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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  November 20, 2018 1:30pm-2:01pm CET

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it's. history you know everyone. seems to have a vision of. digital africa starts december twelfth on w. hello and welcome to tomorrow today the science show on d w. coming up. breastfeeding nursing doesn't just protect babies but mothers as well. motivating a teacher from germany on announcer expansion gets his class on board. and inspiring at sixteen ballance lighter than i did for cleaning up the ocean now his project has been launched. but first
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let's take a detour into the animal kingdom everyone knows that elephants interact in complex ways in the head but other species have fascinating social lives as well. chickens for example can recognize over a hundred other birds in their flock and mice often grow up in social nets corporation brings many advantages especially for the weekend members of the group . when white stalks head to their winter quarters they fly together in large groups the ones who spend the summer on a lake constance on the swiss german border set off for spain some fly no further and went to their own landfill sites after a trip of about nine hundred kilometers. others keep going and fly three and a half hours in kilometers to west africa how come what determines who goes where.
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biologist and they are flock is the first scientists to have researched this question in any depth and as head of human design no one had looked into it yet because it's really difficult to gather precise data on the behavior of groups of wild animals. stalks are quite quite you can't get close and stare at them and how can you observe in detail vast flocks on the way dr flock found a way in twenty fourteen she equipped sixty stalks with tracking devices and accelerometers and hope that some of these individuals would end up flying together . she's about to introduce us to one of those sixty birds who has a distinctive manner of flying. their fire a bell. she's on the right when she demonstrates what flak finds interesting about her. she's not a champion flyer the other one overtakes her with. they have their
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mirabelle authority mediocre a flying doesn't matter much in everyday life but when they migrated she struggled to keep up with the others. mirabelle flaps her wings a lot while the other one coast smooth sailing. prophecies was that the good flyers who travel fast head for africa and the slower ones who flop a lot only make it to spain. data from the accelerometers let the researches know if the stalks are gliding or flapping. it takes a lot of energy to flap the wings gliding is pretty much effortless. but that's only an option where there are thermals that is a currents of rising warm air. all the birds have to do then is spread their wings and be carried upward in
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a wide spiral. the updraft becomes weaker the higher they go then a coast to the next flapping their wings as little as possible to conserve energy. but how do they find the thermals does each individual look for them or does a group follow the lead of specialist scouts who go exploring to find the updrafts . as luck would have it twenty seven of the sixty stalks being studied did form a group. flock and her colleague martin knowledge analyzed the data from the tracking devices and determine that there are indeed leaders and followers within a group the leaders are marked in blue they're experts at coasting and soar high on the thermals among the followers is mirabelle she doesn't fly so high and she follows the leaders. we were surprised that the slower birds at the rear make use of information provided by the ones at the front they watch how the leaders are
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flying so they can steer a better course through the thermals. and. these were groundbreaking research findings. to keep up with the leaders even the followers have to be quite fast. it's clear that not all stores some of the same flying skills. some started practice at a very early age. prefer to lounge in their nests and where it turns out are more likely to be merely average performers on the wing like our poor mirabelle she has to work really hard to keep up. many posters if the followers flap their wings a lot they expend a lot of energy does meaning they have to work harder as they migrate so they can travel such a great distance they tend to stop in spain and go no further while the others
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carry on to africa africa. the experts on the long haul flight glide most of the way and expend as little energy doing that as if they were standing on their nests. the results of this research project are so rich that it's not possible to predict the destination of any given bird. hunter because in the we've seen these behavioral strategies are so important that shortly after they take off we can already tell how far it will go. we only have to observe the first five minutes of flight to know if it will migrate to africa or only to spain. and what about our friend marabout she called it a day in the. winter on a landfill site. stalks return to northern europe every year after chilling in the sunny cell phone line months is that perhaps at the root of the
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myth that stalks deliver babies another theory has it that stalks confuse them with their favorite food frogs really. mothers would certainly disagree. they only ever see the best in their babies. and when nursing they produce the best possible nourishment milk that researchers have discovered is tailored to meet their child's needs. it's instinctual shortly after birth the baby will move towards its mother's breast in search of milk and latch on to her. ideally the first breastfeeding session should take place within an hour of delivery hormones are stimulated in response to the baby sucking that regulate the release of milk. is just five months old and is being exclusively breastfed by his mother ricardo.
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it's always arrives at the right temperature it's always hygienic i always have it with me i can't forget it i'm. in the medical emotional aspects were really important to me what this does. breastfeeding has a lot of advantages not just for the baby but for the mother too it's nature's ingenious invention a mother's milk contains antibodies that help protect the baby against infection on a long term basis. by as. much with an infant that has been exclusively breastfed even if it's for just three months has half as many middle ear infections as a baby that hasn't been breast fed and respiratory and gastrointestinal infections are much less common among breastfed babies than babies who aren't being breast. but is there something special about your own mother's breast milk human milk contains complex sugars called human milk oligosaccharides or h.m.o.
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those. and their composition differs from woman to woman and it changes over time. every mother creates these substances especially for her child there are hundreds of variations that also depend on the child's particular situation in life. and they protect the child from infection by the bacteria and its own intestines. most bacteria and other germs can't cross the barrier of the intestinal wall themselves but need to be transferred via a receptor. these human all go sucker rides form a kind of protective wall we believe that when i be a sick the antibodies in the mother's milk change. it's not entirely clear what the signalling pathways are there so we do know the immune composition of the breast no adjusts and responds. the nutritional composition of breast milk is also ideally
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adapted to the baby's needs as ricardo herself has experienced. sometimes the babies just thirsty and breast milk starts of being thinner more thirst quenching and with fewer fun when the baby is hungry they stay on longer for the milk that contains more facts and there's strong evidence that it's not just babies who benefit from breastfeeding. mentioned that many people don't realize that the mother also profits for example women who have breastfed have a reduced risk of getting breast cancer and ovarian cancer and type two diabetes is less common to. reduce risk of breast cancer why might that be. medical experts only discovered in recent years that breast milk contents themselves these cells can develop in particular ways in accordance with what the body needs little is known about how they might affect the baby.
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we know from test tube experiments that tumor cells for example are changed or killed by these stem cells so that could be one explore nationwide women who have breastfed on less likely to get breast cancer. and also why breast fed babies have lower rates of certain childhood cancers because. the hormone oxytocin helps the mother's womb shrink after childbirth and it curb stress levels but that doesn't mean breastfeeding is always easy. as an. infant they are still at the beginning it was very difficult very painful it took me two months to get to a point where i felt comfortable with it. and that's a really nice feeling if i find it physically very relaxing i can really let go. so i'm kind. as well as having
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a positive psychological effect on the mother towson is widely dubbed the bonding hormone because it strengthens emotional ties between mother and child. some studies suggest that breast milk might help reduce the risk of a child becoming overweight also later in life. babies learn how to determine for themselves when they're full and there's a link to the leptin that regulates upper targets later in life that seems to me and the hormone leptin is contained in breast milk. carton darwell look pretty satisfied with their milk. from ghana. my question is why are some children resemble. sometimes baby cakes.
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or sometimes it is not a good example of it being. quite question is. why. why do some children look like their parents and others don't. it used to be said that babies resemble their fathers scientists thought it had an evolutionary explanation that it was nature's way of confirming paternity and encouraging fathers to take care of their own children. but the latest research shows that babies don't necessarily resemble their fathers or their mothers for that matter. and babies the world over look more like each other instead nature is make sure they look adorable. big eyes.
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and. that's how babies ensure a ready supply of adult caregivers. they're so cute even a stranger well care for them if something happens to their parents. and what happens when children are adults sons tend to look more like their fathers sons daughters their mothers that's due to the effect of sex hormones. what about specific features like eye color. well if the father's eyes are brown and the mother is blue their children's eyes will probably be brown because brown eyes is a dominant trait. but sometimes children don't resemble their parents much at all in the mix of the mothers and the fathers genes as millions of possible combinations. of nature enjoys for rioting so many babies resemble no one in
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particular moment. themselves. the problem is right right i mean even if you. do you have a science question that you've always wanted oncet happy to help out you send it to us as a video text ovoid smell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you can i just ask. you find as i did have you dot com slash science or drop us a line at d.f.w. undisclosed site tech on facebook d w dot science. children learn best three play and good teachers know that italian dr maria montessori developed a method of education with the basic premise help me do it myself. limits to a child's imagination so topics involving space are always popular with the young. when she was an audience as astronaut samantha christopher a she tapped into that
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with a fitness program for kids and she isn't the only educators here to get them involved in space. and. california. evening approaches to talk man prince and his three colleagues from southern germany are getting ready to leave for their first expedition into the night sky. that's good so we're ready to go when very excited and i hope it'll all go well. sophia the flying telescope is fully fueled all of the safety checks are done and everything is ready for takeoff.
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twelve hours later we're visiting a physics class at a school in hanover. pachmann planes and students are waiting for news from nasa their video starting with their teacher in california. the first. the teacher has just returned from his first flight on the repurpose spring seven four seven which is now a flying telescope. his students are eager to hear more. on what did it feel like when you got on the saffir. good question it was very exciting we had to put on headphones because it's very loud on board it's not soundproofed in there we were pretty excited i have to say. sophia aircraft was
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fitted with an infrared telescope you can observe the birth of stars and galaxies from high above the earth's atmosphere which normally interferes with our view the telescope was extended out of an opening on the side of the aircraft. to publicize its research and get young people interested in his work nasa sometimes takes teachers on board. and did you see if a new star has just been formed. can't actually observe a star being born it's not like there's a bang and suddenly there's a star it takes hundreds of thousands of years before you can see anything but i could see a lot of stars a different stages in their development and i could compare them and say aha after twenty thousand years that's what a star looks like after one hundred thousand years like that and after two hundred thousand like that so that gave me a sense of how a star develops over time. plan. if you search planet earth several planets
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which one was your favorite. and this one for me was very very one planet neptune that the astronomers didn't find all that interesting but we thought it was really great to get to see neptune but what was especially exciting is that the magnification of the telescope also allowed us to see its largest moon trite on you'd never be able to see that with the kinds of telescopes we know from back home . but the students weren't just interested in science and new discoveries. did anything go really wrong on the flight or did something dramatic happen yes. fortunately everything went smoothly there's a fear flying observatory return safely back to. you tomorrow the teacher will be back in germany bringing photos with him to school. teachers have
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a huge influence on the children in their care how you were taught in school often affects choices you make later in life we were curious about your learning experiences so we asked on facebook whether there was a teacher that really inspired you and in what way. for chris ryan's from the philippines school was a second home and he says it had a big impact on developing his skills he likes looking back on his early years in grade school. jonathan zealot from kenya remembers hearing that studying hard would one day allow him to buy an important product razorblades he didn't understand why at the time he was still young. cocoa pull my own career from pakistan told us about a math teacher who was a major inspiration he credits her with his love for numbers. and his teacher wrote back saying she was glad to hear it and always did her best.
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book group then replied again saying his success in the subject had a lot to do with her encouraging smile. thanks to both of them and to all the rest of you for sharing. with help from role models children can also make things happen pakistani activist malala use of science for example says she was inspired by her father and only ten felix finkbeiner from germany founded the plant the planet initiative with other kids he organized planting projects based on ideas propagated by one gallery my. the nobel prize winning activist. and there are many other inspiring young people trying to make a difference let's meet one of them. more than five billion tons of plastic trash now litter our oceans the debris is
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accumulated over more than half a century plastic just doesn't go away. at the age of sixteen. decided to tackle the problem eight years on his ocean clean up is now becoming a reality the floating boom system devised to collect this debris was recently towed five hundred kilometers from the port where it was assembled pass prominent san francisco landmarks and out into the open ocean. after years of planning the twenty four year old dutchman finally wants to prove what his huge garbage catcher can really do clean up the world's largest marine garbage dump the so-called great pacific garbage patch. one of the world's five major gyrus is located between hawaii and the coast of california. this swirling circulating currents have brought together gigantic amounts of plastic waste the garbage patch
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is believed to cover an area around four times the size of germany. the research that there is about eight hundred kilo of plastic protein or which constitutes to one point eight trillion pieces of plastic inside the great pacific garbage that. it's not has been thinking about his garbage patch for a long time he just couldn't get the idea of cleaning up the plastic waste out of his mind he raised money using crowd funding and drummed up support for his idea start is now backed by a team of sixty five scientists and in. fifteen the cleanup crew stage their first spectacular event and carried out their first waste collection campaign thirty boat sailed parallel to each other moving through a clearly defined ocean patch and collected rubbish the aim was to obtain reliable data on the actual level of plastic pollution for the first time slots team
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collected enormous quantities of garbage but the data was not enough slot he wanted more to collect the pacific ocean garbage in its entirety this young man from the netherlands thinks bit how would you know cross a large area well you would jump on an epic so what if we got ourselves to do this and that actually the first area. of an ocean garbage. would the latest surveying technology onboard experts were able to create a three dimensional image of the pacific dump and this shows garbage floating meters deep in the sea. the floating boom construction looks simple at first it's a six hundred metre long hard plastic tube with an apron attached at the bottom that reaches down three meters deep into the water it automatically creates a u.
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form when it's launched. all the construction needs to work is the current the waves in the wind the garbage itself will be shipped away for recycling. critics however see the construction as a danger to certain kinds of marine life. the whole thing is an ecosystem this is the surface of the ocean we're talking about not a desert these organisms are important they have a function the goal of this initiative is to tackle this problem on a large scale this will kill off these organisms on a grand scale too but slott is hoping that the construction will move or can. through the water the idea is that the construction drifts just like the plastic dubs. the next few months will show as the project works as expected slott will be happy if his system survives the winter without major damage. then he'll assess the first results next spring.
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that's it for now but join us again next time when we visit a researcher breaking down the math when large numbers of people trying to flee in a single direction surprising results in crowd dynamics that and much more next time on tomorrow today and see you then.
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lead to an audience. this is deja vu news live from berlin a u.s. court deals a blow to president trunk's immigration policy as thousands of central american migrants head towards the u.s. the president wants to restrict their ability to claim asylum on american soil but a judge in california has now blocked a tromso order. also coming up every day innocent gehman he's are starving and dying because of a conflict that's entirely man named for the latest calls for a cease fire at the united nations to change anything and if not what will it take to end the suffering plus.


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