tv Doc Film Deutsche Welle April 27, 2019 2:15pm-2:59pm CEST
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we've eliminated the missing pieces basilica and the vatican city and right in the cathedral on st peter's square is a magnificent edifice capped with larger than life statues of the apostles. it's the most impressive monuments of the renaissance with colonnades reminiscent of the temples of antiquity. same pieces is the largest church in the world yet its construction would have been impossible just a few generations before. no one had the knowledge of mathematics physics and structural engineering needed to plan and organize such a vast project. then in the mid sixteenth century artists and scholars stepped onto the stage and
managed to do things that it seemed impossible for the previous thousand years. within just for generations they've created the knowledge necessary to carry out massive projects such as st peter's. europe was transformed under the influence of individuals like michelangelo bureaucracy men of extraordinary accomplishment and versatility who found ways to bring seemingly impossible ideas to. their achievements still resonate today. but how did they do this what was the secret of an age when the world seemed to undergo a paradigm shift the age of the innocence the arab. the bat.
rome fifteen forty seven that's one man stood out above all michelangelo bureaucracy project manager architect and artist on the construction side for st peter. although he was in his early seventy's by this time he was still driven by ambition . michelangelo was a painter sculptor and architects a scientist iconoclast and a genius but we now refer to as the brain essence man. in one of his works would become the icon of an entire era. is. what it. is certainly michelangelo's david is perhaps the
best known sculpture in history. to men like michelangelo with the managers of an era in which art and culture knowledge and technology developed at near liking speed. florence fifteen zero one michelangelo astonished his contemporaries with works that seem to border on the miraculous he set out to carve david from a twelve ton block of marble a feat at which to sculpt just before him had failed. michelangelo became obsessed with the undertaking and spent three years working nonstop on the five meter tools stretching the first monumental sculpture of the high renaissance. from a cumbersome block of marble michelangelo's hammer and chisel revealed a human figure. in the poem.
in your hand this falls in. the image of mankind changed in the renaissance. pope innocent the third set at the end of the twelfth century that man was rottenness formed of slime and ashes a contemptible creature in the medieval belief that the sinful nature of man was visible in his appearance. in the ring the renaissance we can see how this pessimistic view had become tiresome the idea arose that man was almost like god or man was god's creation endowed with reason with strength and created in his image man could almost become a god. some ten years after he completed david michelangelo finished his figure of moses for the tomb of pope julius the second.
larger than life this moses is an angry prophet with bulging veins and a system visage the way gods were depicted in the ancient world. michelangelo may have learned from the masters of antiquity but he didn't copy them . live initials was more than just the rebirth of antiquity. men like michelangelo created something neat they typically take neat and also the ancient greeks and romans and developed them further. than this all scurry you won't find a single artwork of the renaissance that simply copies an ancient. the crucial thing is that the renaissance didn't just rediscover the critical spirit of the greeks for example it didn't just grapple with the science and scholarship of antiquity it developed everything further it invented completely new things and toppled the ancient giants who had originally been its teachers.
but primavera one of the best known works of renaissance arts. raphael school of athens glorified ancient thought. and leonardo da vinci's mona lisa. for more than a thousand years the skill of realistically capturing the three dimensional world on a flat canvas had been forgotten the renaissance rediscovered perspective. it was a quantum leap for architecture which took its inspiration from the symmetry of the great buildings of the ancient world. the art of building huge dome structures had fallen into oblivion in the middle ages and was rediscovered in the innocence. but the renaissance didn't limit itself to oh.
the invention of double entry bookkeeping also meant that men of business now knew what funds they had available the surplus fortunes of the newly wealthy flowed into the pockets of the era's artists. it was like an investment program for scholars and artists never before had so much been invented or devised in such a short period of time. new mechanical machines were created. and the human machine was researched an increasing detail the study of anatomy reached a peak. the first pocket size timepieces were invented this also made it possible to track the orbits of planets and the movements of celestial bodies. as the heavens guided seafarers adventurous disturbing new trade routes the known world tripled in size. it's good for friends there's
probably no place anywhere in the world where so much was discussed in one big conversation involving such a large number of participants. things were invented in such quick succession. printing triggered a huge discourse that captivated large parts of the population. elites scholars and clerics too of course exchanged ideas and so invented groundbreaking new things noise free. but what was the impetus for this exceptional period of history. what were the ingredients in this explosive developments how could men like michelangelo suddenly reacquire knowledge antic meek's that had been lost for centuries. let's look back to rome in the first century. that the romans were capable of constructing buildings like st peter's as seen in the roman forum the power center
of an empire that ruled the western world. rome exploited its way of life to its full of his provinces it dictated the us culture and architecture of an entire era. at a time rome was home to a million people twenty times more than one of the largest cities of the renaissance. but rome's dominance was built on the oppression of millions of slaves entire peoples were subjugated. for centuries the roman military machine succeeded in holding the impiety gether.
but at some point about variance gain the upper hand triumphs the cults and the vandals. in the fifth century the western empire ceased to exist. roma couple monday once the capital of the world and home to a million people fell into decay and the dark ages began. much of the knowledge of antiquity was lost in all areas but particularly in engineering architecture mathematics and physics. the ruins of the ancient world were plundered for building materials. just a few generations after rome fell no one was capable of creating anything remotely comparable. in the year three hundred thirty the roman emperor constantine had
moved his capital to the prosperous and what is now turkey naming it constantinople in his own honor. after that the empire split into an eastern and western. eastern roman empire also known as byzantium and did until the fifteenth century constantinople was the second row home to more than half a million people who call themselves. romance. the byzantine emperor saw themselves as descendants of caesar and augustus while its patriarch was head of the orthodox christians. constantinople also became the repository of ancient wisdom. big scholars with leading figures in every field. hand. the rome of the east was the
bulwark of antiquity in the medieval world. no one had been able to conquer the city on the prosperous. more than one seventh of its population were merchants from january and the republic of venice known as latin. this affluent minority had a reputation for arrogance sent a literal and were unpopular with eastern romans. in only eleven seventy one riots broke out in paris the generals course and. the emperor amano were the first come then also accuse the venetians of causing the trouble. finishing merchants were imprisoned and their possessions confiscated.
and then is tried to defend its people to no avail. it was the start of a conflict that was to last for decades and ultimately end in designs difficult. the conflict culminated in what history cools the full crusade. this wasn't a crusade against people of a different faith but a catholic war against also ducks christians. the crusaders laid siege to constantinople and on the night of the twelfth of april twelfth for breaks through its defenses. for three days they plundered the city abusing raping and killing many of its residents. it's also all of the collapse of byzantium it's defeat by the west during the fourth crusade and it subjugation by the ottoman empire all played a major role in the development of the renaissance man from
a few think in the year up to now many scholars fled to italy taking manuscripts with them and trying to instill new values and ideas into a culture they still saw as barbaric no gave an unprecedented boost to innovation to bring about. the libraries of constantinople will repeat with traces of immeasurable worth the collective knowledge of antiquity. as hundreds of scholars and artists the advance of the ottoman turks they took valuable books with them. chris lawrence was one of them when the chancellor of florence offered him a chair at the university there he also sent him
a wish list of ancient work. this exodus of scholars from his that introduced ancient techniques to the west marvels sculptures took on a realist movement and vitality unknown in the middle ages ancient frescoes inspired painters. long forgotten engineering techniques triggered a wave of technical innovation. ancient ideas about the movement of the heavenly bodies with one small. science especially mathematics and physics experienced an unexpected revival after centuries of oblivion. for the europeans learned from several civilisations they learned from the greeks and romans the arabs the byzantines and also from the indians the arabic numeral system we use today actually came from india. but they didn't just
copy they develop something new with what they had learned and disseminated these ideas through printing. there was an incredible flourishing of discussion and debate. before. florence in fourteen ten a city state with a population of fifty three. thousand the size of london and bursting with self-confidence. the italian says he was like the silicon valley of the renaissance a fount of knowledge and a meeting place for artists and sculpts. the ambitious plans for the cathedral of maria belfiore were drawn up around thirteen hundred it was to be the largest church in kristen de mint bigger and more beautiful than the cathedrals of pisa sienna and milan. a hundred and fifty
three meters long florence cathedral remains the full flutist church in the world but back then it was number one. by the time it's forty five meter diameter dome was completed it sets a world record george of us ari an artist and architect began work on the four thousand square metre fresco in its interior which was to rival michelangelo's last judgment. but the salaries figures on lost in the heights of the. visitors below can barely see them. in fourteen eighteen more than one hundred years after its construction began the cathedral dome had not been built. and no one in the middle ages had the knowledge to solve the structural and technical problems. filippo burlesque took on the task.
brunelleschi was an architect and sculptor as well as an engineer and an inventor. inspired by the ancient terms of the pantheon and i as a fia he had clear ideas about how to realize the ambitious project. he developed special cranes for the domes construction and new inventions that would revolutionize building methods. machines were a novelty of his era and were widely admired. the cable that lifted the blocks of stone was seven centimeters thick one hundred eighty meters long and weight off a ton. later the builder would receive the exclusive rights to build a ship with a crane on it the first pay tent in industrial history filippo bringing leskie
rediscovered perspective a technique largely forgotten since antiquity. it was a geometrical system that made it possible to depict three dimensional views realistically. using it in mannish to put the building plans down on paper and render them visually comprehensible. because. it was the dawn of modern architecture. perspective drawing also inspired painters and their works took on a new release and. artistic view was on a journey to new worlds and renaissance paintings became more realistic than ever before. the rediscovering of perspective drawing was a powerful engine of progress.
the fashionable architects in italy's competing city states particularly in venice milan florence and pisa became some of the top earners of the renaissance. no longer nameless as they had been in the middle ages they were celebrated and pampered elites. venetian noblemen spend fortunes on palaces in the new style. architect antonio continue designed and built the bridge of sighs one of the most photographed motifs in the world. this new style of building became popular outside italy the city will in syria is a masterpiece of the late renaissance one hundred years earlier the sculptor and builder until an eastern man had built one of the most picturesque examples of italian renaissance village cern town hall in switzerland.
the new style inspired by the buildings of the ancient world was characterized by symmetry and a clear system for the arrangement of columns arches and. architecture gardens and sculptures were designed as complete artistic ensemble. the aim was to please the eye and please the people not praise god. in view i mean really good evil art was basically religious art that's in part evident. by the fact that we only know the names of a handful of the artists and although it was customary to assign individual works we often speak of the master of such and such whose name we don't even know and given the songs and the renaissance we see the creators of works being named built and became free from religious motifs and turn towards everyday life. but also describe that everyday life more accurately aspic think of perspective painting for example. art try to reflect everyday life in great detail. was extremely
self-confident artists stepped up and made their demands on funding the powerful who in turn then courted them for it to be he can feel michelangelo for example who would even dictate certain things to the pope pops'. to you can come. in thirteen forty seven the black death broke out in europe. bubonic plague killed almost tough the english population within just seven months and at least a third of the population of europe in the next four years. millions perished. it was the most horrific epidemic in european history and it changed everything ultimately even people themselves.
so tunisians cling mark it might sound cynical but the plague didn't just have a negative effect on the culture of the renaissance and the artisan. by the wealth of the dead was concentrated in the hands of the survive or since. those who survived saw life with completely different eyes. and some must have said let's enjoy our days and spend them in the best way possible. maybe they wanted to surround themselves with beautiful art. and others would have wanted to square their accounts with god and do something for the well being of their souls like maybe who built an entire church. at a fundamental influence on people's attitudes to life. and.
the imperative of the renaissance was live this life and enjoy. renaissance it was a complete apart from the art of the middle ages needed bodies everywhere beautiful people and meshed and. open and righteous and. in michelangelo's last judgment the heavenly host the show needed in great anatomical detail it was the revolution. the plague ravage florence only a fifth of the city's population survived the black death. it also changed how wealth was distributed and led to the rise of a new elite tycoons who became unimaginably rich. families like the maid ichi were merchants and bankers people who had been held in contempt by the feudal
society of the middle ages no they were the ones in charge. let's go back to the year fourteen twenty five and the sculpted on a tenner. his patron cousin was the first great sponsor of the arts. was a wealthy banker and a shrewd strategist who employed almost mafia like methods. he was one of the richest men of his day and his money fueled the development of art and architecture in florence. it provided the spark that ignited the italian renaissance. but his success would never have been possible without a seemingly minor invention that revolutionized banking. double
entry bookkeeping was the simple financial instrument that involved keeping a credit account showing income and a devotee account without going payments. the first complete double entry bookkeeping system can be traced back to thirteen fourteen and ledges from genoa showing government income and expenditure. double entry bookkeeping showed account holders how much capital they had on hand allowing them greater overview and control of their finances. in the mid eighty's were global players they issued loans and signed secured credit notes were travelers that could be cashed in many countries the precursor to today's traveler's checks. and huge sums and spend them again by the time he died he spent six hundred thousand florins equivalent to more than a quarter of
a billion euros on taxes donations to the needy on buildings and on alt. host of writers scholars artists and architects were dependent on his money and they repaid him in p.u.c. . palace is a glorious stage of renaissance art it's hard to believe that because you know instructed the architect not to make it too magnificent as he didn't want to rouse the envy of the other patrician families. maybe she's also invested in the spiritual well being they donated money for a new church. not ends up. causing
a demented she supported artists careers and spawned something that had not existed before the celebrity. star and this celebrity arose in a sort of intellectual hothouse in a market full of competition where humanists intellectuals creatives and artists of all kinds were supported and often very well paid by patrons. these patrons in turn hoped these artists would bring their courts greater fame and status of your plans for your fantasy book painters and sculptors purple they soon became just as important as skill lost it's been recognised artist the suffering genius david was the first life sized sculpture of a new since antiquity. unlike other cultures the renaissance didn't worry about depicting naked or semi-naked bodies with a fast mark but that was very significant for the development of medicine. you know
and we're going to. what was also unusual was this interpretation. tellers david is not a muscular adult but a youth with a rather feminine appearance. and he is fascinatingly lifelike. but where did on a teller get his knowledge of the human body. within physio some of the early renaissance for all things classical interest in anatomy was growing as well. almost all the artists sculptors and painters of the renaissance would have studied human anatomy if only from books and drawing. there was a flourishing trade in fresh corpses it was illegal in many places and punishment for this crime was often draconian but curiosity often triumphed over fear.
didn't tell a quite possibly deceptive corpses to. michelangelo and leonardo da vinci one or two generations later. but even in donna telos time in the early renaissance artists were very familiar with the structure of the human body which allowed them to create new very lifelike depictions of people. many liked and i tell you were either artistically talented scholars all scholarly artists. as fate would have it done to tell it was interpretation of the old testament hero didn't achieve the same popularity is another sculpture of the renaissance one that was also created in florence. at five meters tall michelangelo's david is the monumental statue. half a century after dinner tello it symbolized the self-confidence of the new renaissance man.
going to say explosive thing about the renaissance was that people became aware of their abilities and strengths in a new way before. they unleashed an incredible energy in their thinking and actions in business and technology. of just there was an outpouring of self-confidence and now you know before science. in the middle ages nearly everyone was illiterate the few who could read and write with from wealthy a family all men and women of the church. the people who may need all owned books looked after them like treasures. a capias might only produced ten to fifteen volumes in an entire lifetime which made the books incredibly valuable. but that was about to change. through the courts and to obtain a lovely kodak such as
a bible for example you would have to slaughter an entire flock of sheep and that was expensive. but suddenly books could be had for a little money and reading became democratic. knowledge became accessible to larger numbers of people. more and more people were able to participate in scholarly discussions about new ideas. that's the only way we can explain how europe became the continent of innovation more so than any other. us news i'm good thanks to. the scribes of the church hadn't just copied works they had also changed them and falsified sources claiming very into taishan as the word of god. that gave them great power. but the renaissance broke them enormously our knowledge one of the most important bastions of the church. this intrigued me
and it's an awareness of sources. and the truth grew not least because these sources were now accessible and people started analyzing them using classical techniques techniques used in antiquity. the traditional myths propagated by the church simply one accepted anymore. and for. minds fifty. printing. invention may have been the most significant one in a thousand years and yet we don't know what he looked like. his achievement was to combine existing methods of reproduction and printing into a single system. the handheld cost was the key to his printing press. it allowed letters to be cast individually more quickly and with greater precision. this marked the invention of modern
printing. it was also the dawn of mass communication. information became more widely available opening the door to new opinions and perspectives. information also became valued in new ways as the printed word took precedence over tradition. printing was of truly enormous significance and gutenberg is the person who did the most important thing in a thousand years of world history reading became increasingly widespread. the great scientific innovations and the great religious revolution reformation wouldn't have been possible without printing. the first sixty years after the invention of printing so the publication of four hundred different binocular editions of the
bible. at the same time the number of people who could read and write grew. more and more people now had direct and immediate access to biblical texts to the word of god. the people of the renaissance felt close to god they felt they were becoming godlike themselves and they would have said that in the middle ages it would have been considered blasphemous people refer to the bible and call themselves god's creations god made us in his image were almost gods in miniature god came closer to people in the renaissance than he ever was in the middle ages. but it wasn't books that made up the bulk of the printing shops business. and pamphlets. they were affordable and. three hours. now even ordinary people could print. their opinions
and drawings. three subjects sensations and. religious instruction and political and military propaganda. they could be an invitation and opinion. just like today's social media networks they served as a vehicle for the dissemination of opinion. through . the renaissance had fly sheets it had literature that was printed and spread very quickly they could be printed in tomorrow and in two days time would be. information disseminated more quickly and was much harder to control too. and the censorship of the church that dictated what was right didn't work anymore once the
fly sheets again circulating. as a man for. you can only understand the huge boom in free thinking in the renaissance if you look at the media and the fly sheets in particular. most communication. helped create that new type of individual the celebrity. joshi of us ari who had painted the frescos in the florence cathedral dome was also a biography of the most dazzling personalities of his time the artist. desirea also produced portraits of raphael and michelangelo but he was particularly taken with leonardo da vinci knew not it was unconventional and wasn't afraid to acknowledge his homosexuality. he was remarkably creative and talented but also rather vain. the story was the first to coin the term rhenish renaissance. in doubt his subjects with your of that made them
stones the shining lights of society. and he created an image of the artist that hadn't existed before. the most artists were craftsmen. that's how they saw themselves and that's how others saw. but bizzare created the image of the genius the strange crazy man the artist in thrall to ideas painted a picture of an artist that seems strangely familiar today in fact he created the modern artist. the painter holbein was the first to paint a portrait of his family. start paint his budget cheney and tear her even painted themselves the south push it became the expression of a new self-confidence. and then finally rutherglen titian the first painters to sign their paintings a further step toward celebrity. the great names in art suddenly became world
famous one hundred years earlier it would have been unthinkable. the towering figures of renaissance art first and foremost leonardo da vinci and michaelangelo with face it invited to court and paid handsomely. in thirteen hundred phoenician glass blower was invented the convex mirror at its importance is widely underestimated compared with what had come before its reflection was bright and almost free of distortion. most people in the middle ages had only seen their faces as blurry reflections and. the glance mirror meant people could really see themselves clearly for the first time. maybe that's why they were more self-confident the medieval ancestors. of self-confidence and pride in personal achievements were no longer seen as sinful
. humanity was out of step with the times. a person who held his head high and walk tall in the presence of god who saw a reason as a special gift from god and those were the new values before the court was a simple as a result of humility became less important as humans were capable of work and god wants us to use our gifts in the world. thought as we can on. what was the secrets of the great renaissance artists this immense flourishing of creativity remains a mystery but there charisma india's to this day. transforming
what will the world be like in your lifetime and around half a century. you world will be around two degrees one. never to believe sea levels rise by at least one central. we're going to have some climate impacts minturn greater democracy already. it's really frightening. place. why aren't people more concerned. the little yellow. shorts may thirty first on t.w. play. this
is news live from berlin a shootout in sri lanka leads more than a dozen deaths. of a suspected terrorist links to the easter bombings seizing explosives i-s. uniforms and flags we'll hear from our correspondent in the sri lankan capital also coming up fury returns to the streets of france yellow vests protesters turnout across the country twenty fourth consecutive saturday after president pledged reforms to fail to impress.