tv Doc Film Deutsche Welle April 21, 2019 9:15pm-10:00pm CEST
now look at the top story we're following for you at this hour a wave of easter sunday bombings in sri lanka has killed at least two hundred seventy people hundreds more were wounded police say thirty five four nationals are bunk the dead the government has blamed religious extremists and arrested several suspects a nationwide curfew is currently and that's washington daily news more at the top of the hour thanks watched. one organize a party it's a real policy because there is no rushing about everyone rights that only their own cup and then we parted. and you know what the great thing is here is a new name. in
the one nine hundred twenty s. the russian revolution and the armenian genocide led to millions of people being forced to leave their homelands to make it impossible for them to return their respective rulers revoked their citizenship on matters. jurists introduced the term stateless to describe people who had been driven into permanent exile. writer vladimir noble cause for himself one of those affected said it was as if they had dropped off the face of the planet over two million people mainly russians and armenians were brutally uprooted and forced to begin a new life elsewhere they dispersed for the four corners of the earth.
but in spite of all their misfortune these stateless people who are lucky enough to have a headstrong humanist norwegian on their side his name was fritjof nuns. after the first world war had ravaged europe and left millions dead the league of nations was founded in geneva in one thousand nineteen its goal was to prevent such a catastrophe from ever happening again. the forty founding nations sent delegates there and with high hopes. norway chose free doff once and to be its permanent representative. he shared the ideals of the league of nations. a city picked us to deal develop at the time since the first world war the
intellectuals were men with authority whose opinions were sought after. at the league of nations people came together who had never been trained for the roles that they were now expected to fill after world war one you know toward vocative when you again. trigger off once and was primarily a scientist who liked to work outdoors he led several perilous expeditions to conduct zoological and oceanographic research. in one thousand nine hundred five he came close to reaching the north pole and explored that made him world famous. for. his scientific discoveries also learned him recognition from academics around the world manson used his fame to support norway's independence movement which led to the dissolution of norway's union with sweden in one thousand zero five nansen was celebrated as
a hero by his countrymen. his first mission for the league of nations was to repatriate prisoners of war in late one nine hundred ninety nine some set off for russia where thousands of men who'd been captured by russian forces during world war one were still being held in far flung parts of the country. it's right that the league of nations takes the repatriation of the prisoners and hand as their suffering is the result of a war the likes of which the world has never seen the league must make it impossible for such a catastrophe to ever repeat itself. if it nansen its mission was made more difficult by the fact that russia was in the midst of a revolution nicholas the second the last tsar had been forced to abdicate one thousand nine hundred seventeen he was then imprisoned by the bolsheviks and later executed along with his wife and five children under lenin the communists swore to
rid russia of its old aristocracy but people who use it yells it to the children at the start it was viewed as a coup d'etat. but then the whole course of history and what was to come next wasn't clear. still it was a declaration of war on the ruling classes yeah you don't. hear. my great grandfather was a chamberlain or something like that at the winter palace he served there until the revolution and even in the months that followed that ended badly because there was an attempt to assassinate lenin when a certain family kaplan shot him. lenin survived the attack and reacted by a wresting five hundred dignitaries including my great grandfather and locking them up in the crunch that fortress off them. from what i understand after
a few days or maybe two weeks because they didn't know what to do with these hostages they tied them together back to back and tossed them into the gulf of finland. will they all drowned including my great grandfather neither he nor my grandfather have a grave they just disappeared disappeared. he saw. becomes. the communists came to power in moscow and st petersburg and raised the red army to fight a life and death struggle against the counter-revolutionary whites jetted took from october one nine hundred seventeen when everything blew up until the moment when they fled they lived in a country which was still their own but surrounded by terra result all the bushehr he caught in the bolsheviks would derail entire trains and then davy up the passengers they check people's hands and if someone had well kept hands they shot him on the spot when they saw it as a sign of the bush was easy aristocracy you can't overstate the savagery of the
revolution this is from revolution. in my new shoes to the new christmas queue at the start of the revolution the thing which people remember most vividly both the whites and the reds for the expropriations. the expropriation of people's homes first confiscation then dispossession symbolized the collapse of the social order. it was into this chaos that freed you off once and came to arrange for the repatriation of six hundred thousand soldiers captured in the first world war. i have returned from the land of shadows and when i think of all the unbearable human suffering i saw there i can't sit back and do nothing but join forces before it's too late.
manson's travels through russia convinced him that the country was on the verge of famine so he asked the big western powers to provide food aid right away. when they refused to turn to humanitarian organizations like the american red cross and since persistent son this is very first mission earned him the reputation of being an aunt found to replay at the league of nations. and was also one of the few westerners to predict the coming apocalypse which would drive so many russians into exile. don't you see surface of this is where three centuries of history for the suspension ski family came to an end and they rose with the romanovs when they ascended to the throne in sixteen thirteen by one nine hundred twenty it was all
over. look if we measured this is he did imagine that it's night the seas frozen all the way to the finish coast thirty five or forty kilometers away you set off in the dark to reach the finish border. my grandfather was accompanied by his two eldest sons my father was twelve his older brother fifteen my grandfather was forty one of forty two he and his eldest son were on cross-country skis. my father was in a horse drawn sleigh possibly with other escapees the red guards would patrol here at night and shoot whenever they heard a sound. a horse galloping or noises made by a sleigh or skis. this kid from mill bruce and each night the reds would send out an ice breaker from petrograd to foil escape attempts. to treat a little nearer than me but what my father remembers most is the sound of the ice
cracking and wondering if they'd make it across before the ice breaker. got very much in it because if you can imagine how risky it was to meet with the people traffickers who had to be paid as my grandparents didn't own much they were expelled they might have had a little jewelry with them i don't know if. it was their meaning it all ended right here it involved its moving. list today left everything behind them absolutely everything. this could say to you people were fleeing mainly from the big cities like moscow and st petersburg which were in the hands of the bolsheviks. the implicit rallying cry among the classes opposed to the revolution was go south where
a forerunner of the white army was already forming and we lose on the last. with the capture of rostov on don in january nineteen twenty the reds victory was sealed the white army forces were pushed back and eventually driven out of russia. only the allies also played a major role during this huge up evil and really during the entire civil war as well not only did they supply the whites with weapons they also played an important part in their evacuation of their ships were docked nearby. they came and collected people in the caucasus region and on the black sea coast. that was the start of the mass exodus because.
i don't get it at first the reds let the white forces go but many civilians went along with them. the city by the final months of one thousand twenty people were fleeing in panic on and on. by the end of one nine hundred twenty one and a half million russians had left their own land and more waiting to be taken in by various european countries most of these refugees hope to settle in germany or france but in constantinople the comparable of the ottoman empire their situation only worsened becoming a humanitarian catastrophe. hundreds of thousands of soldiers from the defeated white army streamed into the city with their families and became stranded there. they lived in cry. emergency shelters scattered throughout constantinople. at the time of their arrival turkish nationalists were driving orthodox christian
minorities out of the ottoman empire so the russians who are also orthodox christians were unwelcome the red cross cared for the russian refugees as best they could but soon realized that the problem was too big for them to handle on their own they sent a telegram to the diplomats at the league of nations who decided to create the post of high commissioner for refugees and gave the john two free job months. and you should not send the decision to make nuns in high commissioner for refugees was prompted by the success of his mission to repatriate the prisoners of war. in addition that the league of nations humanitarian affairs were considered matters for smaller nations. so the major powers were more than happy to interest this task to the representative of the nordic country a few resource. when once in arrived in constantinople in his function as high
commissioner for refugees he was shocked by the russian refugees living conditions . i thought i saw a whole city before me with its thousands of lights it was their camps spread out over the plain camp fire by camp fire and there they were sleeping on the ground without any shelter of any kind they do not know where they are going and will find no shelter when they come nansen quickly realized that the russians had to be evacuated from constant ennoble sickle cell new just sheer luck that raised the question of how they should be distributed among the various host countries and who should care for them lucky that you but right from the start there was also the question of their legal status who are these people and how can we protect them from a legal perspective balls and also everyone assumed that nuns and would also be organizing the refugees expected return to their homeland a short while later pip. here
in december of one nine hundred twenty one issued a decree in the form of an ultimatum. all russians living outside of the country were called upon to recognize the new regime and had three months in which to register at a soviet consulate if they failed to do so by this deadline their citizenship would be revoked one and a half million russians ignored this ultimatum and consequently became state less. the bolshevik government's wholesale and collective disenfranchisement of millions was completely unprecedented with a simple decree a stroke of a pen people's worlds fell apart.
because russians who weren't living in russia were no longer russian citizens they now had no nationality at all finding themselves in a legal vacuum that raised the question who are they then they were stateless and that wasn't just a fact but also a legal issue. so some thought had to be given to introducing a system to care for those who no longer benefited from the protection of any state of being he he did a political can only not and efficiently refugees we're now seen as people without nationality who no longer had a country of origin and so were anomalies in the context of international law you can't honestly not only. at this time when new nation states were arising out of the ashes of empires the first thing that these new states did was to introduce border controls from soon visit up.
to some entrance and exit visas and identity papers were now required most everywhere book produce but as many russians had left their country with documents that were only valid in their own land and had since expired or had no idea at all they had nothing to show. this marks the first time that europe was confronted with the issue of undocumented migrants a solution had to be found which would allow these people to travel within europe. the idea for the nuns and passport was born in the p.s. if you know it was called a certificate at first it was a solution to a very concrete and urgent problem it was your. these kinds of then there never really been any agreement at the european level on the refugee issue so this was a real innovation and one that was realized in a very short time and will cool.
that's an assembled a group of lawyers comprised of stateless russians together they considered what rights and responsibilities would be associated with such an identity document for different host countries their goal was to coordinate residency and working conditions enter for silicate travel nansen embarked on a veritable world tour to present and promote his passport and as many countries as possible. who comes in will said i commissioned munson and his office which was linked to the league of nations had virtually no financial resources and no funding to give all they had was an operating budget that was simply ridiculous rigid function multimedia truett the league of nations gave nansen just fifteen thousand pounds sterling which were allocated for the evacuation of the refugees from
constantinople. when the people left constantinople they had no idea they'd be in paris only two years later project they only found their way there gradually and moving relatively few made their way directly from constantinople to paris or to france at all. about the one there is really was a journey in stages. whether in paris berlin new york or shanghai russian refugees had to register with a committee comprised of a representative of the office of the high commissioner and other russian refugees and checked whether the state was people met the criteria to receive a nansen passport it was valid for a year and could be extended for a lifetime holders were expressly. forbidden from returning to their countries of origin after receiving the passport they were under the protection of their host country. school have been on but even at the beginning of the one nine hundred
thirty s. people were talking about the nuns and passport but in reality it was only a collection of these that looked like anything but a passport from this description everyone thinks of a complete document but flipping through its pages you can see it wasn't that way at all but in reality it took many years until the nuns and pass had become this little booklet and still it was viewed as an outstanding solution to the refugee problem which was considered huge at the time when you. have to avoid yash forgive where you asked for nothing but travel and more travel. so passive. they went through poland first to kiev then to poland and then arrived in berlin. this is nice i was born stateless in berlin i
didn't have a homeland days i was like my parents i had nothing i was completely stateless yeah yeah. after our country defeated ya as a student in berlin puffer did any job going he was dying of hunger. if he was studying to be an engineer but he did all kinds of work you have to let me see he looked after an awful war home he took for walks in the park and who treated him like a dog you think because i'm a shia i have a don't hasidim my physique he worked in a cinema and made the music by turning the hurdy gurdy public hated all that. high commissioner nansen also tried to find work for all of the stateless refugees. of course it's not easy for former princesses who've never held a broom in their hands before to kneel down and scrub the steps and floors of public buildings but now they do it without grumbling because it's still better
than selling themselves on the street which many unfortunately have had to do. to be able to complete his task nansen worked closely with our brow toma director of the international labor office he had also been set up by the league of nations shortly after its founding in one thousand nine hundred. by collaborating they could relocate stateless refugees to places where workers were needed they sent out questionnaires to discover what measures the governments would be prepared to take over tomorrow. i wanted to turn the international labor office into an organization that could create a macro economic balance between unemployment and labor shortages worldwide now he had a project that legitimized his organization and its role due to the refugees why because no one asks for stateless. refugees.
france was one of the countries to play a decisive role at the time france was seen as the united states of europe meaning it was open to immigration yes it was the only country that was in need of workers and prepared to accept them even with halfway open arms. the russians were mainly concentrated in paris at first they gravitated there automatically because most of the big russian organizations were there. in one thousand twenty the russian high school was founded and infrastructure that played an important role in the organization of the russian community in paris was created . to. say.
it is not to preserve the key some companies relied on russian any greys have for one very simple reason because there were very left wing if not outright pro-communist elements in the french labor movement poor. communities time he exists to a company that employed a large number of russians whose hearts didn't exactly yearn for revolution was guaranteed a reliable workforce. of one month. i don't so in certain circumstances such as at the beginning mill plant and beyond cool it was desirable to take on russians. who. owns the roots you with were you. close to nine thousand russians with nansen passports worked in the car factories of train no in-situ on. in french society the image of the russian prince denigrated to driving
a taxi cab was typical of the fate of russian emigres. russian restaurants and nightclubs were popular with revelers in paris but many russian artists had become stateless also made it clear to westerners what it meant to be uprooted and forced into exile. here it is. soon officially robbed of their nationality the only possessed a nansen passport to and yet remained russians among them composers sergei prokofiev igor stravinsky and sergei rupp on enough. dancer on a poverty of. painters nicholas to stale and a mark sure guy and writers iran born in the know about over and bloody mary noble cough in one of his letters he wrote mother we must return mustn't way we cannot be that all his died turned to dust such an idea could drive one mad not having
a corner to oneself is simply torture at times. almost a million once in passports were issued to stateless russians allowing them to find new homes around the globe who very phrase also my god they survived like all the others. they survived but they still had to live with their memories. my poor grandmother own my god. in nineteen twenty two and was awarded the nobel peace prize in recognition of his three years of service to the international community. the nobel committee honored him for his commitment to repatriating prisoners of war aiding famine victims in russia and finally for introducing the passport for stateless russian refugees which bears his name. but this international recognition didn't mean nonsense work was through on the contrary
just weeks after the nobel prize ceremony nansen the former polar explorer embarked on his last big mission fighting for the rights of the armenian people. he said working it out from this point a nascent guy he had to believe you all know also for your money can see every ship coming in going out. the rehearsal
bottles here read walter from the pool from history or you. think. along with his commitment to helping russian refugees nansen had long been preoccupied with the plight of the armenians. he repeatedly called the ethnic cleansing that occurred in the ottoman empire in one thousand nine hundred fifteen the greatest catastrophe in human history. the armenians one of the christian minorities in the ottoman empire had suffered a number of massacres since eight hundred sixty then in april of one nine hundred fifteen things took an even more serious turn. my grandfather was a lawyer and in central anatolia. it's the major city in that part of capital.
he had a good relationship with his colleagues and the presiding judge and everything was fine too for us is by then one morning two police officers knocked on his door and said to my grandfather him at the presiding judge wishes to see you because something's unclear with one of the files. and with incredible clairvoyance and utmost calm my grandfather turned to my grandmother and said the files are all perfectly clear. they've come to take me away you won't see me again if you convert to islam so you can flee as quickly as possible. these were the last words they ever exchanged world my grandmother was holding my father in her arms he was just too he says and later had no memory of his father only bob do the muggle mail bunky socially i'm sitting on but some bear. makkal maffia
my grandmother lived in the pontus mountains they killed her husband her family and her sisters. she and her two children were deported to the syrian desert they had to walk hundreds of kilometers. between in the desert you have to cross the entire length of the ottoman empire through the highlands people to. the wall so tell them . she to kill the cubit i know she was wealthy because she had diamonds and gold. but i believe that little by little she tried to convert them into money when he's completely her children was still very young and didn't survive that's terrific. said general memo this young mother had to endure all kinds of horrors she and all the others use up. one and a half million armenians were killed on the orders of the government of the so called young turks they took advantage of the chaos created by the first world war
to massacre the armenians in their own land without having to fear any foreign intervention. news of the massacre spread quickly and a number of high ranking individuals first and foremost for joff once in him self swore that justice would prevail and that the young turks would be held responsible for their crimes. armenians are survived the massacre and deportations were left to fend for themselves in the syrian desert after the end of world war one this area was under french control france had been given the mandate for syria and lebanon orphanages and emergency shelters were quickly set up. they don't like the question is what's going to happen to these people yemeni and it's themselves a scene in letters to the french authorities wanted to return home they write that
autumn is almost over and they must return to so that crops so they'll have nothing to eat next summer. many of them were firmus reason up. but the survivors didn't return to armenia. in one thousand nine hundred eighty two most a far came on ataturk came to power though he wasn't involved in the armenian genocide of nine hundred fifteen ataturk was a fervent turkish nationalist he drove the last autumn insult not of his palace and founded the modern day republic of turkey in which christians had no place it edge of who god is only and so went on many in this wanted to return to turkey because that land was now called the republic of ticky they were denied entry because they went turks and when they presented them papers from the ottoman empire because they
were also means the consulates were instructed not to provide them with papers that would give them to nationality but. not initially to check. to be rid of the armenians once and for all not a turk collectively revoked their citizenship just as lenin had done with the exiled russians the previous year. i have confirmed to the council that we are resolved to helping the armenian refugees with a piece of id like the one we introduced for the russians employing the same methods as the russian regime the current turkish government refuses to let armenian refugees return home on turkish soil this government has no reason to reject the granting of such a certificate to the armenians. it should also be remembered that the league of nations has already on three occasions issued resolutions on behalf of the armenians and their national status to no effect. this is an opportunity for us to at least do something for these refugees and i think we must seize it. if it's more
a demand here be official request was made at the league of nations man some was already high commissioner for the russian refugees so the leaks general assembly put it in writing that the certificate introduced for the russians could also be expanded to include the armenians. from ports throughout asia minor from constantinople to is mer the remaining armenians in turkey left the land of their birth for a good. survivors and their french controlled mandate territories mainly orphans came aboard in beirut. several hundred thousand and total they wound up scattered around the world in the armenian d.s. for. going to. electrician receptivity the allocation of nuns and passports was conducted by
refugee organizations themselves. the league of nations and the office of the high commissioner had a delegation that headed the refugee committees in each country. in france to committees of minion refugees were mainly responsible for handing out least documents. from a news went to them to attest to their identity is the birthplace date of birth that bad the sun if so in sept then they could get a documents proving their identity books of war but i. don't get it. at that time my father was twelve years old yet here he came in front of the having being in the orphanage in lisbon and not only among yeah he was. eleven or twelve years old and he came with the nansen passport to france yeah. this
is armenia yes. object of the british september nineteenth twenty four the final solution of the armenian question. refugees and then i look aided by the russian government. none turned it down to one hundred nine some was a man who represented the transition from the nineteenth to the twentieth century so then he did a lot for no we joined independents he believed in nations in peaceful nation states and he was convinced that people were always better off in their homelands than in exile so he felt that the situation of the armenians couldn't last that the best thing that could happen to the exiled armenians scattered around the world
would be to get their own land a place to call home she's. nuts and invested much energy in this project which he felt particularly passionate about his plan was to settle fifty thousand refugees at the edge of the caucasus and soviet territory after receiving the mandate from the league of nations nansen visited the site accompanied by technical experts. even democrats all to compress at first glance this project looked great but in reality there were huge ideological problems. first of all this union was soviet. so the western power was one very keen on creating ties with the soviet union which they were fighting elsewhere from. all could do so the question was could the western backers and russia which was also invested in the project reach an agreement in the end nothing came of it up. manson wasn't able to get the western
powers and the soviet union to agree so his resettlement project failed. took this very hard he quit the league of nations for failing to support him. in one nine hundred forty seven and tens of thousands followed stalin's call to come and start a new life in the soviet republic of armenia. but for a joke manson didn't live to see. the old. me of one thousand nine hundred thirty. thousands of norwegians flocking to his state funeral to pay their last respects to a famous polar explorer international diplomat and nobel peace prize laureate.
in the years following his death europe experienced new waves of refugees cold in conflicts who had been driven out of iraq and jews fleeing from hitler's nazi germany. is referred to as my parents were russian jews and their situation had become intolerable and the nation is united longing for a time they were living with a german woman who treated them like. it was awful she humiliated and treated them like swine because they were jewish or short finally they decided to leave germany because it wasn't possible to live under hitler they had no rights no life yet every puke at the y. quick review of. even though they held gunson passports the russian jews in germany shared the same fate as the german jews they were forced to flee. but times have changed the great depression and mass unemployment had caused many countries
to close their borders stateless refugees were no longer welcome anywhere. in early one nine hundred thirty nine two hundred thousand people fled from franco's spain into france a country that had previously welcomed many russians and armenians but now france decided to in turn them into camps on the border and the league of nations supported these measures thereby turning their back. next on the ideals for which for just months and had fought for so passionately. the passports bearing his name were still being granted but now only in isolated cases. in one thousand nine hundred five beleaguered nations was replaced by the united nations to address the scale of the refugee problem the un in one nine hundred fifty one adopted a new refugee convention based in large part on the original charter drafted by fritjof nuns.
yeah name one of the russian and a million refugees remember months and differently and their memories of him differ because they report with him most in the same islands and in the case of the armenians they received a passport which states nationality conan amini i mean you and i made you secure my home just when i wanted to renew my idea at the city hall of the seventh home to small in paris the man said to me you know you have to write to know. what he posts to talk i said i'm not writing anywhere else but he replied you must you may be a frenchman but you're not a french frenchman i remarked because i wish you hadn't noticed him but after thinking it over i realized he's right i'm really not i been quite offended but
then i told myself it's true i'm not a french frenchman but in armenia i'm not an armenian armenian either you know in turkey i'm not a turkish turk. i'm happy to be wherever i am i'm in them been over today i'm glad to be here today i'm even a bit norwegian so i'm armenian norwegian anatoly and i come from a land where people have big noses and big ears i'm the sequel with more to follow should a street grow in order to. quote. the are. both. the. top of the.
street. there are. in spite of unrest of duction and murders the rangers are still here. we have chosen this work and we're ready to give our lives to save the mountain gorillas from extinction. rangers and from going to national park in congo trying to fight off thousands of heavily armed rebels who from the land of its natural resources. protecting resources and guerilla have attacked in thirty minutes on t.w.
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play . a. play this is d w news live from berlin grief and outrage follow a wave of bombings in sri lanka on easter sunday seven blasts spread through the luxury hotels of churches and eight the explosion came during a police raid the death toll now stands at two hundred seven with hundreds more injured officials are blaming religious extremists and have made several arrests out the latest.