tv Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine Deutsche Welle February 24, 2019 10:30pm-11:01pm CET
in sixty minutes to. take it personally you went with the wonderful people one story that made the game so special. for all true fan. because more than football. you're watching tomorrow today the science show on t w coming up. nation to mercury uncovering the mysteries of the plaques in planets. but earth oh man slowly why physics sometimes has the answer. and in full swing fairground fun meets mathematical modeling. well come along.
that because let's take a moment to celebrate the no maya three research station in that article has turned ten. for the last decade the german base has played host to scientists looking to uncover the secrets mine be honest i'm spinning the ice they were in extreme conditions. we asked one of the region's permanent residents to guide us through the station. guys what's going on. let me tell you see that research station the neighbors are celebrating because it's turning turn but it's called neumeier three what's that about. well sadly the first two stations they tried to set
up here failed due to design flaws. new mio one and two were crushed by the icy buildup of snow so eventually both had to be abandoned but that hopefully won't be the case with neumeier three if the new station weighs two thousand three hundred tons and it stands on top of sixteen hydraulic stilts. they can be moved up and down the platform is designed to perch about six meters above the ice. that's why there's always so much snow being moved around. but neumeier three isn't meant to remain in this exact location forever the station is on the move every day the ice shelf it stands on migrates about forty centimeters in the direction of the sea.
so what's the point of it all. well every day the researchers here collect data about the weather and the atmosphere. and sometimes they dig deep to find out about earthquakes. and they're interested in us too of course. they measure our bills and weighings and take samples of our blood and feathers there especially curious about our offspring it's all in the name of science. what else the researchers do the same kinds of things here that they might do back home or so they say. they have to keep fit too after all living here isn't a walk in the park the temperature outside sometimes drops to minus fifty degrees celsius. leave them to get on with whatever it is you do.
tell be coming to pay us another visit soon enough. but for now. ten heightened was head of station at nine maya three we spoke to him and see things off with payments of cook's obviously everybody lost and everybody wants to meet the band we. also. did we. took every opportunity because. yeah. people always tend to think that whenever it's very whole you might have a cold which is not true. catching a cold always includes being exposed to viruses and you don't encounter
a whole lot of them in antarctica. we do eat kind of normal food you don't have to think of who or. out of. the box or whatever it's just normal who has been. very low temperatures. actually very. i scream. very year so i do. station all the best for the next years. you can see the full interview with tim hi plans on our web site d w dot com slash science. article is home to this flightless
midge print if ever it was needed that insects really can be found everywhere. but in recent studies suggest insect species are disappearing at an alarming rate worldwide the impact of declining populations could be catastrophic. intensify arming poses one of the biggest threats so where would we be without the six legged christmas. wouldn't it be great if there were no insects. this guy would be pleased at least. no annoying bugs to ruin a picnic. no insect borne diseases. no more insecticides needed to fight the destroyers of crops. and fly swatters forget it. but hold on there's a catch. insects play an important role in food production by providing
a free pollination service. and they themselves are food for all kinds of other animals without bugs i'm fifty and would starve to death. so would lizards and other reptiles. without insects that we know but it's. far fewer fishes well. most of our feathered friends would die off. even birds of prey enjoy rounding off their menu with insects. and birds that normally grain and other plant based food would disappear because their chips rely on nutritious insects to grow. insects also clear away the carcasses of animals that die in the wild and without
the six legged helpers we'd be knee deep in excrement. the decomposition of plant waste would come to a halt. flowering plants that depend on pollination would disappear. so world without insects. not so great after all. this being away from now. is a joint european japanese space mission to miter exploring the planet nearest to the sun is extremely challenging temperatures there are ten times higher than here on. the progress due to right on military in twenty twenty five the aim to uncover the mysteries of the flexing plant. there are sixteen high tech instruments on board the probe one of them was developed by
a team of researchers in berlin its purpose is to measure thermal radiation the scientists want to find out more about mercury surface. they first look at what happens to different times of rock iran earth when they're exposed to high temperatures. the results could then be compared to the data from the probe the extreme heat is a challenge. if and if they ever thought of it their high side of the planet exposed to the sun is very hot and we're very close to what that means our spaceship will be going to a toaster it will be exposed to the planet's heat and the sun's heat it's been a huge challenge to design or to endure for a long time and to develop instruments for it. like the other planets in our solar system mercury formed from a giant primordial cloud that was over four and a half billion years ago. the cloud was made up of gas and dust rotating around the
young son. at first tiny bits of matter began clumping loosely together over millions of years they grew and grew when the kilometer long piles of dust smashed together they heated up and grew more compact attracting more and more material and eventually turning into hearts vereker globes the planets. the further away from the sun and its immense radiation the more common ice became weather made of water me thing or other volatile gases. that's where gas giants like saturn formed. but closer to the sun the terrestrial planets took shape mas' the earth venus and mercury. the american research probe messenger revealed that the surface of mercury the planet closest to the sun is different from that of the other rocky planets it contains much less ion than do earth or mars. what researchers found instead were elements such as sulfur and chlorine
a puzzling find. some of a yard in those same materials that should actually disappear under such high temperatures software for example really shouldn't be there at all but it makes up forty five percent of the surface that came as a huge surprise so the question is how did mercury form and where did it form. did mercury really take shape in its current orbit close to the sun if so how did it acquire so much volatile sulfur. that contradicts our fieri of how the solar system developed to the rocky planet originally formed somewhere else completely far from the sun in colder regions closer to the gas giants an asteroid could have knocked it out of its orbit and catapulted it much closer to the sun. the new mercury mission hopes to clarify how and where the curious planets formed the answers should also provide insights into worlds we cannot reach after all our
solar system is just one of many planetary systems to be found in the depths of space astronomers have already discovered over two thousand eight hundred planetary systems circling distant stars and that number is rising rapidly. many stars have planets that orbit them as closely as mercury does our sun but it's difficult to find out more about such distant secretive worlds. mercury could perhaps provide clues as to what they might be like and whether life on such far off world might be possible it's already shown that there are many surprises in store. at the poles of the hot planet for example researches have seen indications of frozen water the prerequisite for life as we know it. it's collected in craters that lie in a turn all shadow and. are extremely cold the find was
a sensation. often among the bar for mercury still holds many surprises we had a lot of ideas about how it could have formed and developed many models kind but at the moment we know that none of them really works in other words we have a kind of blank slate and we can use it to answer many of the new questions that have popped up. on. the bed he colombo joint mission is set to reach mercury in december twenty twenty five. in it a satellite built by europe will map the surface while a japanese probe will explore mercury's magnetic field on the mysterious in a most planet in our solar system. four hundred and fifty degrees celsius on the sun which side of the planet minus one hundred seventy on its nice side temperature is a little we are extreme that fun and interesting question the other smaller a from
india wants to know. can we measure temperature in space. here on earth we measure temperature with her mom matters if you get sick you might develop a fever your body grows warmer. when it comes to an animate material temperature depends on the movement of the particles that make it up take water for example when h two o. molecules flow down water turns to ice. if the molecules are warmed they speed up again begin bumping into each other into leasing heat the elixir of life turns back into a liquid if more heat has applied the molecules move even faster and the water begins to boil. to measure temperatures from space astronomers use of electromagnetic radiation as a benchmark the shorter the. if length the heart or the body that emitted it we
believe the universe formed about fourteen billion years ago in what we call the big bang according to the theory all the galaxies nebulae and other stellar objects like stars and planets found in space arose from a single hot dense state but there temperatures are now extremely varied stars like our sun have a very dynamic strong magnetic fields powered by fusion the fields can accelerate particles to extreme speeds and release huge amounts of heat and the process black holes are even hotter at least on their edges they suck in matter at such tremendous speeds it rips to pieces releasing vast amounts of energy. the space between the galaxy stars and planets on the other hand is extremely cold minus two hundred seventy degrees celsius the particles there are so scarce and so slow that they rarely run into each other and the universe is expanding the space grows so
grows the distance between particles and as their interactions fall the temperature drops to. a few years ago the european satellite planck measured how cold it is out there to within a few million seven degree much space telescopes astronomers concede and investigate radiation and wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum where does it originate how intense is it bats how they determine how hot or cold it is at the source that emitted the waves. if outlet is read write up a latin face. do you have a science question that you've always wanted onset we're happy to help out with a little ice as a video text over a spell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you cannot just ask. was it
manslaughter or murder i'm having motives after a crime can be high physics can help solve it one way or the other. pushed. how could it have happened. physicist. is looking for perpetrators. clues are power speed and energy. x. minds work on one case begins in the dissecting room of a friend's accent or in mines this is where autopsies are carried out. this case revolves around a deadly stab wound x.-man wants to clarify whether the perpetrator carried out a knife attack or if the knife could have slipped from someone's hands during a fight that's what a witness claims. the exact sequence of events will be important for the trial
that's why he examines the witness statements. so it's fun for the college anything that defies the laws of physics and can happen even if witnesses say they sort of happened because physics determines what is possible in this world. this is why x. man recreates the crime in his lab how deep did the knife penetrate how heavy is the murder weapon. how far away was the perpetrator from the victim when he stabbed him the physicist simulates the event with the help of this device. x. man also imitates a chance throw of the knife that a witness claims he saw the wounded makes is too shallow. is the conclusion that the knife accidentally slipped out of someone's hand isn't
supported by the evidence in this case the victim was actively starved. in florida so one witness statement is clearly refuted x.-man writes a report an important appraisal for the state prosecutor. course working on solving a case is very special because you do something good. in the best case scenario if you help get some justice for the deceased and set the record straight for us and state. department for forensic physics that stefan x.-man has a stablished at the university of mind is pioneering the field in germany. jane with physics is there any greater joy than spending a day at an amusement park from carousels to says it's all about letting physics do its work. you yourself just have to sit back and enjoy the
ride. but there's an exception to that rule and it's called swing that it's. looping the loop the ultimate challenge on this fun for a swing. but not many people can do it. what does it take muscle power technique a combination of the two. it's a traditional pastime at the funfair and far from home often and it's a great opportunity for an experiment. there are two candidates in competition neither has ever tried the swing before. the first candidate is bennett. he's an ace on the treadmill and other fitness machines will that help him master the swing. the personal trainer has worked on arm and leg strength in his quest to do
a three hundred sixty degree loop at the fair. shot long make it because i have stamina and motivation jumping power and i really want to. his opponent is relying on brain power to reach the goal danielle is in his fourth year of physics studies. he calculates the ideal motion sequence involved in looping the loop. his theory is that completing a full turn is a question of the body center of gravity and increasing leverage at just the right moment. is about that of years ago as soon as i reach a certain speed moving in this direction i will have shortened the arm of my lever . but since i conserve angular momentum the
speed must be correspondingly higher so i can stand up of course that takes a lot more power because when i stand up straight i'll be working against the centripetal force was. the deal will begin daniel is twenty two years old and weighs sixty eight kilos bain is twenty five and weighs eighty three kilos . each is given two minutes to complete a full three hundred sixty degree a revolution. the swings owner joey degas is refereeing the match to a swing vote has been in his family for four generations what does he think of their chances of success. simply if they've never been on a swing boat before not much among people who've never been on one i'd say one in twenty makes it but we'll see. daniel goes first. to prevent him from falling headlong out of the swing he's buckled in.
gives a couple of pushes to get the boat moving then danielle is on his own. the clock is ticking. the physics student tries to apply his theory during the backswing he crouches then stretches up as it moves forward. at first the plan seems to be working. one more minute. then danielle starts to lose out and gives up. on conceiving basically it was just how i magine it would be but i had too little stamina i could have done it if i'd had more. now it's been a turn. since he's a personal trainer he should have enough cardiovascular fitness and strength to
complete the task. the countdown begins. again is really getting up there within a minute he's almost upside down. but then he to start swinging lower and also gives up. closes the i don't know i thought make it over but then i thought i wasn't that far along after all a bit more stamina is probably what i need as well. otherwise it was really cold at school. so how do you complete a full revolution. the swing boat operator joey chose us that it really is possible
he's looping the loop within less than twenty seconds once twice three times without even breaking a sweat test subjects' us done. so what is the secret. to getting a sequence of movements just right to excel or rate the swing both you have to crouch during the backswing which if the body center of gravity outwards. when the swing reaches the midpoint of the upswing the rider has to stand shift the center of gravity inwards. that increases the acceleration as the body works against the centrifugal force if you can keep the sequence up for a little while you'll eventually do a full turn. should remain still at the highest point both of them did that wrong if you bend your knees up there it causes you to break if you're subconsciously afraid of going around then you automatically bend your knees even though nothing
bad can happen to you. the bottom line is that neither strength nor brain power alone is enough to loop the loop if your self-confidence wobbles at the decisive moment. do robots dream up. that's the question scientists in berlin are trying to unravel will have the answer next week join us now taking them public.
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on t.w. . this is g.w. news live from berlin pope francis condemns the sexual abuse of children in the kept roman catholic church and in a wider society at a vatican summit francis says the church would make protecting children his highest priority but it's. victims who came to rome say nothing concrete was decided. a groundbreaking diplomatic encounter arab league and european union leaders meet for their first ever joint summit forty nine heads of state and government are in the