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tv   Doc Film  Deutsche Welle  March 19, 2019 6:15am-7:00am CET

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on the road with our superheroes my mission is clear kushti good and to me closely explore in germany. they dive in and check everything out there's a lot going on in. turning charging tested and checking. on t w. you are finished but do i now want to keep warm. and lengthy medical research. exposing and justice global news that matters g w made for minds.
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of. the human race has been building stone structures for ages. what are the origins of these structures. what were they used for. and how did people move them into place. place. about ten thousand years ago humans became sedentary they started growing crops and raising livestock. the people were no different from ourselves. appreciated the finer things in life the astray six the
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legacy of the neolithic age endures to this day. the new lives of people with the first to become heavily dependent on material goods just as we are today and is tied to how. our knowledge of this period is based on archaeological discoveries. chinese and stone structures are a key to understanding early civilizations. much of the archaeological evidence has been buried for example our ancestors concealed their large stone tombs today these sites resemble hills. such landmarks were meant to last and he turned to. the oldest evidence of sedentary cultures has been found in what is now jordan syria palestine northern iraq and southern anatolia.
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nine thousand years ago this region was probably more humid in densely forested than it is now. archaeologists discovered several prehistoric settlements near the ruins of the ancient city of patron in southwestern georgia. the yacht is about ten kilometers west of wadi move or the valley of most. it was an extremely important find. now for the first time archaeologists mario unbends and her colleagues are trying to reach the excavation site during the winter. and. the site is located on a plateau twelve hundred meters above sea level to reach the part of the team has to hike through a gorge. sometimes the gorge is blocked by rainwater. or snow but today the
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weather is fine. and ben's is a member of the research association x. orient which is affiliated with the free university of berlin. this site was discovered more than twenty years ago by the german archaeologists hans-georg aber was also the director of the excavation project and the chairman of x. oriented. so far the team have carried out excavation work at six different sites in the area and have taken samples from several others. the entire site covers one point five hectares. the evidence recovered so far indicates that co-ops were growing here. and. not only large is either one of the big
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questions for us is why would people want to settle up here of conflicts but possibly to protect themselves gorgeous can you closed off very easily. because it's also possible that the surrounding area had become overpopulated so these people move to the pluto. as recent as now it was a founding society and people also raised cattle sheep and goats gets arrested savant and they developed specialized methods of farming and breeding livestock. there was a social hierarchy but we've not yet been able to determine the presence of a differentiation in social status is no i was unclear but. was. the houses are all about the same size and that indicates that this was an egalitarian society it also appears that
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they were built close together there was no room for pathways between them. the rooms of the houses were very small i thank. people seem to have spent a lot of time on the roofs. i. the small chambers were used to store food and house livestock. from this side was very carefully planned for example we determined that all three of these passageways of the same height are the smaller axes and the masonry is quite neatly layered in places so it's likely that specialists did it in the early days
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of the settlement spheres in the not time as i understand and also on the other hand they knew nothing about using support beams to shore up the walls of this month so they kept the walls from falling down by building the structures that you see him. so hard in that was one. since the ya settlers built with stone part of their history can be reconstructed. but these structures tell us nothing about the people who lived here their thoughts and beliefs. are better suited for this. archaeologists have already discovered nearly think graves here and in summer two thousand and sixteen the team made a discovery that revealed much about the way that this community buried its dead. this morning anderson ha is that we've gone too far in that had three different graves and one kind of it was a collective site where adults and children were buried together and the guns have
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all they was also supposed example of an individual site which contained a rich assortment of burial items cannot we also found a grave in which two children aged three to five years old and a baby were buried just add to. your genetic analysis might help determine the relationships among the deceased. but it's not yet clear whether the bone material will provide enough d.n.a. . archaeologist spent a lot of. i'm analyzing the data that they've compiled. their primary goal is to document the original state of the site as accurately as possible. the excavation work at the but ya site indicates that it was an autonomous settlement that had no recognizable social hierarchy. if so that was a remarkable achievement. was it flushed and yet i'm just imagining
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a settlement of more than a thousand people that lasted for more than five hundred years in a small area surrounded by deep gorges. they lived in a very confined space and they did so without major conflicts on that's an enormous social accomplishment for people who had only recently become sedentary. wouldn't. it's not yet clear why the settlement was later abandoned. there's no evidence of communal violence. it's possible that the residents depleted the local forests and grazing land. war perhaps the area was hit by a major drought. there are many possible explanations. scientists have proven the existence of one major climate phenomenon that changed
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living conditions throughout the mediterranean region. six thousand one in approximately sixty two hundred b.c. and ice dam in north america collapsed and that caused two huge lakes to pour their contents into the atlantic ocean stocked up to cool this major inflow of water interrupted the gulf stream for more than a century that in turn produced cooler temperatures in the mediterranean region perhaps one or two degrees celsius emitted. and there was a big drop in precipitation when these phenomena posed a real threat to early neolithic peoples who does include two hundred under a typical dodge code. perhaps that's why people abandon the bejar settlement even today jordan suffers from water shortages and in summer temperatures often rise above forty degrees centigrade.
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a climate change incident that took place about a thousand years ago has left its mark throughout europe the middle east and north africa. since the end of the last great ice age sea levels have been rising containing recently. just four thousand five hundred years ago the water level on france's brittany peninsula was several meters lower than it is today. over time the sea moved about five hundred meters further inland. french archaeologists costs and believe that many stone age relics have been covered up by the sea listen of in the whole of didn't evolve on the rise in the sea level certainly depends on fluctuations in climate including the ice age and post ice age
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phases of the ice a few sea levels have been rising in this part of brittany for more than sixty thousand years but in the last thousand years of hunter gatherer societies it rose especially rapidly the lovable to the sea a hockey that. both are only supposed enjoyed over just one generation entire fishing them food gathering ground simply disappeared can you describe a serious set for located. between forty five hundred and three. a thousand b.c. an advanced megalithic culture developed along the coast of britain. there are three large stone structures near the village of local arioch in the air gras passage graves the every man here and it term called the tabla demo shot. no human remains or burial objects have been found at the marsh on site but there
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are a number of impressive rock engravings. over the format of the book several symbols were carved into the ceiling there are three separate groups of symbols this time there's an x. with a handle so. you can see the polished blade and its edge he said you can also see the pointed handle pick. it end of the handle is curved in the shape of a snail evil thing to me above that a crooked stick or crook you know through and finally a drawing of an animal like you'd find on the island of gaffney nice new symbol for a game's. good. governance lies in the gulf of more beyond so the local residents must have had boats that could transport huge rocks will. go poorly either more. to get from here to the island and it really was an island at that time you had to
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have a boat with but not just a raft or a dock out those and so parted people going to exceed a certain time or not because. i think they needed a proper water craft to get that had plants tied tightly together shall source of the governess capstone weighed more than twenty tons so you can imagine that the boat had to be pretty large wound up and see that you also get back to. good. the megalithic tomb site on government once contained a stone structure that was even taller than the ground many here of local arioch.
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the column was later torn down but some of the stone was later reused a tribute to the symbolic importance that the structure once held. it. also to the south of the coal business or one of the men here of aircraft is certainly the greatest example of this kind of monumental stone structure of the city explorer. several hundred years after it was a wreck did the men here fell over and broke into four pieces no one seems to know exactly how or why this happened. the men here had towered eight hundred meters
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over the countryside. at the time it was the tallest upright stone structure of its cause. does everything on and see is the guns and these monumental structures played an important role in the collective memory of society and they continue to do so even fifty generations after they were built click and that's not later generations probably associated these structures with something entirely different now didn't knock clinton can never tell him time to get most guns on their stomachs are born. we can only speculate on the thought processes of neolithic peoples. how did they have madge in the world that they lived in. the engravings on these huge stone that the money lead site also. may provide some insight.
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at first glance they may seem unrecognizable but a closer inspection shows that each has a story to tell of the siege now here's one boats you know the c. and s. and another the paralleled vertical lines represent the crew got the coop key cinci to keep. images of boats waves and whales is it possible that these neolithic people have developed certain aspects of maritime culture. he says he has an image of a whale the body including a square feet and is clearly visible you know the sheep. they can be sitting on the left and up here you can see the spout which is depicted as a divergent office you could see it convenient to fish and he doesn't fall.
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we can't say for sure whether the local residents thought that whales were dangerous wild animals or were merely a symbol of marine life in the gulf of moore be all. ancient peoples often painted or carved images of animals. did they do so out of respect and admiration or simply because they enjoy doing. some of this artwork including paintings engravings and relief decorations is beautifully done. the farmers and herders who moved west from asia minor did not do so directly it was an irregular process that
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took place over several thousand years. does i know when the new looting these neolithic immigrants first encountered local european hunter gatherers about seventy five hundred years ago at the latest these into the original inhabitants had been in europe for forty thousand years they'd probably seen archaic human species such as neanderthals and had experienced various periods of glacial activity as you can feel. the hunter gatherers were there first guns and they were genetically distinct from the immigrant population on. their last common ancestors probably date back thirty thousand years or so didn't listen to minds and for fun it was all and certainly enough time to develop their own culture language and even physical appearance and to beacons on an authenticity to this is often. the differences between these two groups were quite
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obvious honest foreston. europe's original inhabitants were hunters. the new immigrants have been farmers for several generations. hunters and gatherers left behind little archeological evidence. later they probably migrated to less fertile regions perhaps near newly populated areas. along the coast of northern europe they found rich fishing grounds and decided to settle.
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here in the colony modern region on the west coast of ireland archaeologists are researching this key transitional phase. this is the only moment of this type of targeting was stretch of coast here so this is clearly a very significant place that has survived in the landscape it's likely to be much bigger in the past. so i'll need to show the shows pointed to a seasonal occupation site as part of a seasonal round of living on the shore here we have all the shell middens on the shoreline here but there are inches or centimeters deep this is a monumental mitten if you like on like any other one along the shoreline here so it's it's it's a particular site fans hasn't sacral our sacred dimension to us. hopefully we'll get to explore in time as the size has been ruled an alibi by the elements. but it
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looks like of course i know archaeologists have uncovered a number of small treasures here. and there are a shade to kitchen midden which is a site that was built out of the result of cooking here between six and maybe eight thousand years ago it's either created by early farmers here are the preceding population of hunter gatherers living on the show of galway bay or sewer right along its line to coles the our night is out behind us and is very bored regret it landscape very unfair to i growing saw fish resources and shellfish resign. this is hugely important so some of the area sides in europe and the areas investigators archaeological sites in europe are shown in the very north to denmark but over the last two hundred years to be an investigations carried out on shell mounds but this is a classic example of. for years experts disagreed on the origins of these accumulations of shells the size of some thought that they'd been washed
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ashore over time by ocean waves but now the majority opinion is that they were created by humans. as we suspect it is a mesolithic our transition site between the message to hold together was this really question european archaeology designs a gathers because the new music to be adopted neolithic already displace by early farming groups coming in from the continent this isn't going to be political control one of the great unanswered questions about the neolithic period is whether the farming peoples emigrates to this region of the hunter gatherers turned to farming and became city entry and insufficient gene it's difficult to say for sure but in many cases we can assume that it was as evidence to support each of these theories biases can. buy this could just be going. on. between thirty eight hundred and twenty hundred b.c.
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neolithic peoples in northern europe built a number of massive stone structures. german archaeologist speculates on why they did that. because from what i flung. it was a time during the ice age glaciers deposited huge boulders throughout northern germany and large parts of north central europe. this didn't bother the hunter gathering peoples but as. as soon as they became seven terry and began to cultivate large fields the boulders became a big problem and it would be much too and was even and for him beginning. by this time people had learned how to move heavy objects like boulders. this was a major development. good now as he thought of two
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if would get neolithic peoples discovered the concept of traction and approximately four thousand b.c. this is just about the time that the first megaliths were built as well good to get people who had used teams of oxen to pull the boulders out of the fields to achieve our stood for them and they use these boulders to build cold sites or tune sort of men hears about these large single structures. so they found practical uses for these boulders and they cleared their fields as well. they used the same teams of oxen to plow those fields and became incredibly productive much more so than southern european peoples who hadn't discovered that kind of ploughing yet you know how about. farming at this time was hard work particularly for those who used simple tools to till the soil.
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and since people were living more closely together in small spaces they ran an increased risk of contracting disease. still the population of farmers grew more quickly than that of the hunter gatherers. and there was a big increase in construction in scotland the first stone circles were built. in. burial grounds began to appear in northern germany. and shoes stone columns were erected in brittany for example the men here to shandong all. the structure is nine point five meters tall and the component parts were hauled from a site that was at least four kilometers away. for. the many years without tom de lay is eight meters tall and weighs about one hundred
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sixty times. it lean slightly to one side because it was built on soft ground. this structure and two others near it were said to guard the entrance to hell. there are more than three thousand men here as in the area around karna. why did the local residents build these structures. search cussen has been trying to answer that question for years. and so they get on to the click of the local residents place their trust in those who are able to ensure their survival. and they were willing to work to put up ritual structures to one of them notifies the confused as to why we see examples of this just about everywhere to one extent or another existence of us do so because a prison wakes us up a big prison where the seeker. this
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is the barn in a burial mound in northern brittany. it's one of the oldest structures of its kind and was often expanded over the course of one thousand years. the mound contains eleven dull men's or single chamber tombs. the structures consist of at least two vertical megaliths and a horizontal capstone. it's often difficult to spot them from a distance they are either part of a large stone complex or they've been covered over with soil. the. draft animals can haul large objects only on a flat surface. sometimes neolithic peoples built ramps to make this possible to.
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move. large stone slabs like these can weigh up to one hundred thirty tons. it took huge teams of workers to move these objects even just a few centimeters you could imagine the amount of work that was required to place a huge capstone on top of the vertical pillars of. these projects with wired an enormous amount of planning and organization. so why did people build these structures. because it was just a beautiful wouldn't it i think they wanted to create something that was truly monumental get able most of the structures were built at great sites it wasn't enough to simply bury the deceased people wanted to put up some sort of memorial later generations had no idea that it was a burial site but the structure did last for centuries. and disputation fit even
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codes who bought. the first meal i think farming peoples continue to migrate across europe. some even made their way to northern scotland probably by sea. the nests of broad gar is a major archeological site in the orkney islands. the nests and the area around it were designated a world heritage site one thousand nine hundred ninety nine. he's just gone buildings these are pieces of all could see it should be constructed and
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it's not just an overnight sensation you lose sight voice special for over a thousand years. this is what the nasa might have looked like stone buildings covered with pete. as far as we know these were not residential structures just some. excavation director nic card and his team can only work here for two months a year because of the bad weather. the rest of the time the site is covered by protective shield. the archaeologists have unearthed hundreds of beautiful a decorated relics. john. and. each item could shed some light on what life was like here. at this point archaeologists are still filling in the blanks.
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what were these decorated stone slabs used for there are indications that some of them were painted. a large amount of animal bones have been found this indicates that the local residents organized feasts here. experts believe that the nest of broad car was abandoned and partially dismantled by about twenty two hundred b.c. archaeologists have found no evidence of bronze age culture here. color seems to be in a very important part of the everyday life people. in some ways been lucky that some of the preservation in particular areas with sites is being very cute and so we hop managed to pick up evidence for color not just start in the ceramics but also actually on the walls of the buildings. nic card and his team have found
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evidence of painted walls. the use of decorative paint or dye has also been confirmed at neolithic sites on the mediterranean island of malta. the first large temples were built here around forty five hundred b.c. and all were colorfully decorated. the color red is the color of blood so if as we all assuming there was an element of i'm a sucker for ice and the collection of blood gold you saw blood in some form then one could be led to believe the thread represented the color of blood which represents a life full represents the thoughts the sacrifice of anonymous so that maybe this link between. the ritual of.
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these beautiful relief artworks were carved in sandstone and indicate that animals were important to the local residents both game animals and pets. why did nilda think artisans choose these particular subjects. they're all a number of food result include. during the. the worship of nature the worship of fertility the idea of a mother god this comes from the discovery of a number of statues which are believed to represent the first sign woman. the idea coming from one's mother how the mother of the mother but the origin of mother's mother. these images indicate that women in the olympic society enjoyed
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a special status. defy all its. women represented not only fertility but also strength and political power this has been this image would change later of course but it was stable for at least a few millenia in neolithic times it was an age where gender equality was the norm and men didn't dominate women among the fall when you still mutants. neal they think people's also developed an interest in acquiring personal property . in their little hundred men during the neolithic period people began to define themselves by their material goods. they put a lot of time and effort into this process. side of an industry and for the first time they began to attach economic value to these goods and being and that value
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became the basis for trade on bets done with isn't bad for hunger that the nearly six settlement of by god in southwestern georgia is guarded by a narrow gorge of red sandstone. the local residents use that sandstone to make distinctive semi-circular handicrafts. owes it to so far that these people would carve out a discs shape. and then they create these items out of the material that was left over going on a pulley yet they'd send down. each and until they were quite fit and. they gave us and these items were probably too delicate for people to let their very fragile there's nothing to replace not of this my sign if one does a thing it does have it's possible that these rings were used like money so that i don't get. in exchange for food overall materials for example an addict and i'm to
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tell us what. perhaps the ya settlers chose this site because of the color of the rocks. red colored artifacts have been found at other sites and this indicates that the yacht may have served as a model. nearly fifty people swore ornamented objects made of teeth animal horns and plant fibers they also used flint jadeite and obsidian. the use of axe heads made of jade was popular at the time the trade in jade items was widespread and they maintained their beauty even today. since sheer exquisite lustrous stores of value. they were used for up to fifteen hundred years and constantly reshaped. before one of our colleagues. determined that
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all this jade came from monte vizio in the western alps cordwood would swallow it was extracted there and then traded over an area of up to fifteen hundred kilometers house order four hundred. some jade x. heads were also discovered on the southern coast of brittany near carnap. people who were gathering mussels came across for acceptance they had ended up in what was in the olympic times alou feel soil. look at itself to. see these x. heads were probably actual work tools at one time but they were later reshaped and assigned various other functions. both see the local residents smooth and clean the plates to make them a sharp as possible. also sometimes they broke the axe heads into two
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parts that could all piece the disunion ok well so close. in the summer of two thousand and sixteen french archaeologist found a deposit of jadeite in the age and region. the material may have been mined there up to nine thousand years ago. patrick constance coverage provided new historical insights. but trading was not limited at this time to jade obsidian or sandstone rings which the shells of spiny oysters were also used. austrian archaeologists marco prosecutor uses a reproduction of an ancient tool to make jewelry out of these shells. the shells are found all the way from the black sea to the coasts of central europe . neolithic people fashioned them into pendants bracelets and belt buckles.
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and they were popular as gifts. try. to do in. the neolithic period covered several thousand years. that's not very long in the timeline of history but our ancient and. sisters have the same spiritual and emotional needs that we do today. this period saw fundamental changes in everyday life and the ways that people lived and worked together. they began to bury their dead and to honor them afterward they built houses they raised cross and lifestyle. they organized
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themselves in the construction for games and erected huge stone structures and some of these have survived to this very day. is it seen as a shop on the transition to civilization in europe began with the arrival of the migrants from the east and even short migration produced civilization and see the results of. the indigenous hunter gathering peoples either merged into these new societies or adopted sedentary farming culture on their all. there was no turning back. just want to see that was absolutely
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a major step forward and says of history this neolithic sadan tree culture provided the basis for the development of later mordaunt's civilization instead of the multi movie ticket it also created a number of challenges but people dealt with them successfully going. to understand the present we must also understand the past rapid population growth of consumerism and the rise of megacities are phenomenon whose origins lie in the neal i think period where sedentary life began to. good. move.
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