastfeeding has a lot of advantages not just for the baby but for the mother too it's nature's ingenious invention a mother's milk contains antibodies that help protect the baby against infection on a long term basis. biased. and infant that has been exclusively breastfed even if it's for just three months has had as many middle ear infections as a baby that hasn't been breastfed and respiratory and gastrointestinal infections are much less common among breastfed babies than babies who aren't being breast. but is
there something special about your own mother's breast milk human milk contains complex sugars called human milk oligosaccharides or h.m.o. those and their composition differs from woman to woman and it changes over time. every mother creates these substances especially for her child there are hundreds of variations that also depend on the child's particular situation in life. and they protect the child from infection by the bacteria and its own intestines. doing . most bacteria and other germs can't cross the barrier of the intestinal wall themselves but need to be transferred by a receptor. these human all of those sucker rides form a kind of protective wall we believe that when a baby is sick the antibodies in the mother's milk change. it's not entirely clear
what the signaling pathways are this so we do know the immune composition of breast milk adjusts in response. the nutritional composition of breast milk is also ideally adapted to the baby's needs as ricardo herself has experienced. sometimes the baby is just thirsty and breastmilk starts off being thinner more thirst quenching and with fewer fun but when the baby is hungry they stay on longer for the milk that contains more facts and there's strong evidence that it's not just babies who benefit from breast feeding you know mentioned that many people don't realize that the mother also profits for example women who have breastfed have a reduced risk of getting breast cancer and ovarian cancer and type two diabetes is less common to a lot of talk. are we do through risk of breast cancer why might that be. medical experts only discovered in recent years that breast milk contain stem cells
these cells can develop in particular ways in accordance with what the body needs little is known about how they might affect the baby. and we know from test tube experiments that to. cells for example are changed or killed by the stem cells that could be want to spread nationwide women who have breastfed are less likely to get breast cancer. and also why breast fed babies have lower rates of certain childhood cancers. the hormone oxytocin helps the mother's womb shrink after childbirth and it curb stress levels but that doesn't mean breastfeeding is always easy. in fact they actually at the beginning it was very difficult very painful it took me two months to get to a point where i felt comfortable with it. and that's
a really nice feeling if i find it physically very relaxing i can really let go. so i'm kind. as well as having a positive psychological effect on the mother towson is widely dubbed the bonding hormone because it strengthens emotional ties between mother and child. some studies suggest that breast milk might help reduce the risk of a child becoming overweight also later in life. but babies learn how to determine for themselves when they're full and there's a link to the leptin that regulates upper targets later in life that system of yours and the hormone leptin is contained in breast milk. carton and i will look pretty satisfied with their milk.
from ghana. which my question is why after some children we sample. sometimes take the. order. or sometimes they do. you know if being. quiet question is. why. why do some children look like their parents and others don't. it used to be said that babies resemble their fathers scientists thought it had an evolutionary explanation that it was nature's way of confirming paternity and encouraging fathers to take care of their own children. but the latest research shows that babies don't necessarily resemble their fathers or their mothers for that matter. babies the world over look more like each other instead nature is made sure they
look adorable. big eyes. and all. that's how babies ensure a ready supply of adult caregivers. they're so cute even a stranger well care for them if something happens to their parents. and what happens when children are adults sons tend to look more like their fathers sons daughters their mothers that's due to the effect of sex hormones. what about specific features like eye color. well if the father's eyes are brown and the mother is blue their children's eyes will probably be brown because brown eyes is a dominant trait. but sometimes children don't resemble their parents much at
all in the mix of the mothers and the fathers genes has millions of possible combinations of. nature enjoys for writing so many babies resemble no one in particular only themselves. if outlook is read write up a lot. do you have a science question that you've always wanted and said we're happy to help out send it to us as a video text over smell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you can i just ask. you find as i do w dot com slash science or drop us a line at d w underscore scientific on facebook d w dot science. children learn best three play and good teachers know that italian dr maria montessori developed a method of education with the basic premise help me do it myself. there are no
limits to a child's imagination so topics involving space are always popular with the young. when she was an astronaut samantha christopher ready tapped into that with a fitness program for kids and she isn't the only answer case here to get them involved in space. and. palmdale california. as evening approaches don't talk man but ins and his three colleagues from southern germany are getting ready to leave for their first expedition into the night sky. that's good so we're ready to go when very excited and i hope it'll all go well. sophia the flying telescope is fully fueled all of the safety checks are done and everything is ready for takeoff.
twelve hours later we're visiting a physics class at a school in hanover. and students are waiting for news from nasa they have video skype in with their teacher in california. the first ya. the teacher has just returned from his first flight on the repurposed boeing seven four seven which is now a flying telescope. his students are eager to hear more. on what did it feel like when you got on the saffir. you know honestly good
question it was very exciting we had to put on headphones because it's very loud on board it's not soundproofed in there we were pretty excited i have to say. the sofia aircraft was fitted with an infrared telescope you can observe the birth of stars and galaxies from high above the earth's atmosphere which normally interferes with our view the telescope was extended out of an opening on the side of the aircraft. to publicize its research and get young people interested in his work nasa sometimes takes teachers on board. and did you see if a new star has just been formed. astronomers can't actually observe a star being born it's not like there's a bang and suddenly there's a star it takes hundreds of thousands of years before you can see anything but i could see a lot of stars a different stages in their development and i could compare them and say aha after twenty thousand years that's what a star looks like after one hundred thousand years like that and after two hundred
thousand like that so that gave me a sense of how a star develops over time. plenty. if you saw a planet or several planets which one was your favorite. and. there is one planet neptune that the astronomers didn't find all that interesting but we thought it was really great to get to see neptune but what was especially exciting is that the magnification of the telescope also allowed us to see its largest moon trite on you'd never be able to see that with the kinds of telescopes we know from back home. but the students weren't just interested in science and new discoveries. did anything go really wrong on the flight or did something dramatic happen yes. fortunately everything went smoothly there's
a fear flying observatory return safely back to. you tomorrow the teacher will be back in germany bringing photos with him to school. teachers have a huge influence on the children in their care how you were taught in school often affects choices you make later in life we were curious about your learning experiences so we asked on facebook whether there was a teacher that really inspired you and in what way. for chris ryan's from the philippines school was a second home and he says it had a big impact on developing his skills he likes looking back on his early years in grade school. jonathan zealot from kenya remembers hearing that studying hard would one day allow him to buy an important product razorblades you didn't understand why at the time he was still young. cocoa pull my own career from pakistan told us about a math teacher who was a major inspiration he credits her with his love for numbers.
and his teacher wrote back saying she was glad to hear it and always did her best. then replied again saying his success in the subject had a lot to do with her encouraging smile. and thanks to both of them and to all the rest of you for sharing. with help from role models children can also make things happen pakistani activist malala yousafzai for example says she was inspired by her father and only ten felix finkbeiner from germany founded the plant the planet initiative with other kids he organized planting projects based on ideas propagated by one gallery matara. the nobel prize winning activist. and there are many other inspiring young people trying to make a difference let's meet one of them. the
with more than five billion tons of plastic trash now litter our oceans the debris is accumulated over more than half a century plastic just doesn't go away. at the age of sixteen slots we decided to tackle the problem eight years on his ocean cleanup is now becoming a reality the floating boom system devised to collect this debris was recently towed five hundred kilometers from the port where it was assembled pass prominent san francisco landmarks and out into the open ocean. after years of planning the twenty four year old dutchman finally wants to prove what his huge garbage catcher can really do clean up the world's largest marine garbage dump the so-called great pacific garbage patch. one of the world's five major gyrus is located between hawaii and the coast of california. the swirling circulating
currents have brought together gigantic amounts of plastic waste the garbage patch is believed to cover an area around four times the size of germany. the research that there is about eight hundred kilo of croton around which constitutes to one point eight trillion pieces of plastic inside the great pacific garbage that. is not has been thinking about his garbage patch for a long time but he just couldn't get the idea of cleaning up the plastic waste out of his mind he raised money using crowd funding and drummed up support for his idea slott is now backed by a team of sixty five scientists and in twenty fifth. the clean up crew stage their first spectacular event and carried out their first waste collection campaign thirty boat sailed parallel to each other moving through
a clearly defined ocean patch and collected rubbish the aim was to obtain reliable data on the actual level of plastic pollution for the first time slots team collected enormous quantities of garbage but the data was not enough slot he wanted more to collect the pacific ocean garbage in its entirety this young man from the netherlands thinks bit how would you normally cross a large area well you would jump on an epic so that we. got ourselves an airplane to do this and that actually led to the first area reconnaissance mission of an ocean garbage patch. with the latest surveying technology onboard experts were able to create a three dimensional image of the pacific dump and this shows garbage floating meters deep in the sea. the
floating boom construction looks simple at first it's a six hundred metre long hard plastic tube with an apron attached at the bottom that we just down three meters deep into the water it automatically creates a u. form when it's launched. all the construction needs to work is the current the waves in the wind the garbage itself will be shipped away for recycling. critics however see the construction as a danger to certain kinds of marine life. the whole thing is an ecosystem this is the surface of the ocean we're talking about not a desert these organisms are important they have a function the goal of this initiative is to tackle this problem on a large scale this will kill off these organisms on a grand scale too but slott is hoping that the construction will move organically through. the water the idea is that the construction drifts just like the plastic does. the next few months will show if the project works as expected. will be happy
if his system survives the winter without major damage. then he'll assess the first results next spring. that's it for now but join us again next time when we visit a researcher breaking down the math when large numbers of people try to flee in a single direction surprising result in crowd dynamics that and much more next time on tomorrow today see you then.
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storage nov twenty fifth on the c.w. play. the audio audio. this is due to the news live from the leaders of hong kong's pro-democracy movement go on trial. the third charged in connection with their role something of a brawl a protest at the high china and brought the city to a standstill and twenty fourteen one of the defendants tells you that he will continue to fight even if it means going to prison. this is the time to be