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tv   Close up  Deutsche Welle  March 12, 2019 4:30am-5:00am CET

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and it was for real. this is not the kind of freedom that we want how did morality become a gateway to islamist terror. an exclusive report from a destroyed city. in the sights of virus starts april eleventh on t.w. . europe needs peat but extracting it has become almost impossible in germany so now the industry is getting its raw material from the baltic states. the extraction permit process in germany takes a long time and it's expensive so companies have been forced to look elsewhere. environmentalists are trying to put a stop to feed extraction experts like hans used in saying it seriously damages the
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environment and the climate. if you order the companies are like the last hunter gatherers they empty one peep and then move to the next one. peach sources in western europe have been almost depleted but we still consume vast amounts of it extraction is a highly controversial topic. more it's barking is managing director of klansmen deilmann the world market leader in peak extraction and production the company started out as a small factory in one thousand nine hundred thirteen in lower saxony but peat stocks in northern germany will be exhausted in a few years time. it took a long time. time for classman deilmann to agree to let us film the company was
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worried that video of peter extraction would be bad for its image. booking says that the peak industry has long since stopped destroying more land that's still intact so they're not damaging the environment. the album was in the us in yonder for more than a decade with working with the new ball roll materials like wood fiber green waste compost and coconut fibers and they can gradually replace peat even in commercial gardening. but how much can be replaced. today almost ten percent we aim to increase that to fifteen percent over the next two and a half years as the company continues to grow it will increase its use of renewable raw materials. so as we're now in the last of. one of those raw materials is wood specifically would waste which is refined into fibers.
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this material has an airy quality and we like that in you don't the texture is similar to pete so it's allowed to get to the roots of plants and can also hold on to nutrients. right now we're doing research to see whether we can bring the quantity of these materials up to the standard that with come to expect when i. can. live. in northeastern germany he's considered the world's leading expert on more land. knowledge is that the peat industry is looking for something to toots but almost i've finished here go off on the other hand i think that some large companies could actually do a lot more in these are what they've been dragging their feet. through to lose a roof in the or did it come up with proposals that are simply allow pete farming
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to continue the way it always has moved to coal mining business as usual why the. protecting the more lands also helps to protect the climate more is absorb carbon dioxide a greenhouse gas this more land near the town of on clam is now covered with water again as if. that actually happened by accident. the dikes broke in one thousand nine hundred five and again in one thousand nine hundred six. the authorities decided it would be cheaper to leave the land flooded than to pump it dry or fix the dikes and build new pumping stations for shuffle. right now the austin is inspecting the site and he's brought along a guest indonesia's ambassador to germany. before the dikes broke there was a drained more here which was used as farmland. now the swamp land has returned
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with numerous species of birds and plants many parts of germany used to look like this but over centuries ninety seven percent of them or. environmentalists say that's a record amount. provide sweeping views of the. indonesian ambassador. is concerned about the state of moore's in asia to use. the dry more easily catch fire and those fires are tough to contain because they also burn underground this is a recent more fire. the blaze covered a huge area similar fires in indonesia have consumed hundreds of thousands of hectares and killed several people the government has set up
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a separate ministry to deal with the problem. this agency is as possible for doing the right thing it landed in different parts of indonesia it has a very ambitious program of preventing two million i thought it was and so far we have. two hundred thousand or so i think we are under right track. pete has to remain in the soil and should be allowed to grow like here in un tom it's good for the climate and the environment and protects against soil erosion but peta extraction continues around the world much of it is used for plant production professional gardener michelle homan is fully aware of this situation home and runs a nursery near the town of feridun in lower saxony these pots are made of peat home and grows young plants for organic farms all over northern germany.
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morals and the amount of more than the is limited so we're planning to reduce our use of pete and that's going to take some time. nish corner. coleman has cut peat consumption by thirty percent which won his nursery a green certification peak contains no nutrients and always has the same low ph value so it's perfect for large scale horticulture especially as an alternative to machine based production. this lambs modest could not grow here without peat. in kind of a soggy was all that you could almost say that it's like months and it doesn't seem like peter told tall it's just what we need here it's the glue that holds together all the other materials we use the stops the chance so that we can produce
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a cube of any size. so some merit a mic pre i don't have to hold the material together with a plastic pot on. top because i'm got about most. the young plants first grow in these cubes then they're delivered to other nurseries and planted in soil. peat is key to the production of vegetables no one could accuse nurseries like this one of contributing to the peat extraction problem but consumers want fresh vegetables and that's why peak producers are working to improve their image. that is so on their side. we're developing a report on sustainability and a few years ago we lost the transparency offensive to make sure that consumers understand our place in the chain and. we want to show them the entire process by
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which fruits and vegetables get to the market. that. this is should move to a town located on the twenty s. baltic coast. lithuania like its neighbors latvia and estonia joined the european union in two thousand and four their economies are slowly improving all three baltic states are subject to e.u. environmental standards but each one has different policies on more land. klansmen deilmann was one of the first german companies to start extracting peat in the baltic states for example of the more near shoot or the soviets had extracted peat in the baltic region for decades now private companies are taking
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what's left despite klansmen diamonds claims of transparency the company did not allow us to film its operations here. the company's peat extraction site is located near the nature reserve this part of the moore is managed in part by germany's nature and biodiversity conservation association tom cure shai who works for the group takes a dim view of private companies peat extraction efforts here. the dogs from fisherman companies say that they'll only work on more that have already been damaged but any kind of peat extraction causes damage or the history of. the nature reserve had already been drained but not much peat has been extracted here conservation groups have filled in more than one thousand ditches to really wet the land but now the birch trees are dying because they are standing in water.
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twenty and biologist or kindness has been helping to preserve this site for nearly twenty years this area was first described in about one thousand nine hundred by german scientist carr algos to baber. for. three thousand or three thousand dollars or it was three thousand lower those or two thousand thought of. being cut through. one thousand eight hundred or. nature of the. tunku shy conducts research at the more and it's not an easy task but i'm becoming and it looks like we can't get in there were told by this vegetation goes right up
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to both sides of the trench. we can't go any further it's over have to do it at the front. of the by the pretty but i'm going to. there's probably still enough pete in the baltic region to last for another one hundred years but consumption is rising especially in asia. here in the baltic states the peak is much bigger and the scale of peat extraction is quite different. right now the baltic countries produce about two million tons of people a year for the european market. almost five hundred thousand tons of that comes from lithuania own. stuff on and little on and i would be on. this all feeds into an industrial system of vegetable production. the peaches often
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shipped distant markets for example to stop in spain or thought the environmental balance for the peat land is absolutely negative much more of the land is strange that it's actually necessary for people to action in the morning. and. it's rule for the i can do that creates climate protection problems and destroys the valuable habitats to live in all. along it's not clear whether german companies are destroying them or is here but it's not easy to return more land to its original state. and when these areas are wet again the people forming vegetation does not come back on its own like that myself on a small scale and i shred the plants a new vegetation starts growing from those fragments. eventually this area will be covered again with a cushion of people moss. but. sees
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the situation differently from his novel calling for kindness remembers that during the soviet occupation the troops drained nearly all of lithuania's more land and used the people mostly to burn as fuel. these days many lithuanians have developed a new interest in the more lands this nature trail attracts a lot of visitors despite the sometimes inclement weather. just ten percent of the mourners that are still intact have been preserved in lithuania. and in germany there are few places left where people can observe this diversity of plant and animal life. at an observation tower sponsored by classman deilmann we asked the german companies that
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extract peat here. you're more corporate knew what to or. you have would use. was walk all be well for example. or why don't you. accumulate my gear for restoration warks. the. german peter extraction companies are apparently welcome in the baltic states. coffee from the state of lower saxony runs a company that extracts peat in latvia. and working in the more difficult heavy machines can easily get stuck in the soft ground. the soil yields not only peat but also a lot of dead pine trees some are up to two thousand years old the wood is shredded
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and then burned in the local power plant. and by the this people so that we could keep an eye on the market higher in the baltic states so at the same time pete extraction is decreasing in north. no boats long to pull from the permits are no harder to get because extraction is now only allowed on old farm land on. the top the inflation eloped is. in germany peat can only be extracted if it lies under meadows and fields and latvia can be extracted from forest land but the land has to be drained first existing more land cannot be drained but peter extraction permits are relatively easy to get here and there's not a lot of red tape. another advantage is lower labor costs and the peak producers have agreed to rework the
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lands where peace has been extracted even though they're not obliged to do so. it's not too late that means that you could use the land for forestry later on but that's not allowed in germany you have to return the land to a completely natural state that's the most runs its own upwards and then out but it's also possible that latvia may impose tougher conditions for peat extraction maybe even tougher than what we have here in germany from the involved in the uk on it's this and if you like all staffers in the deal. going to a car finds peat moss in the forest next to his people and that's a rare sight in germany these days. though you name embezzling pete moss growing right here. as this in this wooded area is located on more land you can see that the trees are stunted and the does are still very small especially the pines in the purchase.
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well i need a key for steve to not to live only because. there are pete must books everywhere like this one. very dry now because it's summer stock underpopulated. germany has drained its more lands so thoroughly that the peat moss was practically extinct that is that in germany this would certainly be an area that you would try to protect. but here in latvia there are so many areas like this i invite and they're not really worth protecting. after pete is extracted from an area like this it would be easier to return it to its natural state than a field that had been completely harvested because typical peat land plants grow here. hans yost and says that if pete must be extracted it is better to do it in germany then in the baltic states thereby that is me. it's not
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a good idea in any case but if we do have to extract peat to meet demand. the better place to do it is in germany. also to have both of these extraction is governed in germany and in the baltic states by regulations i mean what here with extraction can take place only on farm land even in the baltics it can be done on land that is even better prospects for restoration. of a harbor for us but i'm sure. that you have to transport the peat from the baltics to germany. and that's not good for the environment. you're trying to lose or. more pete could be extracted here in lower saxony but environmental groups are dead against it. but if pete is so valuable for food production and supplies of peat are limited why does classman
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down men actually burn some of the pete in the baltic states. one of the companies subsidiaries in lithuania supplies pete directly to power stations. the company's home page describes it as cheaper fuel. peat is also extracted near shooter. baltic countries are even promoting the use of pete as an alternative to russian natural gas they've used peat to produce one hundred seventy thousand megawatt hours of energy anough to power fifty thousand homes in germany for a year. in lithuania we sometimes have people that doesn't meet the quality standards for horticulture and it's high in carbon content and has largely decomposed as its mission we mix it with wood chips so that lithuania can use it as a domestic alternative to fossil fuels. so interested to hear. yeah but
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it's not the move of course these days that's ridiculous. cornball go are calling soft coal can hardly compete with the renewable energies any more or done for the r.v. generates less energy per ton than coal in the gobi and produces more c o two per unit of the minute and again made all the use of your heat as fuel is out of date today and not an option for the future before it was even if that was about to go. to burning peak for fuel does not exactly enhance the peak company's environmental image but sometimes people do surveys and consumers are able to work together in hung cars and lower saxony cannot call has joined forces with pete researchers to develop a project that could help to save more land around the world. peat moss is cultivated here on a large scale the idea is to use local freshly harvested peat moss instead of
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digging up mors in the baltic states scientists from came up with the idea what. we. call has provided the land and supports the project with his own money the area is so so good that people use snowshoes to get around. because in ninety eight ninety nine point we're quite satisfied with our progress. and we have a variety of substrates that is gardening soils mixed from the people. old we've tried them out of various nurseries we're still in the development stages but it seems to work well for more land plants like heather and we've worked with one nursery to produce larger quantities of poinsettias by enough down to put it so in general we're happy with the results was announced and simply that. the brown stripes in this green meadow are pete moss fields drainage ditches have been filled
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in to provide the necessary moisture. real hard and always ground out at peak moscow's best in an environment where the water level is just below the tops of the plants your crops in aba normally peat moss stops growing during the summer because it gets too dry well that's. or more fruit but it also project they have plenty of water and can grow all summer long. not much it's hard to tell that this used to be more land if you can find traces of it only if you dig down into the subsoil guy's fault biologist credit count it wants to find out exactly how much peat is left here. we've done some drilling so that we can study the content of the more including the remaining layers of peat. we want to find out whether this area is suitable for
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peat mosque ult of ation. we've determined that there's about a metre and a half of peat left. and the you when you want to oneself the proof in. the peach can hold on a lot of water even in dry summers like this one and that's good for peat moss plants that had almost disappeared here like the sun dues are making a comeback. they thrive on the thick cushions of moss and these plants are also able to bind carbon dioxide. more land binds carbon and releases oxygen when the area dries out the process is reversed the carbon recombines with oxygen molecules and produces c o two a greenhouse gas. the water levels high here in order to sharply reduce emissions of greenhouse gases which cause serious
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climate damage through building that's a big plus. under four dollars forty five we're also trying to find options for using more land in ways that don't harm the climate and preserve the peace while providing good productivity and a stable regional income reportedly did with young voters and your knowledge i'm obliged to growing more people would solve a lot of problems but there is not enough moss seed that's why most of the moss harvest from lower saxony is used to see new fields forty thousand hectares would be needed to completely replace the peak that's consumed in germany researchers aim to optimize this process then can and we'd like to see harvests of five six or even up to nine tons of dry matter per year and hector. so that's quite high compared to the productivity normally found in more land. and the. critic is studying peat plants from all over the world. she's trying to determine
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which ones grow fastest and create the most biomass. and how to boost peat moss production and control the growth of weeds. justin says we have to act quickly because the food production process keeps demanding more peat. then these are for once the meat has been extracted from these pre-trained moore's you'll have to start using the intact borders if you want the sort of heat that's used for growing tomatoes and peppers that you. get real when there is simply no alternative because the demand is so high. it is. used in once to set minimum environmental standards for pete extraction companies to do that he works with the international people and society at an i.p.s.
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symposium last year in rotterdam scientists and company executives met to discuss the future of peak production the conference was held on a hotel ship in rotterdam harbor. i believe in the left far too little it's been done over the last twenty years i would have a field with a lot more time and money should have been invested to find alternatives for pete to limit the use of peak to low value applications and so forth. but not enough has been done because pete has always been a high quality resource that is too cheap and too widely available. for free but the reason. the conference host is i.p.s. president carriage milewski a former klansman deilmann employee. good morning and a very warm welcome to the first ever global peace plans and pete in the streets summit. many here are critical of yost ins policies they say that growing
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peat moss still needs a lot of research and that more non should be flooded only after the peat has been extracted so we can find alternatives for it your expertise with my ideas etc and with joint practices and experiments and study every can do it. but things won't likely change as long as peat extraction in the baltic states remains cheap and efficient what's more china has started copying european methods of vegetable production demand for peat could eventually exceed fifty million tons per year new markets like china will create tempting opportunities for peak companies.
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eco indiana. eco friendly tourism with women at the helm i had never even dreamt of throwing a ten indian women guide visitors through the mangroves near of in korea today you can go see any of us to anybody telling them about local mio diversity and tossing outdated gender roles over the board in. thirty minutes p.w. . a mystery of the stone a. giant artwork that still captivated today. thousands of years ago. but why. and what do they reveal about the people who make that. seventy five minutes on the field. and he needs
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a sex phone operator to work her masters thesis on the potato. to marie. not a turn on well it's more words it was from there that. list regional and street. british prime minister to resign may have secured legally binding changes to a bracks a deal following last minute talks with european commission president john claude juncker the compromise includes changes that allow britain to exit the backstop provision that guarantees an open irish border the u.k. parliament is set to vote on.

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