tv Tomorrow Today Deutsche Welle March 18, 2019 5:30am-6:01am CET
five days midst of venezuela's crisis in the fight to get aid into the country with a convoy of god own supporters an exclusive report alongside venezuelan journalist since our party is. a close up look at the country's catastrophic conditions on the way to colombia a showdown. starts march eighteenth. welcome to tomorrow today the science show on d w coming up and look down at the earth what does the view from space reveal satellites our eyes in the sky and there are more and more of them circling up planets. now at birdland stars that is hoping to launch many more small satellites into orbit. and from out
there we see how illuminated the earth is at night looks lovely but like pollution is a huge problem. earth all of it has become a crowded superhighway they're currently around five thousand satellites circling other planets and less than half of them are still operational. not surprisingly most were launched by the united states. china isn't second place having of it taken russia. now a whole new generation of satellites is on the move in small sats. thompson got the thirty nine year old lives in berlin and has an offbeat profession . i won't lie i always wanted to do something out of the ordinary. being.
you've got to have a vision you've got to tell yourself that's my goal. nine years ago ziggurat and two student friends founded berlin space technology is there any hi there products are meant to go into orbit. the company makes miniature satellites packed with cameras and sensors for observing the earth from space. a daring idea. yet within a few years the startup was celebrating its first major success. in fifteen berlin space technologies first satellite was launched in india. the company earned three million euros with the kent ridge one satellite contract a singapore university projects to monitor the earth's surface. but there were some hair raising minutes shortly after lift off. to
concentrate us out of the month amidst all the excitement someone in singapore put the plug in the wrong antenna that meant that for the first couple of hours after launch we couldn't hear the satellite doesn't get on but we identified the problem and replug the antenna everybody in the team heaved a huge sigh of relief but it was. the indian triumph brought say god and his team instant recognition it made them full fledged members of the young space tech community that's currently shaking up the sectors establishment. conventional satellites can be the size of a camper van they can take years to build and cost billions brylin space technologies is approaching the business from a different angle. the company makes small satellites built from tried and trusted mass produced components like camera lenses from a standard camera the berlin company modifies them to their own requirements.
satellite cost around five million euros you could build fifty of them for the cost of a normal large satellite. demand for small cheap satellites is growing rapidly silicon valley's big data companies have long dreamed of round the clock aerial surveillance of the surface but conventional satellites are stationed so far above the earth's surface that their image resolution is generally not very high. satellites like those made by berlin space technologies are designed for a much lower orbits and offer resolution of under one meter per pixel. a networked string of these small devices could monitor the earth's surface twenty four hours a day and with prices so low launching a swarm of them has become an affordable option. the berlin satellites could help contribute to a system like that but what would building it mean for us would it allow constant blanket monitoring of everyone on the planet. so i believe.
there are a lot of questions surrounding satellites as orbiting surveillance systems on ethical questions questions of being observed. the honest answer has to be that there are technologies that are definitely more dangerous than our satellites. doesn't make them harmless but drones for example are far more dangerous for each of us as individuals and the. bio's ones at least because regardless of the size of a satellite ours are roughly the size of a washing machine you can still mainly get resolutions of around one meter of pixels. so a car would be four pretzels at the house maybe ten by ten. and you couldn't see any people so you couldn't be identified conclude that you are. but the small satellite. can still take images of
a range of activities on the surface and that information can be used for good but also less wholesome purposes. that's not stopping sea got from expanding his business he's building a production plant in india that will soon produce over one hundred low cost satellites a year. the whole process has been more or less automated. a satellite but a rough year and robie of some boat before it's then moved out over their. satellites rolling off the production line like cars something no one's ever managed before if the plan works out it'll be a huge breakthrough for berlin space technologies. as we think about how i think we have a very good chance of playing in the top tier in the industry simply because not many have the confidence to do it. there aren't
a lot of people who say hey we've just got to change space exploration and get involved in serial production. the small berlin startup isn't just playing around and it could end up changing all our lives. satellites can make out a lot from out that like the heart shaped island of can trace it for example or individual animals like these flamingos in mozambique. and. they can read messages directed at the sky. and pinpoint unusual places like this graveyard for aircraft in arizona. and what else can all the surveillance data be useful here are five examples of. example number one. oh it may twenty sixth the village of northern uganda was barely even. people from
space surrounded by grassland it was home to just a handful of people then suddenly that changed dramatically. in neighboring south sudan the civil war flared up again. as many as three thousand south sudanese fled across the border every day towards b.d. biddy. within a few months the ugandan government built dozens of new roads dwellings hospitals and schools. biddy pretty soon became a city today it's home to about two hundred ninety thousand people. the tiny farming village has been transformed into the world's largest refugee camp . thanks to satellites governments can track the numbers and movement of refugees and send help where it's needed if they want to.
example number two. satellites can also see things that are otherwise hidden from view these images from north korea reveal that new buildings have gone up at a facility in her home that manufactures ballistic missile components suggesting the country's nuclear weapons program may not be on hold after all the construction evidently continued even after north korean leader kim jong un had met with u.s. president donald trump in june twenty eight hundred and committed to denuclearize in the korean peninsula. for example number three. the government spy on other countries for many reasons. it can be useful to assess the state of the oil reserve . to do that they monitor oil tanks and look at the shadows cast within their rims
. tanks are floating roofs that rise and fall with the oil level. here there's no shadow because the tank is full and the roof is right near the top . of his age but here the satellite image shows the tank is nearly empty the larger the shadow the lower the oil level. not just governments but also investors can benefit from such information it can be worth a fortune on the stock market. example number four. major retail chains high companies to carry out satellite surveillance of the competition focusing on their parking lots over a period of months a program counts the number of cars in order to determine which locations are doing the most business. with that data
a retailer can figure out in what city and in which part of the city it's worth building a new store. example number five. seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered with water the oceans are home to countless fish. nearly eighty million tons of fish end up on our plates every year it's estimated that twenty percent of that is caught illegally. monitoring the oceans directly would be far too expensive instead governments that n.g.o.s use satellite images to identify unregistered trawlers. speed figuration of the trip and patterns of movement or provide indications of whether a boat is carrying tourists or fisherman. once a troll has been identified analysts can check. there are not it's registered.
satellites can be employed for spying or to save lives and protect the environment it all depends on who is using them and to what end. the view from space reveals a nightime that glows with us official light. and light pollution is on the rise. here we see how much illumination in india crew over a five year period. according to a study more than eighty percent of the world's population lives under a light polluted night sky. what does this loss of darkness mean for the world. all light is eventually small owed by the darkness in which it was born. in
space time humanity. in the words of german poet reiner maria rybka the darkness from whence i came. the days clamor and demands everything looks different after night falls. buses and models all this is a model of our son and i use it so it's playing on the one hand how a star actually functions what a star is and on the other to show the size of our planet as compared to it on the i'm holding out a son who i am now with the earth in my pocket that's how small it is compared to the sun so see that so. astronomy is the most ancient of all the sciences. the first calendars were based on what we see in the sky which also seemed to hold the secrets of creation that
night we see stars that are millions of white years away but the night is disappearing says manuel philip from the rosenheim planetarium. the physicist has set up a star park in the bavarian alps a protected dark zone where you can still view the firmament it's a sight most of humanity now rarely see. after a bit it's only twenty to thirty percent of us still see the night sky as it really is a sleepy other seventy to eighty percent of us can't see it like this anymore simply because of the vast increase in artificial lines it's been increasingly swamping the night sky for the last ten to twenty years at least of course least a twinked. primeval rhythms of light and darkness have been suspended in major cities the world's biggest urban centers are now forty times brighter than the night sky. the seventeenth century invention of street lighting
the lights out the entire planet. and nights are growing over two percent brighter everything here. artificial light is a harmful one mission that has encountered killable effects on ecosystems. then if there's not enough darkness it changes things begin to breeding earlier they start singing earlier trees lose their leaves later insects fly into the artificial light and fly in circles around street lamps until they die of exhaustion or overrun germany various studies have documented the damage they show the german street lights kill a billion insects every night a billion. every night. banishing darkness it's a very sick human instant. anything can happen in darkness it's where monsters
tread. the dead to come back to life at night and the world is their domain until dawn breaks again but the reality is that by lighting everything up we also cast shadows. we've taken the first steps toward space which is also darkness incarnate full of dark matter and dark energy ninety five percent of the universe remains a mystery yet on a tiny speck in all this vastness we've convinced ourselves that we are luminaries . you're hearing is all right here in the spiral galaxy this is where we all live where i'm putting this little crumb about half way in from the edge towards the center that's where the solar system is without the sun and the planets circling it . german philosopher emmanuel kant said two things struck him with all his
moral imperative and the story heavens the unfathomable within and the incomprehensible above. of the night is time that can't be used effectively a time of rest that has a beauty all the time. and there's the cliche of a riotous night life on shifts at the harsh reality of the day requires a counterpart an intoxicating darkness the power and the poetry of the night. the earth is made up of one hundred eighteen chemical elements that everything on our planet all matter originated in space. so it's not a metaphor to say that we are indeed made from star dust. is simply false the model
if you had to call we have to come from space where part of space isn't this but isn't that what i usually say if someone asks me about it is that we on the earth are not in the universe the universe is within us so not as we've just in one. testament say there are a billion trillion stars out there and it would be tragic for us to lose sight of the. dutch painter vincent van gough perhaps said it best when he commented that in the moments that he felt overcome by piety he went outside to paint the stars. more than a third of people on earth never get a glimpse of the milky way due to light pollution we asked on facebook for your views on the topic does artificial lines equal progress or do we need to literally
take back the night. i.e. the rights it makes me sad and i worry most of all about the animals that are affected. the one from the philippines calls it a side effect of our technological capabilities but he says we must do something to limit light pollution in the atmosphere. you know to come unstuck has decree in venezuela we don't have this problem because our lights have gone out. cloudy i feel sorry for people who can't see the milky way in all its splendor she's fortunate enough to see it all year long from her home in chimney. thank you for all your comments. documents and tonight there's lots of it out there in the universe and most of it
is still a mystery to us such as the incredibly bright bursts of gamma rays emitted by post cells for example a new telescope is going to push the on the left of what we know it's specialized to cover the gamma ray spectrum and measure thane sources with great precision the cutting edge device is located on the perma in the canary islands. something cosmic is being built here a large sized telescope number one is forty five meters tall and has a diameter of twenty three meters the structure is made of ultra light reinforced carbon fiber and steel tubes the mirrors are also light which allows the telescope to be rotated and tipped in any direction in a matter of seconds scientists at the max planck institute of physics in munich are playing a leading role in the project in the institute's garden they've set up a large scale model to test their design. it's an astrophysics laboratory
under the open sky. we tested several different configurations for attaching the mirrors to the carbon fiber structure. and also when we design a new instrument that we say want to put the dish we build it here first and two for physics and then we attach it to the structure to make sure that it works such that when we quite a lot. we just put it on. a team of one hundred international scientists spent three years working on the four hundred million euro project the giant telescope observes low energy gamma rays that reach the earth's atmosphere. the gamma rays can be generated in various ways for example by a supernova or exploding star in distant galaxies. the gamma rays travel through vast reaches of time and space on their way to earth. david
greene was a ration of the first prototype in love palma on the canary islands. and there was a half of a party and a half of. difficult so everyone was very excited and very happy that the telescopes were far file at the first telescope is finally done. we all kind of also realized there's a lot of work ahead that the data is a read out correctly that the camera works all correctly that everything works for . a large sized telescope will help provide scientists with a new window on to distant reaches of the universe it's part of a global initiative to build the world's largest gamma ray observatory. the objects now solar system are constantly in motion and yet they don't fly upon
us thanks to gravitation gravity has made life on earth possible because it keeps our atmosphere from leaking out into space. but gravity isn't the same all over the planet we have a question about that sent in by view and from there ok. why does your weight differ according to where you measure it. in seeking to answer that question let's first look at the earth's gravitational field. even though it might look like one planet earth is not a perfect sphere its mass is distributed an evenly both on the earth's surface and in its core where mass is more heavily concentrated gravity is stronger than in places where it is less dense. satellites can measure the
distribution of density in the planet and they reveal fluctuations in the earth's gravitation. they show that the earth's gravity field looks more like a potato than a sphere in this model gravitation is stronger in the areas that protrude and it has a lesser effect in the deps the satellites found the deepest indentation close to southern india if our friend peter usually weighs in at eighty kilos he would weigh twenty four grams less there. gravity also sinks according to a locations distance from the center of the earth. that's why peter weighs a bit more at a low lying beach. than on a mountain that's thousands of meters high but he won't notice the difference. movement also influences your weight anyone who's taken a ride on a carousel knows that the faster it turns the higher you fly because centrifugal
force is counteracting the effects of gravity. at the equator the earth turns more quickly than elsewhere because the centrifugal force is greater there peter would weigh four hundred grams less than at the earth's poles. in space the differences are much more dramatic on the moon peter could leap much higher he would only way a sixth of what he does back on earth. while on the gas giant jupiter he would be two and a half times as heavy. if outlook is red white button every day. do you have a science question that you've always wanted and said we're happy to help out you send it to us as a video text ovoid smell if we answer it on the show will send you a little surprise as a thank you cannot just ask. interested in more stories from the world of
science go to our website find us on twitter on facebook. the but that's all for this week next time we'll be looking into our bodies internal clocks they run according to day night rhythms for example moon's he'll most likely at night then during the day bunch of find out why join us for more next week until then but by.
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