tv Tomorrow Today Deutsche Welle March 29, 2019 12:30pm-1:01pm CET
trotted front of. the rebel army and in the nine hundred ninety four genocide wasn't when all in orders there wasn't a group was given me to reinforce the colors of the news but there was that when it was not for a. controversial leader whose success is beyond question. in qatar. wanted tragedy start to be fifty three w. hello and welcome to tomorrow today the d w sign shot coming out. the time inside as an internal clock ticks in every one of our cells how do the bodies timekeepers we're. getting out of sync with our biorhythms can rob us of
rest a sleep study shows what that does to us. our internal clock also determines when we're at peak performance which times of day a best. we have some power over clocks at the end of march europe will be setting the clocks an hour ahead to daylight saving time the first time the clocks was switched like that was in one thousand eight in a small town in canada two world wars put the change to summer time over to europe the idea was to utilize daylight hours better for the weapons industry. in the one nine hundred seventy s. came the oil crisis europe figured it could save energy with the time change but that didn't actually work as we now know. today some eighty countries change their clocks twice a year but our internal clocks can't be reset that easily. our
lives are often dominated by rigid schedules but ignoring your inner biological clock can be harmful it's known that early or late shift work is bad for you and daylight saving time can likewise cause problems. logical terms it's bad that we disrupt our own rhythm. yacking now i just can't concentrate. i get tired really tired just. see really feel it you just eat all the time at least. you can see in people's faces that. it all plays out against the backdrop of light and dark humans are a dire and old species which means we're mainly active during the day nighttime when we are protected from ultraviolet radiation is when cell division and regeneration occur this is something we share with single cell organisms most cells in muscles and other organs have their own clock genes these cause them to reduce
activity at night and be active during the day so even if you choose to stay up late your cells in some sense know it's time to rest in fact wombs incurred at night he'll more slowly than those acquired during the day a recent study in britain provided clear evidence of that says chrono biologist head like. last cells alter the cellular skeletons in order to move and that's regulated by the cells in a clock they move faster at certain times of day than in other. fibro blasts are central to wound healing on the left is a wound incurred during daytime where the cut closes fast on the right and one time wound which closes much more slowly. head like austin and his team want to know how nutrition and metabolism affect one another if clocks in your intestinal tract and liver tick in harmony there's less chance you'll become overweight. if your
gastrointestinal clock is thrown out of step because you eat at the wrong time then your intestines and no longer work together as well as they should that leads to more energy storage units. being deposited in. the first results from the lab reveal that eating sugary meals late in the evening can disrupt the nighttime insulin response in your liver and if you need an alarm to wake up in the morning you're fighting your only circadian rhythm the people who do that most often are those who like going to bed late night out. typically human beings slowly grow more active after waking up a plunge in the early afternoon is followed by a second peak for those people known as early birds this pattern can begin much earlier where as night only really get going in the afternoon there curve is also shifted in the other direction. our society as
a whole gets up to. the majority of fear to be. there always a bit at odds with the demands that are made by society. we each have a chrono that reflects when we ought to be getting up and going to bed early bird standard riser and night owl and those differences appear to be underpinned by genetic variants by identifying the genes responsible researchers hope to develop blood tests with the capacity to detect individual chrono types and show where people are in their cycles at given times. that could help optimize medication schedules for patients for example we already know that some medicines can be more effective if administered at certain times. works best early in the morning some kinds of pain medication are more effect. in the afternoon around ten at night is
the best time to take medicines aimed at allergies and dramatic diseases. but that doesn't mean everyone should take it at the stroke of ten night owl should take it later early bird so little earlier. if we can determine in advance when a medication works best when we can use that information to reduce the number of possible side effects and to fight disease more effectively. effective. research shows that chronobiology is more important than we once thought the idea of inner biorhythms isn't new age fantasy it has a major influence on health. if you're a late type it's of course better for your health to work late chips rather than early ones because then you don't have to get up and concentrate on what for you biologically is the middle of the night. that doesn't work. regular
meals and passes between them also determine daily rhythm intermittent fasting restricting intake to say an eight hour block each day can have a big influence. on a biological terms intermittent fasting makes a lot of sense because the rhythm of intake non intake synchronizes the peripheral clocks to stabilize daily rhythms improving interaction with. daylight in particular plays a key role in setting natural inner rhythms so if daylight saving time is soon dropped in europe as planned most experts agree it will have a positive impact on health. our internal clock also tells us when to go to bed so-called clock in the brain regulate our biorhythms electric light long work hours and shift work disturb.
the best rested people in the world according to a study at the dutch they sleep an average eight hours and five minutes a night people in singapore sleep the least on average more than thirty minutes less than the recommended eight hour. what happens if we get too little slate. the finally a good night's sleep for nine days that was out of the question for bed all in the name of science and from that first it was a challenge not to fall asleep but the difference between before and after was very noticeable. a week and a half earlier than arrived at the german aerospace center in cologne to take part in a sleep study. eva maria conducted the investigation in come up. aeration with scientists
from the u.s. research center she studies the effects of chronic sleep deprivation most people think they get enough sleep. very many people get to that all sleep day in day out the current recommendations are to get at least seven hours of sleep per night to avoid damage to your health. what happens in the body when we get too little sleep to provide some answers and the other test subjects undergo a nine day long insurance test they're under constant observation they're often awakened after just five hours to do some tests. lack of sleep is the norm for many people in germany for example one out of four adults gets just six hours of sleep every tenth person only spends five hours a night sleeping. that can be many different reason a heavy workload stress and a need to be constantly reachable mean that many people take time problems to bed
with them and miss out on. the cologne study shows how dangerous. for three nights in a row bairn and the other participants have slept only five hours a night now a test will show how that affects their performance at the computer then to recall several letters that he has already seen supposed to react when the letter. the researchers will compare his working memory capacity with that of well rested test subjects. and the ones who had a good night's sleep usually perform well on the test and the ones who aren't rested make a lot of mistakes. they either think the letter wasn't there or they lose the rhythm and have to start over during the test. people who regularly get too little sleep perform less well at their jobs that usually leads to more stress resulting
in more sleep deprivation some try to make up for the deficit by sleeping longer at the weekend but the test shows that doesn't work. there seems to be a kind of memory for chronic sleep deprivation if we regularly sleep too little and then try to recover by getting a normal night's sleep and we were able to show that those test subjects had a much more rapid decrease in their performance than other subjects who hadn't brought along that sleep deficit. isn't. that effect may make working life more difficult for sleep deprived but it's not life threatening but another effect of sleep deficiency can be banned it's also taking a standard reaction time test as soon as he sees a running stop watch he's supposed to press the button the well rested group react within two hundred milliseconds as do the sleep deprived subjects and at least the first information but suddenly we also see very many slow reaction times mixed in
and if the person is really tired they may stare at the monitor staring with their eyes open at the running stopwatch but not reacting. the brain seems to switch out and communication between the eyes and the brain doesn't function anymore and that's one of the very dangerous things about sleep deprivation as we know from the problem of microsleep while driving. and the german society for sleep research and sleep medicine says that microsleep may be responsible for twice as many deaths on germany's roads as alcohol related accidents. lack of sleep is very risky because in a state of permanent sleep deprivation we can't judge our own capabilities. a look at the brain also gives a clue as to how important sleep. during sleep the brain is out information also
goes hand in hand with metabolic processes that can strengthen the immune system. the brain prepares for sleep over the course of the day with the help of a substance called adenosine which is produced by the body as its levels in certain areas of the brain rise so does the number of adenosine receptions to which the molecules bind. that seems to lower. and into sleep. because the receptors are increased along with the adenosine the urge to sleep growth and that's something that everyone experiences after one or two nights without sleep and it's practically impossible to stay awake. you can fall asleep in any situation even while talking or sitting up. in the toughest phase of the test then had to keep awake the thirty eight hours
using positron emission tomography the researchers were able to confirm that sleep deprivation led to a high density of available adenosine researchers. they conclude that staying awake when your body is telling you to go to sleep is not only bad for brain performance but for the entire body. to look at that in more detail they took regular blood samples from the subjects and found that their sugar metabolism was out of whack a possible sign of early diabetes. and was yet had then another thing that interested us was how quickly will they recover when we let them sleep for eight hours in one night. this one night wasn't enough to normalize sugar metabolism so young they continue to be impaired. and there are other health issues. relation promotes obesity because it disturbs the reward system in the brain. and it makes us more vulnerable to infections. then the findings are food for thought
about his sleeping habits. i'll definitely try to get enough sleep from now on because i now know how much it impacts my performance it has an enormous influence on your ability to concentrate and focus on those are all lessons that i've learned . comes with them. when i ask you how many hours a day you sleep is it enough or do you feel sleep deprived. verdi is familiar with sleep problems and says my sleep is constantly disrupted by mosquitoes i slap my poor cheeks a thousand times a night vanessa would also like to get more sleep she says she normally sleeps only five hours a night. jose doesn't seem to have that problem. says he sometimes only gets four hours sleep and feels more alert than with eight part when he's able to sleep light he can stay in bed for fourteen hours.
will freighters says when you're young you can cope with lots of bad habits but when you're older you'll pay for it you'll see he says. thanks for that warning and for all your comments. when we start to get sleepy we often yawn. it is a reflex and it's contagious if you or your name right now you might be very empathetic. according to some studies most mammals are known to yawn by the way except for giraffes that is whether in the wild or ensues it's said that no one's ever seen a giraffe you on more have you then lettuce and. other vertebrates such as birds and reptiles definitely do your own that's been proven some researchers believe
that yawning is connected with intelligence the longer the animals yawn the more nerve cells there are in that cerebral cortex and the more intelligent it is and what about animal sleep well we're all familiar with cat naps but what about animals that live in the water no are scimitar valentine had a question about that. how do sharks sleep when just a nodding off could be fatal. that's a real danger for some sharks pelagic or open ocean sharks breathe bypassing water through their gills to get oxygen to keep that flow going they keep swimming if they stop to rest they would suffocate and drown. blue sharks may catch a nap during their so-called yo-yo swan and they swim up to the surface and rest as they descend into the depths. in general the underwater world is pretty ingenious
when it comes to grabbing some z's the sleeping habits of the sperm whale were a mystery until a group of researchers saw a pod dozing off the coast of chile they drift upright in the water for a daily total of one and a half hours. that's not much compared to the six to nine hours a day that we sleep. other whales have other methods of getting shut eye the humpback whale does it head down but why sperm whales and humpback whales sleep in a vertical position isn't known. like whales dolphins have an unusual form of sleep they shut down one half of the brain and close the opposite eye while the other hemisphere keeps track of what's going on they can even keep using their echolocation system and orient themselves using clicking sounds so every species sleeps in its own unique way even underwater. a problem is red white
i only think of it. do you have a size question that you've always wanted and said we're happy to help out send it to us as a video text over smell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you can i just ask. to find as i did have a dot com slash science or drop us a line at d.f.w. undisclosed site tech on facebook d w dot science. what about you know are you more of an early bird or a night owl. some of us a most productive in the morning others in the evening it's a question about bio rhythms that's true for athletes too many people think they know the best time to exercise it turns out that's not always true.
i can't imagine a life without exercise because it gives a good balance to my everyday life it's fun and that's why i love it. fabio exercises more than once a week like thirty two percent of germans most jog or go to the gym fatty and prefers outdoor sports or martial arts like kick boxing his choice of sport varies according to the time of day. in the morning i wouldn't do pick dogs. i'm not awake enough. but a relaxed right in a kayak is fine early in the day. so what is the best time of day to train fabiano is studying sport in wants to find out he's taking part in a test at the university of basel in switzerland where professor i know schmidt took sas examines him the focus is on biorhythms. gets
up at about seven am and goes to bed at about eleven pm which is about average. around sixty percent of germans fall into this category their mental performance is highest between ten am and noon and four pm and six pm but what about muscle function is one of also in this test we're studying and durrance we want to find out whether performance varies over the course of the day we have various tests beginning at seven am and ending at nine pm spread throughout the entire day. fabiani is put through his paces on six different days at a different time each day sometimes in the morning or at noon in the evening or late evening to keep pedaling go go go c'mon push yourself. the researchers record heart rate oxygen saturation and lactate levels in the blood along with
a range of other parameters. meanwhile high forward is investigating whether certain muscle groups have more strength at certain times of day sergey is one of his test subjects. i prefer to try to run two to three pm that's perfect for me my performance is probably best of times. we'll see about that. until now researchers assumed that athletes with the normal bio rhythm like sergei perform best between four and seven pm that's when they have a slightly higher body temperature and peak but have a listen but in this study the scientists found the athletes reach their best performance at varying times of day seven days best time is seven am. so right now we're assuming that everyone has their own ideal time of day to train . it's the time when they're also about their best and you can see how best improved. further studies will be conducted to check the results but what about the
in durance test does that also reveal big variations in the athletes in our body clocks. there was one time of day where all the test candidates adept in their performance and that was one pm that might be linked to the midday meal time but we don't know yet what was. the performance of many test candidates also dropped after ten pm that's when the cardiovascular system slows down and the body gets ready to go to sleep this can be a problem for professional athletes as many sporting competitions take place late in the evening to coincide with prime time television so on a schmidt talk says has come up with a way of kickstarting athletes sporting performance late in the evening using light . blue light what we call now a no pick light affects the ganglion cells on the retina and that's howard that in
turn sends a message to the part of the brain which controls how awake we are and as we've discovered also affects athletic performance. during the test he had athletes sit in front of a predominantly white light some in front of a blue light and others in normal room lighting each for sixty minutes then they had to ride an exercise bike for twelve minutes. and draft boyd has also been experimenting with blue light in cooperation with light bulb maker us from he's developed glasses for athletes fitted with l.e.d. lights. we're working with the german skiing association says. it's another high profile skiers like good. friends have all given very positive feedback. the athletes wear the l.e.d. glasses for fifteen minutes before a late night race to give them an extra kick so is this
a form of doping. we're putting these athletes into a situation where normally they couldn't produce their top performance all we're doing is. giving them back what the daylight would have done for them during the day. so i wouldn't call it doping as a sports news topping that. the glasses are expected to go on sale to the public later this year. many of the athletes taking part in the tests in basel also perform better after the blue light therapy. they were eight point five seconds faster which on a time trial of ten kilometers makes a world of difference and the results are impressive but be careful too much blue light can mess up your inner clock leading to sleep disorders. but fabienne says he doesn't need l.e.d. glasses to improve his performance he's happy to just keep training as it suits him best. that's all for
today next time we'll be looking at a shark hundreds of thousands of pieces of old satellites old rocket parts are orbiting the earth they present a serious risk to the international space station now scientists are testing a cleanup satellite designed to help remove debris in space there are a couple of ideas for how that might work join us for more next wait until then. move.
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