tv Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine Deutsche Welle December 31, 2018 6:30pm-7:01pm CET
with the insisted you do to listen to good people as a journey to the roots get a minimum of the. bush family from the road you. want to get into systems. moving family storage generally to do. w. . hello and welcome to tomorrow today the science show on d w. coming up on this edition. katz hued clucky unloveable and they have us totally in their throat. how do they pull it off. the brave new world of brain doping could the electron stimulation be used to give our mental faculties a boost. but first is a man's brain different from a woman's brain the experts weigh in. to
turn to sixteen olympic games cause to see many of south africa to gold in the women's eight hundred meter event but some said so many are shouldn't be allowed to compete her natural testosterone levels are unusually holy so is she actually a man. you know because hormones are the only thing that determines a person's sex. the external and internal sex organs also play a role as do the chromosomes normally x. x. in women and x. y. in men. and sometimes it's a mix of all of these so determining sex is far from simple if only we could look inside the brain. does the brain have a gender can we tell just by looking at it we ask a neuro anatomist. to see him get
a scan this is the brain of someone who donated his or her body to medical science some of the men in jail tissue has been removed from what i'm able to see i couldn't tell you whether it's a man's brain or a woman's brain it festers. size isn't a reliable indicator because that also tends to depend on your body size rather than your gender but what about inside the brain or are there differences in how it's wired. antique reason in this area of the spleen iom is a lot more prominent and figure in the female brain to go with men in this area is thinner has not as barbers just or if so would stick by can all but i can also show you the brain of a woman where this distinction is not as clear do you see here too you can see smooth the transition isn't it so this structure doesn't allow us to reliably identify a man's brain or a woman's brain so when i get in throng honey. hundreds of studies have examined the anatomy of the brain in order to determine the differences between the sexes
and international research team has compared all this data one conclusion it came to that there are more similarities than differences. but it's not just about the visible distinctions are there differences between the brains of men and women in terms of function. women are generally said to be more linguistically talented than men and men are considered to have better spatial awareness. the latter can be determined using their mental rotation test which of the images correspond to the first one. men tend to perform better in this test the surprising thing is that women's performances varing according to their monthly cycle so one is that. m.r.i. scans show how. hormones change our brain some. exercise
a continual influence before birth they have a strong impact on how our brain develops but they also affect us our whole life long and that's particularly apparent with women during the course of their menstrual cycle. estrogen increases over the course of the menstrual cycle and progesterone also starts to kick in a bit later. studies of the effect of estrogen have revealed that when levels are low women's behavior tends to resemble men's behavior more closely and it was found on men in the house and that means when a woman is having her period her brain is more under the influence of testosterone than on the other days of her cycle so it isn't as straightforward as one might think. in recent years research has focused increasingly on transgender people their gender identity or gender expression
differs from the gender that they were assigned at birth. or their biological markers in the brain that indicate trans identity in a bid to find that out scientists measured how the brain reacts to voices. the best minds eat is this here we see activity in the auditory cortex this is the area responsible for hearing and also how we process voices you can see that this trans woman's brain lies between the different activation patterns displayed by men and women. and it shows they can't simply be assigned to one sex or the other. to come although the research is still in its infancy and michelle cleaver shows differences between men and women but also to non-binary areas. with the brain and we expected to discover that there were no fixed categories you know instead it's a continuum if you do wish our brain develops into what can be classed as more male or more female on the basis of biological hormonal and chromosomal influence. it's
not static but develops an interaction with our environment and our experience with . the brain can't be clearly identified as having one single sex it's a mix of many female and the many shades in between. one shot shock of electricity. and frankenstein's monster is jolted into life. in the classic film based on the novel written by mary shelley that's all it takes . but what happens in real life when electricity is applied to returns of the brain. research is that the university hospital of zurich want to give our brains a proust so christian wolf and his team have wired up their test subjects.
and the experiment begins now but. although the subjects don't actually feel a thing transcranial brain stimulation involves a point electric current to a specific region of the organ in this case one of these known to influence mathematical reasoning. for ten minutes the subjects at about solving tricky subtraction and multiplication exercises with startling results we have a house before and that's when we've discovered that when this region is stimulated the test subjects get more subtraction problems right. so in other words it makes subtraction easier for them interestingly we found no effect on multiplication so it appears that this region is responsible for subtraction talks on fire and what he was. transcranial brain stimulation in general is said to hold great potential.
as and i think stored in in some studies test subjects were given working memory exercises they had to remember sequences of numbers and if you do that over the course of a week using stimulation for months later you discover that the ones who received the stimulation still have a better capacity than those who didn't see the need to be. and researchers elsewhere are also turning out exciting results a team in the us. likewise experimenting with electrical brain stimulation the u.s. army is using the research to a drone pilots who have to stare at screens for hours on end looking for proverbial needles in haystacks and the slightest lapse in concentration could mean disaster. transcranial brain stimulation can significantly increase concentration and attention span. so we're looking at our future. too but inevitably there will be debate over the extent to which we should employ
something like neuro enhancement to improve the natural functions of the brain events or doesn't and i'm among those who see it with a critical life because you have to ask yourself just how much you're willing to interfere and such an organized we only do it with other organs when they're not functioning like putting a pacemaker in a diseased heart and you've always got to ask what side effects are going to have and to what extent boosting one particular brain ability might weaken another. but lots of questions are open so this form of brain doping is still a distant rossman it. and now we tend to be animals. different species have developed different forms of communication. vocalizations can serve to scare off other animals just to interact. we
often think we understand these messages but is that true. i'm jack i'm eleven european short hair and that's michael he lives too. i have five brothers and sisters are a bit standoffish. that's my other human. the tin. i'm going to teach us some feline language today like how to meow i'm hungry or let me out. he says meow and we've got to it doesn't like it's thing we open a fresh package kitty wants out and we open the door. of course they manipulate us cat owners are probably the most easily manipulated creatures on earth.
manipulate. maybe just need a few lines human dictionary to understand us a bit better after all we only know for humans. that's why i'm going to see marina today she's a researcher who could interpret that. brought a couple of samples on video. because she recognizes a lot in our voices things like volume and pitch this is a simple message arrived it was recorded during feeding then we do a lot of math calculation number of things what are the basic frequencies and here we can see the areas in purple that is the area of maximum energy what we call peak frequency. those other parameters be used to describe the vocalizations. that should be easy enough when i sit in front of my. eyes cuts in the sand i can
actually pass and it would probably say that's the feed me one for but you have to remember there's a context to the me out when you can sit in front of its bow meowing then you'll probably go to a cast and see the bowlers. and then i'd of course you'll interpret that behavior and no right it wants to be fed the taste but that doesn't necessarily mean it's a typical fede. that's true you often get it wrong sometimes we just want attention that's my body. and servant alexis. covert as a manipulative. just watch how he keeps them in line.
every time we go out he makes exactly the same noise when he meow so pathetically i can't help because back upstairs. it's this high pitched. and when he's hungry and it's just a mellow you know. gotta hand it to him. i was able to extract some relatively clear vocalizations his if you want to focalize ations and here's where he wants to be left out this is sort of general emotional rule you could say went after the more negative the emotion the greater the education the longer the vocalization. and the pitch she usually rises as well. as we do that too when we worked up our voice and sometimes it's really hard to control that when. we found the same parameters with cats when cats get more worked out of their voice
cracks a bit we humans perceive higher pitched vocalizations as more urgent. friends home and. that holds for your human babies too when they get that high pitched cry you go running. when i create my own special way she doesn't always get the message. well i come home and he runs to greet me could get a little kiss when i put him down he gets annoyed. that could mean not now or could mean pick me up i mean let's get back to this later it depends. she needs an interpreter. but he gets it. you can tell from like.
she's enjoying it to. the snow is not hurrying has a completely different acoustic structure it's nothing like meowing for example you mainly hear it when you stroking your calves or when your cat rubs against your leg . but it can be employed in other contexts like begging for food or hired for every cat is different they all have their own personality like a bit like humans in that respect they have different behavioral profiles and different voices. i was about to give gabby a feline dictionary but it seems you need a new one for every single cat. even if every cat is an individual they all have one thing in common people just can't seem to get enough of them either at home or online on facebook we asked you to share your
experiences with your pets and not surprisingly got lots of responses. chris and they told us about his furry friend ronnie who seems to be in charge. according to luke ever zero zero zero cats are totally convinced that they're the monsters and humans are little more than slaves. lots of you out there send him videos and first across the field pets here are some of the ones that really caught our eye. this seems to have got the knack of a. good place to buy a little bit on the tight side. maybe a day. to. live david barry. i can now with good press again.
time to leave behind our full new cattle a cat filled homes to head out into the great beyond this week's viewer question comes from sandy. why use a dork in outer space. there are more than one hundred billion stars in our milky way and it's just one of the countless galaxies and the universe sensitive instruments like the hubble space telescope have revealed that there are ten times more galaxies out there than we thought just a few decades ago and these gigantic swarms of stars are distributed quite uniform throughout space so we should see light shining at us from every direction right. just like we see trees in every direction standing in the midst of a huge forest but the night sky is mostly dark this apparent contradiction was
first described by astronomer hi mcleish really around two hundred years ago that's why it's called old. paradox. today we believe the universe formed fourteen billion years ago in what's called the big bang sense then says the theory of the universe has been expanding at an ever increasing rate. here on earth we can see just one small sliver of the universe many stars are so far away that their light hasn't arrived here yet after all it takes two and a half million years for light to make the journey from our nearest collected neighbor and drama to the earth. and because the universe is expanding radiation from distant galaxies is also stretched into wavelengths that are no longer visible to the human eye but they are
visible to the hubble telescope it can also observe radiation and those parts of the spectrum and even reveal stars hidden behind clouds of cosmic dust that block radiation in the visible spectrum the light. and that's why at least to our eyes the night sky is dark. if outlook is red right but only a few. do you have a science question that you've always wanted on say it we're happy to help out send it to us as a video text over a smell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you cannot just ask. you'll find us on line and it detail you dot com slash science and of course on twitter and facebook so get in touch. since the very first automobile hit the road in eight hundred eighty five cars have changed the laws. countless millions of them have
rolled off the tree feel the most important things speed and looks environmental friendliness didn't play a big role until now e-cards could help us achieve the dream of a cleaner greener future but the batteries in them rely on lithium in germany plans to mine the meshal are ramping up. the alps can be a good mountains are situated on the border between germany and the czech republic here near the town is in via lies a treasure worth an estimated one hundred fourteen billion euro europe's largest lithium deposit a group of researchers from the five thank you diversity of mining are descending eighty meters beneath the surface to examine the reserves the valuable natural resource is hidden in this glittering rock called lithium mica or is involved. in the don't look right here in this area is nearly one hundred percent is involved so
it's a very lithium rich zone. for nearly five hundred years this was an active mine that yielded mainly ten people knew there was let in here but they had no real use for it to hide that researchers have assessed the size of the deposit. for the positing a compass or some ninety thousand tons of lithium metal or but that's just a third of the overall deposit there's twice that over on the chuck side so if we add it all up incorporating some of the older calculations we arrive at an estimate of at least two hundred fifty thousand tons of metallic lithium compared to other deposits around the world for example those in australia this is certainly an important deposit and of course a lot of them. for years the lithium in this mine remained virtually untouched there was no way to extract it on a commercial scale now that's changed the freiburg researchers have developed a new process to extract lithium carbonate friends involved i. used to make
batteries for cell phone cameras and laptops. it's also a key material in the production of storage shelves for solar and wind energy. and as electronic ability takes up demand will continue to soar so this raw material that play such a critical role in the transition to cleaner energy. it's growing increasingly valuable. the recent. price of lithium has nearly doubled over the last year and a half and it's the turner lithium carbonate of the form in which all traded now costs around thirteen thousand dollars. on the chinese market itself for around twenty two or twenty three thousand dollars a tonne along. the process used to extract the lithium from or is relatively simple there or is first crushed and is involved it is removed using magnets. it's then heated to one thousand degrees celsius which causes the chemical bonds in the
material to break down making the various elements in the symbols like easier to separate. the fluoride aluminum and iron which used to get in the way of lithium extraction can also be refined and used. you can already say that the process is very environmentally friendly you could even call it a form of green mining because it doesn't produce any waste. the crucial step is just carbon dioxide and water as a leeching medium. with the help of electro dialysis pressure and heat the carbon dioxide escapes leaving the lithium carbonate behind once that's filtered and dried it can be sold commercially. this extreme i'm for because it's very simple that's important otherwise it might not be economically viable the amount of lithium in sin while diet isn't very high the extraction process has to be easy and
inexpensive otherwise it wouldn't be worth it on the talks that he creates. what's more the same process can be used to extract lithium from old battery. until now became i and batteries collected for recycling have been fed into a high temperature furnace that yields an alley from which cobalt nickel and copper can be recovered. to recycle the lithium it would need to be extracted from the slack before it's melted. the lithium is contained in what's called the black mass the substance layered on the cathode by adding carbon dioxide and water and heating the mass to at least fifty degrees celsius the other components of the black mass are melted out leaving behind a white deposit but the mccartney. the opposite also we are able to
extract nearly all the lithium from first generation batteries. on our it's a bit more difficult with the more modern batteries but we've been able to extract seventy five or eighty percent of it already with no real problems. but i'm all for the high. in the future recycling all the valuable raw materials and lithium ion batteries will become ever more important to freiburg process that's very promising . the lithium to life slumbering and outs get taken mountains has now become a valuable resource. and the old mine here they soon be cropped back to life. that wraps it up for this week but join us again next time when we'll look at how researchers are trying to harness artificial intelligence to decode hieroglyphs faster than ever before.
graphics in the video game assassin's creed origins are based on emotion education sources. but machine learning played a key role during design. in the project experts from the field of egyptology worked closely with game developers the past meets the future next time on to morrow today see that. movie. and.
careering to me. not everyone who loves books has to go and say. that t.w. literature list one hundred german must reads. everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. the right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference. and to seek receive and implant information and ideas to media regarding the stuff twenty years. the seventieth anniversary of the un declaration of human rights article nineteen fall on d. w.
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this is due to our news live from but the twenty ninth season begins with a bang and shoot. lead player. play calling the rings in the new year with victoria harbor providing a backdrop to a spectacular fireworks display also coming up bangladesh's prime minister says her conscience is clear shakers ina rejects calls for new votes also winning her third can say.