tv Doc Film Deutsche Welle March 26, 2019 2:15am-3:01am CET
the most colorful. life list. the most traditional. find it all at any time. check in with a web special. take a tour of germany state by state. on t w dot com. that people will hold on for g.w. on facebook and twitter us up to date and in touch follow us. on. the white cliffs of dover and symbolize britain a model of democracy discretion and elegant restraint.
but also a nation consistently skeptical about europe and there can be no doubt that this is indeed a zombie judgment even suppose every move by this drag out to the whatever estate. markets are you. are you are not shared through the prairie drought and you are legislators breaks it means bret's it and we're going to make a success of it. controversy over europe has a long tradition in britain. cut out. sometimes britain gives europe the cold shoulder at other times it wants to belong and now britain wants to leave the european union why is britain so different.
on the morning of june twenty fourth twenty sixteen many people in britain were still incredulous a day earlier the country voted by a very narrow majority to leave the european union intact the day after the vote on the twenty fourth just imagine what the most frequently asked question on google was what did britons google most on june twenty fourth i'll tell you who is the e.u. is. the agitation grew from month to month desperately want to completely turn its back on the continent this is talk less and in the end this is just a continuation of british schizophrenia about europe because britain will remain in europe courseware time where else otherwise. the mission is facing one of the greatest crises in its history. you can look at this being
a true. as being something which is a very difficult pain to feel it's even a true if you're on the winning side what do you do know you know you've won. was the referendum a way for some people to vent their frustration because they long felt that they had been abandoned by their politicians. by those that don't know i mean it's allowed them to let everything out yes a bit like you would do in psychotherapy to say you think everything isn't so great that you're not getting what you believe you've earned over expected for yourself and the next generation you know that life has simply become more difficult the result comes from this mix of reasons motives you count those arguments have for.
there are plenty of clichés about the british. their independence is sacrosanct over the course of their history the question has arisen again and again do we belong to europe or not. they're all belongs interesting to us that does england belong to europe well of course not. britain is a european country through and through. it's part of the whole history of of europe europe is deep people to our history and we have a part of the history of the of europe. that. spiders it's both of course it's part of europe just look at the geography but it's
also a neighbor because it's off shore as they say it's an island it's not part of the continental. in some places england southern coast is only about forty kilometers away from the continent. on clear days you can see the french coast. for centuries taking a boat was the only way to get there. people see the channel as both a link and a boundary. during world war two what came over the channel from the continent was by no means good. during the battle of britain in one nine hundred forty german air raids killed more than forty two thousand people in britain.
by nine hundred forty five the european continent had been reduced to rubble. hard to imagine that enemies could ever become friends again. by the wars and many british cities were heavily destroyed above all london yet britain still had a functioning administration and a confident government. economically they were ruined but they remain a proud nation unlike their european neighbors therefore england differed from the european nations and that it still felt well in its own national skin while we here in europe were very uncomfortable in our own national skins that's why we started to think of europe and europe merging into one. man will be proud to say i am an european. it was surprising that after the war the former british prime minister winston churchill called for a united europe as
a major project for peace and only one of all people. yes and what an englishman i mean winston churchill who like many of his generation also fought like a european if you can be in one thousand nine hundred forty eight he addressed the peoples of europe from the hague could make it a model. that encouraged them can essentially what he said in principle was i'll tell you something very exciting and at the center of my idea for europe must be a reconciliation between france and germany and if there's a chance to get his devastated europe which has nearly destroyed itself in two wars back on its feet well that's in britain's very own interest just not another war for god's sake. you are can only be united. i don't feel we are all part come you for i'm to be having been difficult on the time defreitas arts and even then lend these fun kunsan house invention and some are still playing
it god knows you leave me on things you there no matter where they. are they've got . i didn't miss conduct. but you must say that churchill was somewhat unclear about the details of britain belonging to this european union. but i. think. when the idea became reality britain looked on politely from the sidelines not france and germany pushed for the establishment of the european coal and steel community in which six european countries would cooperate in producing these commodities in a memorable decision after centuries of national rivalry the people of europe finally reached out to one another oh oh. our greatest task now is that europe must be created a. german chancellor a comet and an alum was one of the first to recognize the significance britain
could have for european unity. back then he found this wonderful word or he said he would like to see britain play a role in europe and then listen to the rest of the quote so that we won't be on our own with the more or less hysterical french. that was out in our in the autumn of fifty three no politician in europe would dare to speak so openly today. in march of one nine hundred fifty seven the people of europe were looking to rome this expression center tips from germany france italy belgium luxembourg and the netherlands met there to found the european economic community e.c. the predecessor of today's. it was the moment european political unity was born. britain was noticeably disinterested it didn't even send press representatives to
the preparatory conference. the dream of a united europe seemed tangibly close and the british simply set aside and watched events unfold. britain behaved very stupidly in the one nine hundred fifty s. . back then we had the chance to take on leadership of a european community a european union. i know there were many continental europeans who wanted just that . britain was asked. and britain declined saying no no we're still a world power. this is the end of life during the fifty's a slight condescension could be heard in british statements the arrogance of the old empire that's out there for they kept their distance just churchill's speech got up and running then they said yes be friendly to the europeans but try to end the involvement and zero zero zero. zero zero zero.
zero zero is too small for britain even today starting in the seventeenth century the nation spread its influence all around the globe to become the greatest colonial power in history. even today the queen is still the head of sixteen states from australia to new zealand. bank of most i think you've got to be very careful the british tend to be very nostalgic when they consider their own country and that's a danger because sometimes thing else down to something that doesn't exist. it. is usually pretty easy it's a friend it's real it's as if we still have an empire and that's part of the english mentality to a colonial mentality. we actually want to rule and conquer. we don't accept
invitations. in the one nine hundred sixty s. britain was the source of a cultural revolution it's poppy was a conquered the european continent and the world. no other country in europe was as exciting as britain whether because of its real new ideas or quirky traditions. is that something we admire about england if they give the world inventions that the whole world the global village is crazy about nettlesome up and. britain was good for a few political surprises during this period as well. the economies of the continent six e.c. countries were growing but britain's wasn't suddenly the british were showing interest in becoming
a member and applied to join in one thousand nine hundred sixty one. a decade of tug of war began between britain and the continent. prime minister harold macmillan even went to france to visit president charles to go and campaign for membership. four weeks later to go answered at a press conference. we were going to do on this. but in the night. it is mary time with its nature structure and economic situation different fundamentally from those of the countries located on the continent leading these conditions are undoubtedly incompatible with the system that the six countries have developed. among themselves. since the norman conquest in the eleventh century the peoples of britain and france
have had a difficult relationship with each other. due course no confirmed for many british the widespread cliche of french arrogance. yet at the same time they view trance as the land of pleasure and fine cooking. the business knife as it were a bit envious of the french of how they look how they live the flesh that they have in their lives. their mother if we like the french but a man would never have an evening leave his lady alone with a frenchman a bottle of wine. we don't trust them. because the tell put an end to britain's joining because in the e.c. all decisions had to be made unanimously a few days later prime minister macmillan appeared in front of the cameras in
london. what i have wondered brussels yesterday was bad bad for us bad for you all up bad for the whole free world a great opportunity had been missed mcmillen sat britain asked again to join in one thousand nine hundred sixty seven again france answered no but the british stubbornly refused to give up and began looking for allies in europe that would support their application for membership of the e.c. . the british foreign secretary even went to bonn to ask for help. the germans still favored having the british on board. there's a famous passage in village pants memoirs britain's foreign secretary at the time george brown comes to him and says really you've got to let us in so that we can
take over the leadership that's just wonderful. we're back so to speak with the british attitude either a leadership role or not at all or dubious in the field. the political mood in europe changed during the one nine hundred seventy s. to go ahead step down that put an end to the french resistance against british entry to the e.c. . accepting britain into the european community became conceivable and was the number one topic of conversation everywhere there was a good deal to the digital issuance all nothing that is just not make money here just one smidgeon lots on the continent and stuff gets on top of them in quite a serious way it just needs a fiction as i said i'm the ins it's who signed on and learn from the salon so i can feel the line is far more important than merely them but i'm told from the exam . but not by paper most and. better by housewives i don't want to go and
thank you. one of the main arguments against joining was a fear of rising prices until then the british could import cheap food from former colonies after joining the e.c. they would have to buy more expensive products from europe. the european community in this case was not seen as a political alliance but soley as a common market. is this true but it's already telling that the british would speak of the common market back then. as they viewed it mainly as an economic union as mine and that is what it was that's all t.v. trivia economic question was always at the root of the european question does it benefit us or hurt us well everything get cheaper or will it become more costly to toil peace. official membership
negotiations began in the summer of one nine hundred seventy. the british were already sparking tensions even before they joined they wanted membership but were demanding special rights but the europeans didn't soften yes to membership no to special exceptions. the negotiations went on for two and a half years. meanwhile in britain the economy was struggling continual strikes had power lies the country. and. the government was hoping that membership would revive the economy but many people remain skeptical. in january one thousand nine hundred seventy two the accords were ready for signing in brussels. but the sound
got off to an inauspicious start prime minister edward heath was splattered with nk this was immediately viewed as a protest against british accession later it emerged that the culprit was a german with an alleged personal grudge against heath's government. in order. to me yet for many the incident was nevertheless seen as a bad omen for british membership in the e.c. . these review also knew very well. after an hour's delay edward heath finally signed the treaty of accession in brussels. more than a decade had gone by since britain first asked to join. now britain early entered its economy towards the continent. and the british brought new accents to the
community it was the start of an exciting partnership. first there was the. question of official languages english began to prevail over france. aren't they came on very confidently as an important partner. and they view their own role in a completely self assured way there never been a problem but naturally you could still sense the distance in that they actually never really felt at home in europe. and how to get used to the. behavior of this new partner. the british were wary from the outset. would happen when this country joined the european union was that it was seen as a necessary thing to do because decline because europe was succeeding
economically and the americans were pushing for it it wasn't seen as an expression . of a positive growth it was seen as. something we had to do. with this feeling that this european community was fundamentally designed by different architects by the french and germans and belgians and italians in that sense it isn't really our house. the all over europe back then also took place in all the major parties in parliament so the government in one nine hundred seventy five decided just two years after britain joined to hold a referendum on membership. they introduced this referendum because many voices were still saying this relationship this marriage with europe that cannot be our mission our destiny. so we want to put it to the people one more time and sign.
in full for the. supporters and opponents began to campaign. i won't go into your house or short explanation why you want to be got out of it by somebody and of hundreds or thousands and others would need to sort of. get more formal definitely only think explained well. first of four hundred in the minds of unmarked annoyance or not i think i have had no. right now now see you explain right now that he prizes a horse and tries to show you how i think we got a bender here based on so long of the incident. only be about to begin. tonight games are never gone and all we must listen to and live again your subject as this has no source for us london vanished and. the first referendum in
britain's history all produced a surprisingly clear result more than sixty seven percent voted in favor of staying in the european community. a few hours later the prime minister at the time harold wilson gave a press conference outside ten downing street. the british people in literature for a cut class on top design and who's in charge on the fate. of the old patient of mine shaft of the european community. a bit more than me the british were never honestly told what was actually behind the e.c. namely an increasingly closer union of a political kind that was never said because all the prime ministers knew very well if we told our people the truth that this was about more than free trade and improved economic relations and let's say polemically was a super state then they never would have said yes in the one nine hundred seventy
five referendum. yes we want to stay they always kick that down the road and it came back to haunt them later. losing sovereignty and being bullied by jurors are deep seated fears of the british nation. into call he's a fraud the question what is in parliament what influence them i think i actually have as a vote if the parliament says something then the e.u. can come along and say no. in the european community britain is just one country among many a fact reflected in the anonymous with thoughts in brussels. and europe and brussels they're subtenants but no on the island they're masters of their own house was. margaret thatcher became prime minister in may nine hundred seventy nine. the first woman head of government in europe was to put
european government representatives to the test again and again. and i said she was an iron lady but when it was about europe. as an economic union then she was one hundred percent in favor of that and she wanted to further it and doubts came when things got too political. that's where she drew the line on this all. so you can be marched right in with her big handbag that was already a statement of how she made her entrance taught. that child want a discount on the british financial contributions she argued that the country was paying in more than it was getting back from brussels in agricultural subsidies. we are not offering for the abandoned you can. go to cosby tongan live on an eye
for an enclosed in times of us i can and get. back. at some point in the night she even burst into tears and pulled out all the stops to make her point and she managed in the end she was really insistent annoying to be honest. are you also a bit disappointed about mrs thatcher stubborn position. of course i'm disappointed with europe has to speak with one voice and we're putting on a miserable show i can't accept that. she wouldn't let it go because much of the horror of our partners in europe in the end they gave in because they couldn't stand her battle cry i want my money back or any more and i want my money back we need the money. it's promised. she was an unlimited woman surrounded by powerful men a new experience for european politicians like helmut kohl office want to tell all
. of us strangely enough he is the socialist french president. and the very conservative prime minister margaret thatcher got on very well and. somehow they understood each other. some of it had a bit to do with the frenchmen and an english lady with helen call it was just the opposite they didn't get on it all from the first time they met. they came from two different planets she couldn't stand this german one time on the return flight from summit talks in bonn she said oh my god that man is so german. the british first tried to prevent german reunification too great was there fear of an all powerful germany that would come want to play a new role in the heart of europe. in germany we don't have the luxury of
maintaining distance and the british observed germany right in the middle of the continent today we've got nine neighbors all of them friendly like the british would have nightmares if they had to bear having so many neighbors scotland is already enough for the english and. an englishman is simply to relate to this romantic image of a united europe. finally in one thousand nine hundred there was a new hope for the europeans but john major didn't receive much support for his ideas in the british parliament. but made major mark the start of a new generation who very early on made a famous speech in which he said we want to play a role in the heart of europe we want to be at the heart of europe. but the joy wasn't to last major's conservative party forced him to negotiate opt out clause
in order to avoid fiscal burden sharing for joint decisions europe closed ranks politically while the british gradually began stepping back. yet there was an event during major's term in office that fundamentally changed britain's relationship to the continent. in may nine hundred ninety four the queen travelled by train to france through the new tunnel under the english channel. the rail journey from brussels to london was reduced to just over two and a half hours. assistant best while saturn expresses that we're going on to your ip and building this tunnel together. and these are told about. a giraffe trailing to france that was a shade too close for many and brought you. feel a lot of garlic from france infections from drinking too much red wine sick sexual
behavior from god knows what else we were afraid of everything european appears. today more than ten million people travel by train through the tunnel annually it has brought britain and mainland europe closer together despite all kinds of resistance. but anyone who wants to board a train to the continent still has to show their passport. meanwhile on the european mainland borders between most e.u. countries were opened in march one thousand nine hundred five here passport checks became i think the past when the schengen treaty came into a fact. and they found a chase ensued now the british didn't want to join in another project that was close to european hearts introducing the common currency the euro the british pound
remained a symbol of the nation's independence. on may first two thousand and four ten more cars. trees joined the european union. britain became one of the first countries to push to have its labor market opened for people from eastern europe on the european mainland they waited several more years to do that increased immigration stope british mistrust many saw the newcomers as unwelcome competitors for jobs and housing deported. and it's really had a very hard time dealing adequately with this feeling the need to actually respond effectively what exists who vowed to live since the start of the new millennium the euro skeptic party a few cattle and its leader nigel for raj exploited these fears for maintained brussels influence is too great. a wayside enough so that we actually want to
govern our own country make our own rules control our idol. prime minister david cameron was feeling more and more pressure he wanted to stay in the e.u. and lay the european question to rest once and for all with a referendum memories of the first bout resurfaced. this problem the problem was the same one that harold wilson had already had he wanted to stay in power and reaffirm his position by putting the european question to the people for a vote for the ukip demanded that as well and cameron saw himself forced to jump on board this moving train in order to limit the allure of ukip when. once again the question was remain on leave for a second time the british were to vote on e.u. membership. the progress that campaigners intentionally targeted people's fears.
they've given to why all goldens by reason given why are glass balls this is your opinion on it is that. the issue of immigration was ever. presents. the crucial thing to understand about immigration which played a big role in one sense as a fear factor in the referendum is that it it represented the loss of faith and control. it was a slogan referendum take back control and in that sense it was about sovereignty it was about democracy it was about how we are governed take back control. take control. take back control by friends of our democracy. prime minister david cameron campaigned for printer planning in the european union but he wanted before on all things we are stronger out west safe but we're better off if we stay
. here. the government decided that it didn't want to say anything positive about the european union it didn't want to discuss what was good about freedom of movement how we're allowed us to go to european currencies it it it accepted the basic narrative of the euro skeptics. and then it said but we call and afford to leave so oddly enough the pro european government campaign also euro skeptic they didn't have enough reasons to say why the e.u. was so important the race was run get the skeptics already had the upper hand on. the atmosphere was so volatile that in the week before the referendum a pro e.u. member of parliament joe cox was murdered by a radical e.u. opponent. three days later the campaign resumed.
seventy two percent of those entitled to vote did cell nearly fifty two percent voted in favor of leaving. while forty eight percent wanted to remain in the e.u. the margin couldn't have been much closer. it. was a purely a protest vote why did scotland and northern ireland vote to remain speculation about the reasons for the outcome began immediately one answer was social inequality. large areas of northern england were facing economic ruin. london's immensely wealthy the west country the north very poor and people resented that and they felt well you know who are who do these people think they are that are running us and they blamed the english blame the european union for that
gradually the question arose of what form bracks it would actually take nobody said to voters it's going to take many years it will be very complicated. such a nobody was realistic about it. for a long time there was a great deal of uncertainty about what bracks actually meant it wasn't until january twenty seventeen that the new prime minister theresa may set the course. not partial membership of the european union. membership of the european union or anything that leaves harvey inhofe out we're not thick to hold on to membership as we leave feet negotiators open talks in brussels in june twenty seventeen one meeting followed the next again and again the british and europeans for wrangled to reach agreement.
intense debate continued back in britain as well in london more than half a million people turned out to call for a new referendum. the demonstrators spoke out against backset and the increasing anti foreign atmosphere one estimate was over over a million relationships have broken up over bret's it families are breaking up over exit very deep growth the cloned organ which you get at the beginning of a civil war very painful. then after a year and a half of tough to go she asians there seemed to be a solution. theresa may and the e.u. agreed on a soft plan it guaranteed the rights of e.u. citizens in britain and british people living on the continent. perhaps the most important point was that it would establish a free trade area between britain and the e.u.
for industrial and agricultural products. the british people don't want to spend any more time doing about it they want a good deal that fulfills the value of the laos has to come together again as a country. after that the sparks really began to fly hard line breaks it here is accused her recent day of paying too much heed to the voices of the remainer whose who didn't want a hard exit from the e.u. the most she had to get this camp on board whether she wanted to or not because after all she had belonged to it herself she voted for remain in the referendum remain. and she decided to stay inside the european space and the same time he's going to leave it. which is impossible so she got caught up with movies tensions. fears of crashing out without a deal grew. the authorities even simulated
a traffic jam to determine the level of disruption breck's it could cause around the ports. people began to buy and hoard food and other supplies in fear of shortages in the shops. calm and you factor is announced plans to move production abroad. and bankers and brokers in the city were worried about their deals. political showdown began in london. on it theresa may was fighting on several fronts against members of the opposition who are demanding stronger ties to the e.u. and those calling for a harbor exit from within the ranks of her own party has to be filed to do so. is a lot of desperation. the border between ireland and northern ireland became
a forney issue because of britain leaves the e.u. it will become an external new border. i think is to the right to arm and to the narrowest. parliament voted down the exit agreement with the e.u. twice in the parliamentary vote after parliamentary vote followed against exit ing without a deal for a delay after exit and a series of amendments. the slide from not and that was a sign of course and with it came the people's recognition that complete chaos was raining in westminster with mr and his colleagues of. britain's confidence in their parliament. representatives has hit new depths these days but i'm so bored with the whole thing i don't read anything more about it
all for it's just gone on far too long we got into this mess because of the incompetence of our government over forty years of looking off themselves looking off the rich not looking after the people but i find it. i'm just sorry but it's going like this person should be invested in this. discord still dominates when it comes to people's feelings about britain's relationship with europe. but nothing that europeans will go well but they see the european union are not as terrible we have all told me until. they the european community and slowly crept into our politics i'm stuck taking over i'm for breaks and i hope that it goes so i wish the english government wouldn't delay and basically i'd like to leave you up because i don't think it's working for us i mean. but the concept
that leaving is simple is an illusion. we couldn't escape from the european union so there is the this is our reality we have to live in the world that we are really in and we have to we have to have a political system which can face that. if you disapproves of how will this political class that has shown itself to be incapable of meeting this challenge how will they regain their prestige to govern in the name of the people when they were unable to achieve consensus in the name of the people i'm. so what's next still nothing is clear delay play for time. meanwhile the unrest continues.
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and explores fascinating world cultural heritage sites. you world heritage three sixty fifty. three it's seen as sex phone operator who worked her masters thesis on the potato. to marie. not a turn on well it gets more ridiculous from that. list. israeli warplanes have carried out retaliatory strikes against targets in gaza israel says it was targeting infrastructure of the militant palestinian group hamas that's in response to a palestinian rocket attack that hit a town north of tel aviv in the evening hamas said it had reached a cease fire agreement with israel. british prime minister theresa may has