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o. o o five on the shot. a. northerner wanda july fourth two thousand and fifteen. inch a line nine hundred ninety four troops of the rwandan patriotic front or include tawny seize the capital kigali and put an end to the mass slaughter of the tutsi population. it was the final genocide of the twentieth century. but there are one patriotic front is a political and military movement founded in one nine hundred eighty seven.
the photogram a has led the r.t.f. since the early one nine hundred ninety s. and has been rwanda's president since two thousand and three. was in our culture. medium of we make a distinction between what is good and what is evil. i hope you can you point out that no one needs to explain that to us that would be kenneth who we don't need anyone to show us the path to dignity we have actually three we know what to do. about what i would people were killed for that. moment no one has the right to condemn us. over just one hundred days between april and july one thousand nine hundred ninety four
one of history's most notorious killing machines tore through aranda a million tutsis were exterminated often with the active support of the local population. and then kentucky are at the heart of this complex story of unparalleled violence. that story deserves to be told in full through interviews with some of the major participants. you know. you had. you know. different teams and. meets these look chris. and know. where london is keeping that wonder. this whole thing up both to.
the us. and actually to see chief among those as chiefs. so you want then you was. to take this is to the. our story begins in the one nine hundred fifty s. at that time rwanda was still governed by belgium. rwanda is one of the smallest countries in africa and is the most densely populated. it's sometimes called the land of a thousand hills. the country's main crops certainly in coffee. three population groups share the same land language and guards the majority hutu who are farmers the took see who raised cattle and the twelve who were hunter gatherers.
belgium decided that all three were ethnic groups and through its support behind the tutsi but with the rise of the african independence movement in the one nine hundred fifty s. the tutsi demanded an end to belgium's rule. the belgians supported by the vatican and the white fathers group of catholic missionaries responded by. building up the political and social strength of the hutu. this was to have immediate and tragic consequences in one nine hundred fifty nine hutu launched a violent wave of attacks on the tutsi minority calling it a social revolution. after rwanda gained its independence in one nine hundred sixty two greg walk a reminder a young hutu was sworn in as president an estimated twenty thousand two teams had been killed in the conflict and one hundred fifty thousand others fled to
neighboring countries. some went to the. so my family went. to the us where we stayed. for a couple years. so we grew up with the. comps shift. list. going to winter if she. had been militants fighting. the government of law and order. and we used to hear their stories. he attacked two hundred couple of times of course aid from. the ground said from
the wounds from bruce lee's over what used to call it is. this person they were always disapproving still to be these terrorists are based outside the country that ten twenty or forty of them crossed the border at night. but i believe that it will be absolutely impossible for them to overthrow the regime this silly little you to seek c.s. is what will happen now. to me i'll be put in prison or killed because. of a bit unsure afraid everyone dies. and indeed most do most teenagers. in time to fight. most of the time so to cool degree. of course.
frightful. what do you think of the two terrorists. it's just a few hot heads because they recruit young people. most of them are bandits. and the bond. fund was president for ten years during that time those tutsi who remained in rwanda suffered widespread repression. many were deported to the books there are swamps. in one nine hundred seventy three juvenile hubby every month or two from the country's north over through kaya bundles regime and. the massacres of tutsis came to an end but they were still subjected to discrimination. and. the tutsis regrouped in neighboring countries particularly in uganda where many rwandans lived in exile at first their struggle was cultural. and then expanded to
include a political and military agenda. in the early one nine hundred eighty s. they took the exiles one support from the leader of uganda's national resistance movement you where he was seventy. the for the theft movement is a nationalist organization. it is a nationalist. in the sense that is fighting for the old country and not for any of its section of the country they just don't buy them sort of yes we go to a pretty open open to commit the us. also if you look for is it to know who with one of these and with you going to go there the same people . as if the is the if these are runny joined i mean you got to know this one is. this part of the teaching this for the. rwandan tutsis made up one third of
these forces one of the top commanders was fred really game. another was pollock a gummi who specialized in intelligence operations the. when was seven he was sworn in as uganda's president in one thousand nine hundred six he appointed both men to senior posts. through a game or became deputy minister of defense and kagami took over as head of intelligence. did rwandan president juvenile hobby area man a suspect that during this parade he was watching those who would bring down his government just a few years later. in eighty six most of us however day being part of the. new. skills.
we learned a lot growing. and maturing. but it. so we tried to bring everybody together. if oculus. their name to end is bullshit crud. through london patriotic front to our p.f. was created in one nine hundred eighty seven it was supported by tutsi exiles and some hutu government opponents like future r.p.s. chairman alexis kenya ringway the organization built up a military force led by frederick game. meanwhile tensions were rising in uganda. the military and at least part of the civilian population became increasingly upset about the presence of large numbers of rwanda into the seas.
or ability. even hostile must be tiny before the last thirty. round gives a kind of being treated as they came over as well as you know you're always going to go on. being described disgruntled of us why we should be. president was seventy responded to the discontent by ordering a census of tutsi exiles in uganda. deputy defense minister frederick gamers saw this as a threat to the tutsis and decided it was time for them to return home. they kept adding to the german. police. fourteen uganda and one. but two fold and called who had supported the petition. continue to do but of course i will support you. because i don't want you to be
defeated and come back here. there was this mood. within that one. that one that is within the another. that would be different to talk of one. it was so we could have decided. we move the zoo going and sort of just. uniforms the guns being up to the border. it's wonderful when we cross the border that we don't move on living in the military ships military ranks but stayed with the uniform. long all they have done. well yet oh i'm doing it he
would not know my girl i don't i've ever. and don't you know i want mo or yeah now now i know i will leave you alone why you're here striking the board . on the first of october it was good it was. forces fluids. down in the morning before we'd have to cause it to work we were under surprised to see that in the midst to fit us with these united. major general said with your mind. he took the lead. on the just minutes after as he was standing on an exposed he opened. in front of the enemy david through. the enormous. bullets run he was on the floor has done.
that's the official version. but other reports say he was killed by a deputy commander in an argument over military tactics. for the time being really game as death was kept secret so as not to demoralize the troops or to encourage the enemy. but. we knew that some of the soldiers had fought for the liberation of uganda. we knew that they had experience they were conventional warfare and guerrilla tactics so this on october first one thousand nine hundred ninety one we got the order to attack. my comrades who were my age were afraid because we had
no experience in battle but. there was a degree of what if the troops were attacked us then mixed with the civilian population of the enemy forces attacked the capital so the next day we decided to stage a raid in the area around kigali. in the rwandan capital ten thousand two teens were detained. president hubby yari munna appealed for help from friendly states like say year and especially france were ties between king galley and paris had been closed since the one nine hundred. prisoners from one meter on felt he had to support france's main ally in east africa. did they don't you will join christopher i was in john christophe metropolis office on october fifth. the phone rang. and i knew right away that hobby ari mana was on the line i mean they talked for four or five minutes only to hang up and said
well here we go they've gone berserk and could golly thank you for the rebels have reached the capital that wasn't true but that's what happy area mana had told him. to believe it though he said we'll send the guys some troops and it'll all be over in three months that assessment was a bit premature to use. the force near to. conclude that it is trying. so hard to change their way then went back to. get it out. and more. often that enables you to cause damage. but was. being brought down by in one nine hundred ninety kg army had been studying
at a military college in the u.s. but returned to rwanda to lead the r.p.s. troops. his new strategy was to move his forces out of open areas where they were exposed to enemy attack and deploy them in the mountains. or already. nobody. would know you are. right. when you're on your feet you know. almost. all over the wall the moment i was headed to by. this event a budget isn't one hundred learn sitting with but look at twelve. we are here because of industry so said make a choice it's a simple to be discreet in then to do seems that right to it and the right stuff.
or you pitch i don't think you know a novice should be making this choice to finish. a new set of the counting foot of earth. starting with our lives because so many people were killed. because of some disparity. deployed in the other. he deployed the young man his forces because they're on the force is the last initiative an order responded to these movements. that the french guilty side under supported. nor was. i possibly had a different complaint. because that i don't remember the word indifference but what
they had because of who i want to put in the differential and. i had of them saying . that the far. you know they were like abusing them of course see the. prize you need to get government and they talk about france they don't need it people are so you know many people in. the situation is that. it but isn't it it's not the people. the way under say a good moment to say. he used you know no weapons i mean is that a five minute more tears one hundred twenty minute them of tears.
the inc attorney suffered heavy casualties in the fighting. throughout one nine hundred ninety two there was a succession of battles and ceasefires the rebels seized towns that had been abandoned by terrified residents. gummies troops set up their headquarters at a tea factory in the village of which stands over the hills of northern rwanda. the inca tunney continued to advance at the same time government troops carried out a number of deadly attacks on tutsi civilians the soldiers referred to them derisively as indian or cockroaches. want to know. the any n.z. have returned. they have sent their own children to fight here. but
all of you know that letters exterminate these conscious. about what i am remember what is written in the gospel. if you give the snake her chance to bite it will bite. i must drive all of them out to ethiopia. february eighth one thousand nine hundred ninety three a date that could have changed the course of history. in response to the first massacre the in qahtani launched a major attack that took them all the way to keep ghaly president was forced to negotiate. every german he does this in november. but. the french said yes but should the american sit to last wish. the best.
so this is because. they decided against securing a quick military victory against the government. but he had definitely proven to the international community that his forces held the upper hand. in the. peace talks began in the tanzanian city of a russia. none of the sides involved in the conflict seemed interested in an agreement president javier a man ahead little room to negotiate. the defense ministries chief of staff colonel teo nest bagosora refused to hold talks with the r.p.s. and a powerful group of hutu extremists led by the president's wife worked hard to keep the tutsis from having a share of political power. came. to negotiate
the final details of all twits a government presence in place. distills . didn't want to change anything. what happened was an ugly a shop by ford in the us that's what the coolness. undoubtedly still. needed teddy. but you could. do into negotiations with the losing the. us will. soon still melt a little she's from the russia that's what he told us. is going to. cuddle. up eclipse. the inca tourney scored an impressive diplomatic victory they were assigned fully
one half of the officers in rwanda's new army and forty percent of the rest of the troops. and they managed to secure a total of four ministries in the future a national unity government. but. i don't get. it but it. was shot down was six hundred in qahtani soldiers were sent to the new parliament in kigali to protect the tipsy politicians. oh my gummy remained at his headquarters in the windy. i was thousands of people gathered along the road between melinda and kigali to cheer the encroached on the troops. four months later most of them would be dead. i. said good to see if i'm lucky i'm
easy that's the plan was to set up a transitional government. but kept putting it off report because he didn't want to press this is just to try to disrupt. the president of the yairi munna was no isolated his political options were limited. in the early one nine hundred ninety four the situation created a power vacuum that was soon filled by hutu extremists. the group led by the president's wife and some senior military officers now stepped up their campaign against the troops use. the president's paramilitary militias known as the interim way join the campaign. colonel bought five hundred thousand machetes from china and handed them out to the who to use.
and the state propaganda machine went into high gear the extremist hutu newspaper congress and especially the radio station mille coleen stood up and he took the sentiment. they are evil the governments help us to exterminate better the enco tenney are an evil group the only solution is to exterminate them. the rule. for depot. when he quit we listened to the radio station does it mean colleen. and it first week of school because we couldn't believe what they were saying. it was their broadcasts were done well and they were convincing so you had to respect them for that. they were real professionals and knew how to send the right messages . but but it wasn't until the genocide really started that we realized the role
that this radio station was playing city dukes i said what you. south of kigali in this one plans to build the interim way massacred entire families of two it seems. it was the opening round of a campaign of ethnic cleansing that would soon haunt the region. so much that these massacres gradually destroyed the trust that had slowly been established between the rwandan people and the rwandan patriotic front. to back their own for the every morning the interim highway drove past us and pickup trucks. we were in the building that housed the national development council today's parliament they drove through the streets and screamed we will kill you we will kill you and through the korean movie. in april one nine hundred ninety
four president abi ariana flew to tanzania to ratify a peace treaties that would exclude hutu extremists from government. and the brutal boudin therefore. the kickoff for me for the next event. so i said why should the president's problem. it's night and just local situation. rimini the good looking for the the minister of defense regrets of inform you that the one of the head of state has died unexpectedly his excellency major general you've been all javier rimando was killed on april sixth one thousand nine hundred four at approximately eight thirty pm the fellow the aircraft in which he was
returning from dar es salaam was shot down in circumstances still subtle still not clear. who had shut down hobby ariana's plane there were several suspects including the radical hutus in the uk as the group they had an interest in removing a weak leader who had just sabotaged their political power. and paul konami who saw the president as an enemy who would likely never implement the terms of the peace treaty. in april one nine hundred ninety four rwanda descended into political chaos but the government responded remarkably quickly to honiara monastery. within minutes of the
announcement the presidential guard set up barriers in checkpoints throughout the capital. the media theater that is in the us here they cordoned off everything and to control everywhere. because we the police no longer had access to important parts of the city you know what. or i mean you wouldn't see the u.n. peacekeeping troops couldn't get through either. we had the legal right to go where we needed to. but the presidential guards had everything locked down. soldiers had set up anti aircraft batteries. the investigation into the president's death claim that the belgians were responsible for perhaps the him. so silly that didn't make any sense. but no sense at all. since.
at r.p.s. headquarters in maryland james carburetor a senior advisor to. brief us on the situation in the capital. that's time. people plenty of. people are just. coming to the podium. so. let us. i don't seem to even a five minute spouse if something was a rig up in. the next morning some moderate hutus were murderers including prime minister a got to. ten belgian soldiers who'd been assigned to protect or were killed.
but. the fact is the belgian soldiers are in danger they should stay home the presidential guard has arrived at the airport and they want to argue it's a put down their weapons. they're going to kill them. for soliciting. the radical hutus had sent a clear message to the united nations. at the same time men women and children of all ages whose identity cards identified them as tutsis were tortured and killed at checkpoints. the way it could get embers of the interop morning in the presidential guard ran around killing everyone they could find. their wages i stayed at the presidential palace to take care of people who had fled there through the week it is the fish
you have been with a lot of. it to put re in the soldiers provided them with food and treated the wounded. the c.s. gave the victim and this ichiban many of them had cuts and other injuries that their friends who did a lot of soldiers were also wounded. of course they're different about the sort of our cold but you sort of see we told him if you continue like this it will never stop it's amazing they cut the line and that's the last we heard of the fate of quebec that we came. through for those who so it's good you know like a sort of had a lot of power look you know he was the chief of staff at the defense ministry but one and control the hutu militias and the presidential guard if we do see some officers wanted to take power but was. it almost seemed as though they'd been
planning for this for a long time. indeed it is a victory but others were against it. if you quote. on april eighth there were a london caretaker government was assembled at the french embassy. the new prime minister was john come monday a banker and technocrat brought aboard but we will win the war against the time not i would do that because with the support of the people the number of them. and we will defeat them. about being. i knew immediately to that office was in danger i'm delighted those who live there we knew. they would be attacked. and this was it emitted for us so the
immediate thing they thought of was three fourths of. to reinforce their now wasn't when all in a row to say i wasn't going to ask you in to allow me to reinforce them i knew this what was happening was not following in a ruse. this go to your if you got it was when it was recruited it was surely forms. so far in the military comes on the call for them that is stopping them from going out to kill people this time or pay the cord of those. who survived was. nothing like what the dead have been lying here for three days men and women and a lot of children and young people all. right.
if. the international community intervene to evacuated citizens. this effort inadvertently led to one of the worst massacres in modern history. the tutsi were left to try to defend themselves against hutu attacks. there were scenes of unimaginable barbarity and some of it was captured on video. of something this is also the to me we knew that the people we left behind would be killed. that's the stasi we fail to help them. and there were situations in which it would have been appropriate for us to ignore our orders pussy or he for example we could have rescued the five thousand people who were hiding at the technical schooling people cuter or not but he wasn't far from the airport. we could have brought those people to a shelter there. so we didn't. gave up and left their son operate their.
own off when. they went to the. us when we went to bleed city council. but. that the government of rwanda. is committing to genocide. that was a difficult. and that time some of the general was books was. one to me introduced the subject and the room said ok who wants a question. to see. it seemed to push we're getting the puts will get she's of course out of. security concerns that both the troops. muddle and wrote about not instructions from above from the news time. putin assumed connections that.
he didn't want to see. certainly not since has to deploy forces. like. we have to kill them day off today. we are very committed you know we are doing everything here so that they cannot invade the city was a little. generous to you know. food and one day i recorded a ninety minute phone conversation with the mayor of could be with and you know. he had asked the prefect for help because the in qahtani were approaching his village for the need was of course you know they were he one of the officials to evacuate the village prefect stayed calm and said ok we'll take care of it and it went on like that it requires to go through and it one point the mayor said everything else here is fine with what we're doing a good job and i think we've taken care of the taxi problem for the next one
hundred years. and i'm out of iraq i would argue that it's over i could argue that we would have a had and i would like i think it was. all of us today just fighting . the budget shows the military and in fighting the militias and just trying to stupidly keating's a little civilians and saving guys mina's who. it was. still his. so to speak well aka outnumbered fifty times. lead told the f.b.i. he called the r.p.s. think attorney forces were not very large overeaters and a girl jim center only twelve thousand five hundred soldiers. were killings everywhere that no army could have stopped it it would have taken three hundred
thousand men. i was at an r.p. i think otani military camp about four or five kilometers from here to meet their despair this would lead us the soldiers said they were going to take me to the side of a massacre. but i remember what one of them said to me at the time it really had an effect on me. he said when i saw all those dead people it felt like my brain was melting. my found that expression interesting people so he just couldn't believe what he had seen people do that they could. be volleys of a plane got in the middle of the first thing i saw about twenty meters from the church was the corpse of a child about two years old. there were three other dead bodies if there was a statue of christ at the church. they had used a machine gun to shoot his head off and i asked the soldier why and he said because that christ looked like a tutsi. sheep
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