tv Doc Film - Gustav Stresemann and the Weimar Republic - The Failure of... Deutsche Welle February 2, 2019 4:15pm-5:00pm CET
you're watching news coming up after a short break out documentary the failure of germany's first democracy you know to get you can get all the information on our web site at state every dot com i'm rebecca reese's thanks for joining me. her first day of school and. the first clue less. than bandar's grand moment arrives joint direct attack on her journey. in our interest to touch him in shoot or on the writing returns home.
to live in is a monica's to try to rescue democracy. the peace that was nothing of the kind was. the first german democracy was on the edge of bankruptcy and of civil war. he had to assert himself against the enemies of democracy and above all i guess one of them golf good luck with talking about the russian chancellor gustaf strays him on. november nineteenth twenty three the leader of the national socialists tried to topple the government in berlin. the nationality of job search dollars. that very same night chancellor strays a man called a crisis meeting yeah. but whatever you think if you look at the conflict between.
the president has to. deal if you want to talk as if i. looked as mission as proceeds. if. the president and the chancellor hébert and strays and had to act. on the night of the eighth and ninth of november nineteen twenty three the future of the german republic was at stake and he of all people had to come to its rescue gustaf strays and. a man
who during the world war had been an aggressive nationalist who wanted a worldwide german empire who believed in the monocle and lamented its collapse. and now he had composed an appeal for the republic and against hitler. in this hour of just any of the german people we exhort all friends of the fatherland to commit to the preservation of the unity of the right and to german freedom is it as bad as that. yes. we don't know what the next day will bring. but i will not give him. the news that hitler wanted him out his wife feared for his life kate and gustav strays a man had been married for twenty years and once before his turbulent career had nearly come to an end.
it's a gotten off to a dream starts at twenty eight strays a man was the youngest member of the rush tac the german parliament like the kaiser he dreamed of a world wide german empire. when war broke out in one nine hundred fourteen he demanded conquests in east and west when it was clear that the war was lost he too wanted to restrict the power of the kaiser but he didn't welcome the republic that was proclaimed on the ninth of november one thousand nine hundred eighteen i think i was one. that was a very brazen man found himself marginalized it seems as with the end of the imperial regime slays a man's whole world collapsed for him personally at the end of the war brought
a hiatus in history. and february nine hundred nineteen the freely elected german national assembly max environment the city made famous by good her and sheila strays a man was the chairman of the newly formed german peoples party which wanted a constitutional monarchy but now it was the social democrats like friedrich hébert who had to say. that there was nothing that. i thought that i either but. i gave him my hand i am. here and. in the national assembly the advocates of republic had a two thirds majority based on the social democrats the left liberals and the catholics sent. party staff strays
a man and his german peoples party mourns the passing of the old days as a result many saw him as yesterday's man. made to feel small and couldn't even from got to scott mr allison. for the first time women could also votes and stand for election in the us come out. if you are still in critical. but the. man. strays a man had gone to weimar with mixed feelings to his wife he wrote today was the solemn opening of the german national or something or rather should have been in my heart i live in the old days and it hurts to see how everything has changed patient at. these feelings were not shared by most of the deputies in the next six months they created the legal basis
for the new states the constitution of the weimar republic the government was no longer responsible to the kaiser but to parliament for the first time in german history sovereignty laid with the people. the new constitution and to take up where the failed revolution of eight hundred forty eight had left off reviving the ideals of the national assembly that had met in the polls in frankfurt's the colors black red gold stood for the tradition of freedom in germany and now they wear the colors of the final republic. but the shadow lay over the new beginning. in the spring of one thousand nine hundred nineteen the victorious powers of. the first world war met inversed side
the germans hoped for a soft peace now that the kaiser had abdicated in vain. unlike america and britain france wanted to weaken germany decisively for its own security . the hall of mirrors in the palace of first sign. it was here that the german empire was proclaimed after the victory over france in eight hundred seventy one it was here that bismarck declared a united germany. half a century later france had its revenge in the same hole now the germans were the defeated party. the representatives of the weimar republic had no choice they were forced to acknowledge germany's sole guilt for the war and accepts harsh peace terms. the new republic was forced to take on the legacy of the old empire.
here to stray them and oppose the government. because in we may be lost if we do not sign the peace treaty of using such will certainly be lost if we don't. stray ziman was unwilling to accept the consequences of a war he had welcomed under the terms of the verse i treaty french belgian and british troops occupied the german rhineland as a guarantee of security germany was forced to pay reparations and lost one seventh of its territory in the west alsace and lorraine was ceded to france in the east posen west prussia and part of up asylum easier to the newly constituted poland literally gulbis of course there were a whole lot of stipulations in this treaty one might criticize but these problems could have been overcome with patients and skillful diplomacy among tea however that was difficult in view of the nationalist undercurrent in these cities and
that's when the destruction control in. germany was shaken by attempted coup d'etat the extreme right blame the representatives of democracy for losing the war. foreign minister volatile rotten i was assassinated as was the former finance minister my ts aunt's baerga. the accusation was that the victorious troops had been stabbed in the back by democrats and socialists. fake news. the difference between environment and day lies in the political culture in those days and it was usual in many circles to create fundamentally opposing positions and to resort to violence relatively quickly. the nationalists propaganda had an
effect in the first elections to the new rush tag in june one nine hundred twenty the parties supporting the republic social democrats left liberals and center lost their majority the opponents on the fringes gained votes including strays a man's german people's party who share went up from four to fourteen percent making it a force to be reckoned with and the potential coalition partner but for whom strays and sense that extremism whether from left or right would drive the state over the edge he realised the republic was a compromise but one worth defending for the sake of internal peace and that rejection was no solution. treason mondeo one symbol of its image in peace and at the end of the war in one thousand nine hundred eighteen it looked as if there is a man was finished but in one thousand nine hundred twenty he was back in the right
stock with this party indies and straight away they helped the key to the weimar republic because the actual supporters of the republican social democrats left liberals and catholic center no longer had a majority of its face from what i'll give you they were dependent on one of the parties that had originally opposed to a geek know there's a public option just like strays a man's people's party. but the crunch didn't come until nine hundred twenty three a year of crisis for the young republic so far only the. rhineland had been occupied but in january nine hundred twenty three french and belgian troops marched into the room officially they only wanted to secure a guarantee for the payment of unpaid reparations. passive resistance two million workers in the ruhr came out on strike the states paid their wages it didn't actually have the money so it simply printed it which sent the value of the
market tumbling. the resistance was welcomed across party lines the rule was germany's industrial heartland whoever controlled the ror controlled germany's economy the french were well aware of this and fear of their neighbor might become too strong once more. but now the machines were standing idle. in february nine hundred twenty three strays and went to dortmund to firm up support for passive resistance in the occupied territory. the prominent politician had to reckon on being arrested so he travelled on false documents. in the. wrong place yet because. this is not shown. in school or.
each other different it was his whole. i like. the situation in the rule was coming to a head because of the customs posts food was scarce the french military set up soup kitchens to gain support but these two were boycotted. i'm struck by the treasury. action and i kind. l m i five should. have. the mood was explosive there were acts of sabotage clashes deaths. in berlin two the situation was tense in august nine hundred twenty three the government stepped down because of the rule crisis. and president friedrich hébert had to nominate
a new chancellor it was a tough decision only a broad coalition taking in both the people's party and the social democrats seem to have any prospects but for that he needed strays a man on side favored hesitated to. develop missionary is the fact the fansite was off never. having me back is what i'm getting. feeding if demystify please put your teachers at school. on the thirteenth of august nine hundred twenty three hébert appointed strays him and chancellor astri's among vice consul of the twenty days a man became chancellor it was a political suicide mission decision the weisz was in its most serious crisis since
the end of the war the rule a struggle have been going on for seven months the economy of the ruhr and the rhineland was at a standstill hyperinflation was raging and no one knew what would become of germany as i predicted wednesday's man said his acceptance of office was political suicide he didn't just mean it metaphorically. we mustn't forget not to now and as bill politicians were being murdered in those days and not a lot of. money was being printed all the time to finance the rule of crisis the currency lost any value it once had the influence sure he's still on him inflation became an elemental german troll leaped as many people had the experience that everything they had safed including the war loans they have made to the state of was simply lost. when this had serious effects on people's confidence in the state and in scotland sridevi course but it's. strays and have to act to end the
inflation he stops the passive resistance policy in the rules. but he also had to answer to parliament. the law is just the only thing we have left in the collapse we have the experience. to preserve it now is the juice we have to fulfill. it was a brave speech the right accused him of treason and surrendering to the french once again they said the republican brought the nation to defeat but he had no choice. starting war beat. he was answered with shouts of coward one deputy said it would cost him his head let's hope so shouted another. others thought he was abandoning the people of the rule.
of law as for the ending of passive resistance the courage to take this step is perhaps more nationalist than the slogans directed against determined by the party i know that i'm putting my political future. maybe even my life on the line but what do the german people lack. only lacked the courage to take responsibility. straightening passive resistance was the moment when he took responsibility for a most unpopular act and in that sense it was the high point or a high point because it showed statesman like qualities knowing that he would be accused of signing a second versailles. there were rebellions all over the country in
cold lens there were attempts to set up a separate rhineland republic in saxony entering year there was an alliance between communists and social democrats a red revolution threatened strays a man sent in the army but the main threat came from the right in the south of the republic. in munich the bavarian government mobilized against berlin taking control of the troops based there he joined forces with the so-called fatherland association's extreme right wing bodies including hitler's national socialist german workers' party they intended to march on berlin. the chancellor was well aware of this he could deploy the army against the communists in saxony entering year but would it put down a right wing coup i see cancer. on secrecy. dr.
that you never. get a chance is there's a bit in you that's. thank you. general hans von seek to was the country's top soldier. was the army prepared to defend the republican gains the tax from the right. the situation in the various explosive car last saw and hitler may strike at any moment like the army must be ready. and mr chancellor we cannot fight other men like you need so if you see you do not have the confidence of the troops and said. she felt like a so you refuse to follow my orders. ok
i will leave it at that for the most. very well. the disobedient general why didn't strays him and fire him. praise him i'm stunned him helps in zero two nine hundred twenty three when the values seemed to be going up in flames strays a man was under enormous pressure because at that moment he couldn't enter into open conflict with the high command so he played for time on the next to my left side. in munich the opponents of the weimar republic were mobilizing. on the eighth of november of aryan states commissioner gustaf own car held a rally in the bull go broke hell of a be a hole. in his speech
he sought to whip up opposition to berlin he spoke of shameful treaties. but one man there was tired of words he wanted action hitler saw his chance to strike he demanded that the hesitant variant government. should join him the host and all those presents were taken off guard with this post. but his words were lost in the hubbub witnesses later reported they regarded the whole thing is a pantomime. peanut's your knowledge of the show just give us a. yes i was just talking about sex such we have never seen in many visits. but the hot head from the national socialist german workers party was serious.
business and the stuff i did not like don't get inside on top. you know such things give me the feeling to tell. the truth thank. you. shortly before midnight the news reached berlin stories a man immediately called a crisis meeting president a but was present both were aware that if it came to the crunch only one man could suppress the coup. what would be the attitude of the army if hitler marched on berlin at the head of the very true. iraqi army is behind me the media. frenzy. because it was so what should we do know. without the army we have no
chance and. it was still totally uncertain who was really behind the coup. was in munich the authorities hesitated to join hitler who there was confusion in the hall was i tell this and it's had happened often in such was hitler now revealed his trump card the retired general at a clued in golf. during the war he had been head of the high command and was still very popular now he was prepared to be the figurehead of hitler's insurrection. in using a stronger chatroom the difference you see today was going nuts only charge. off to berlin roared the crowd. the
generals appearance clinched the matter one card in the offices present joined the coup attempt. it was just now my never gone ask often. does you know i wouldn't offer others hitler and other fun also. general von law so an enemy of von secrets was supposed to become the defense minister in the new government. because all this is our chance they won't like he's lost on hitler he won't take orders from the loss of. his rival lost so was to be his boss. mr president that gentleman we have to act the coup must be suppressed. gentlemen i propose to give general funds aked extensive emergency powers.
media. persona does not. now see it has everything he always wanted he has power. as he will ever give it up . he's a soldier to the bone. even tried to topple the government. and that's how people write. off times out of other spots on the one hand he's giving funds eked so much power was a risk on the other hand it put the ball in his court he could no longer avoid doing watch today's man wanted in that sense it was
a climbing. munich on the morning of the ninth of november that first confusion reigned in the city but gradually word got around that girl stuff own car and general phone law so had distanced themselves from hitler they claimed they'd been blindsided. but hitler unload and off didn't give up with a march through downtown munich they hoped to win popular backing. that's about midday they arrived with some two thousand supporters at the felde haven't hala where they found their way blocked by the bavarian police who had been ordered to stop the march by every means possible. that such accidents can.
i think i. think it was never established who fired the first shot. one bullet only narrowly missed it. the man next to him was killed as were fifteen other marches and forty eight on the spot. hitler escaped but was apprehended four days later. after hitler came to power and the attempted coup which had been an abject failure was imbued with a heroic status every year on the ninth of november the dead were commemorated as martyrs it was above all leniency on the part of the courts that allowed hitler's
career to continue was acquitted and hitler released after thirteen months. after the events in munich things quieten down just a week after the be a whole putsch strays them and took another decisive step the now worthless mark was replaced by a new currency the rent and mock the trillion old paper mugs could be exchanged for one renton mark ending hyperinflation at a stroke. strays a man had steered the republic through its toughest crisis but he came under renewed pressure in the reichstag into the city. the social democrats withdrew their support because he'd sent the army into red saxony entering. the german national party wanted him out because he'd ended the passive resistance to france
strays him and called for the votes of confidence there like the results of the vote is as follows for the strays among government one hundred fifty six members no confidence in the government two hundred thirty one members. strays a man had been chancellor for just one hundred days president hébert who had been at his side during the crisis criticized his own party the social democrats that's always fun last in cuts let's wish dogs nest and sex mustn't forget about. i don't know what we haven't yet not seen yet allegedly of. these months bill strays a man was perhaps the only man to emerge from the weimar republic as a hero of the currency was stabilized by the ruthless but necessary introduction of the lenten mob. schnitt the put and put down a mark he put by vine my standards those were huge success in our machine but in
politics ingratitude is the root of the not the exception i was. the first strays and thought of retiring from politics completely i need to because much thoughts from actually from coming in for such an insight. strays a man was suffering from graves' disease the thyroid dysfunction that damages the heart and can lead to a stroke. as you mention cuts or treat nationalism amazon's countrified mr mishra see to it. as you must know if your man asked him. if he loved this man an allegiance even alice. and shorty long and how much she can and thus you. will not get into this but. on talk of it in x. a concept.
that even if you've been in the national. park sometimes getting kind of an example . of the psni and. strays a man was given the post of foreign minister in the new government. the republic was on the road to recovery people began to talk of the golden twenties the quiet. political situation the new currency and u.s. loans allow the economy to grow quickly cultural life food as well the foreign ministers official residence became a center of social life cate's tradesmen came to be seen as the first lady of the weimar republic chancellors came and went but the foreign minister remained in his post. he even had a suit named after him the strays among stripes trousers grey waistcoat dark coats
a trademark the minister set the tone and once he even appeared on the silver screen one of the first to try out the new toll case that's a speed to much the roaring twenty's. to hide. the fact that they have a right you need to go back and bite into it on private and make a. final note i'm bob i'm never going to happen and i can't even. come up in the door now but i'm going to and i kind of like a bit of humor. prism and also sort to leave his mark at the international look oh no conference in switzerland in one thousand nine hundred twenty five and he wanted to improve relations with paris not least by renouncing any claim to alsace and lorraine once and for all. it was
a goodwill gesture that went down well with his french counterpart aristide pretty and who also wanted a new beginning in return them in hopes for a speedy end to the occupation of the rule and the rhineland. after the rule occupation forces must now be completely removed from the mind of otherwise there will never be real peace between all peoples and the german people want peace but the best site tricky does not give them room to breathe don't go on or you'll make us all cry this. is my old boat this. it's like you must give us time to search the french public have come nowhere near as far as you of i know i know this but i don't know if i have time. she is among the hot i need ya lot in creek i know a few years after the war she is among realized that germany could only be successful in its foreign policy if it also looked at things from the point of view of the other powers and cooperated with this by instrument meeting under the
mission critical. geneva nine hundred twenty six germany became a member of the league of nations the previous sesar of the united nations from which it had hitherto been excluded. strays a man had cleared the way eight years after the end of the war the defeated germany had been accepted back into the community of peoples the conciliation policy had gone down well in the wider world together with brianna strays and was awarded the nobel peace prize the first german ever to receive the honor. in one nine hundred twenty nine the two foreign ministers succeeded in another breakthrough paris said it was prepared to withdraw all occupation forces if berlin would settle the reparations question once and for all but strays omens opponents saw only the costs not the benefits the far right started
a hate campaign. your making a slaves for three generations they said. the campaign was led by alfred hugenberg a reactionary publisher and head of the german national people's party he was supported by france celta the leader of the style helm of veterans organization has its own field best. as it stays a man gets pushed in the. trees alone on guns. often given by the us to speak out. and they had another ally the leader of the failed putsch of nine hundred twenty three adult hitler. given that for a fee it's. only about done did you get into your mind's eye noise of on can. only reasonable caution i.
now hitler had a powerful patron he had reorganized the national socialist party and the party rallies like the one in nuremberg in nine hundred twenty nine he demonstrated a power which he didn't yet have but sought to grab the top costs the nazis still had few members in the right side but that was soon to change. strays a man was aware of the danger. he felt that slogans of eternal slavery were more effective than appeals to reconciliation but his strength was fading he was dying.
have a mission we should go to some i'm giving. so much. less speech intelligent play good. moves joe flacco to try. and push up to the shoes easy. so hard to use misreadings those people genuine folks who should. see to shade exhibits of views you can see there's no feed about mood or if this be the minds i'm thinking. this. this
with is going to be with us once or twice you die the second has been a. huge issue about it that's been begun. to see. you live is tough most of us of a nation that still. need cops. i. just. i. was in the early morning of the third of october one thousand nine hundred twenty nine staff strays a man suffered a stroke and died at the age of fifty one. his
body lay in state in the rice stack in berlin where he had made many passionate speeches. one quote of the time was his death is more than a loss it is a disaster. his state funeral was a public event could he have prevented the failure of the republic he certainly would not have surrendered democracy without a fight. stretched there is a monster is a man is still of the role model for today and he never thought of giving up just because some people criticized by facts he literally full to the truth so for those . less than four years after his death strays a man's enemies triumphed over the republic. by the time of the rush that fire in
one nine hundred thirty three democracy had long since been dead. when at the end of the war unleashed by hitler's germany the victorious allies stormed the ruins of the building it was both an end and the beginning. but first just one half of germany had a second chance of a democratic new start only with the collapse of the communist dictatorships did those goals become the reality for that strays and which fault the united germany living in freedom and peace with its neighbors.
enter the conflict zone confronting the powerful after two years of division and deadlock britain is now bracing towards its deadline is much to lead the european union in a conflict zone special you know baghdad some of thinking arguments good shape to distress it to banks who was telling the truth and who was in. conflict zones. in thirty minutes b.t.w. . once upon a time there was a young girl. with a burning ambition. to become a conductor. i was
a very curious child and very excited and in love with music and i would go to concerts with my parents and i always. hear him for being on stage with the musicians and being part of that magic it wasn't difficult from the first. oh world famous come talk to head. home to the nine. eleven. lamaist. start feb eighteenth r d w.
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