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tv   Doc Film  Deutsche Welle  May 23, 2019 3:15am-4:01am CEST

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each area children is just $0.50 at the top of your smartphone smartphone users outnumber children by would. imagine the impact you and your friends are going to have together we can end global hunger please download the app. in. in germany 4 years after the end of the 2nd mode war balanced between devastation and new beginnings and of course facing some dramatic changes in the am beginning than being planned to shoot and it is again it was. an.
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elite. athlete. ever. given that. legal education elite didn't know that. they can be a leader i. think only germany was gone in the small town of lloyd store from the rhine like everywhere else it was all about just getting through every day life. as they got going to cause they didn't there wasn't much discussion if we passed
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a piano standing in the street we'd ask where should this go to come from and then we'd pick it up and carry it off. with out of. time shots was in the catholic youth organization. and charging the via the main thing was to do something to act you know sports seminars and studying weren't enough we realised we wanted to have a say in things as well. the parish priest. encouraged younger generations to look to the future and take things into their own hands shots had already had political experience bad experience like millions of other young men he had been a member of the hitler youth is the the main issue for me and for my generation was not the nazis but what can we eat do we have a roof over our heads. how can we get through this day those were our priorities
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and where for our politicians as well. and their poor leadership. at the beginning of 949 another form the hitler youth returned to germany by train from a prisoner of war camp in the soviet union he's kept as had inspired his new world few hands had lost his home and pomerania and his family had been torn apart but he had a burning desire to do. i wanted to make amends in those who knew i had spent my imprisonment in the soviet union in the region around moscow where the front lines were. if. i saw a scorched earth open pretty easy hard shelled trees in the forest so that homes could be rebuilt i was like you bought. more troops brother lived in hamburg but he went straight to the soviet sector. where he wanted to help build
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a new society. if preview if i understood was that this must not be allowed to happen again with lead in forces moosehide experienced war and i'd experienced fascism and that this is not life. even conceptually speaking i wanted a new germany the 1st though i had no idea about how it could or should be oh you know it always get picked really spring in munich the giant statue of bavaria overlooks the. healed of the techies in visa in the background the following kisha in the foreground at the fest visa which again lives up to its festive name this spring. munich had been the capital of the nazi movement still a jewish lawyer and his daughter decided to move back to their old house on the to resume visa in munich. fritz neulander had escaped the holocaust had
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survived by hiding in the countryside. it's not for me. it was incredibly important for me to know that i definitely wouldn't be staying in munich one day and i didn't want to go back there because i didn't want to meet the people who had done this to us and i couldn't imagine that with it we often had to 1st encounter i believe after my view of munich here the streets here are bustling with life and there are still the ruins but the streets and squares are clear and reconstruction work is going on everywhere our resources permitting at least. heidelberg had been largely spared by the war center of the old town was the university which stood ready to greet its launch student population one of them was going to do and he had served in the war and joined the student council. the so i believe he was just this was a life like you can't imagine i would so forget about heating even in winter. but
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we toughened up we have an army with our soldiers and so they throw. the situation was dire many students had so little money for food housing and books that the university was facing closure. dhamma guns on issues like this so we went on strike against closing the university any on harm done on the men then we said. the students help students initiative of the fault. in fact everyone got involved. and he referred me to go home for the modulation up to students to keep their free tables not erode our fight you should watch where these special places where students could eat for free as far as i know they showed so much solidarity it was incredible. the highlight was a demonstration on the main street the u.s.
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garrison commander brought up his tanks but the students didn't allow themselves to be counted. the smiles are not over because there was this open mindedness almost a joy that something like this worked and does what that was the type of democracy we loved and fought for the known for. in the spring of 949 germany was a divided country split into east and west you could feel that especially on the elba. it's right on track now 2 hours on sunday afternoons the authorities on both sides of the border would turn a blind eye to the law they were happy reunions even the families catching up and even interest on tea parties and i think that. in 1045 the 4 victorious powers divided germany into occupation zones the american british and
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french in the west and the soviets in the east and right in the middle of the soviet zone equally split into 2 years i think it was. the kind of a hit of $949.00 was the treats onesie a song it became the unofficial anthem of the strange western zones which had begun working closely together. because the winners had never managed to agree on a common policy strong germany now the west. and powers will put in a trip so new zealand's on course to their own separate western german state because he wants you to. the soviet occupation forces have been blockading west berlin since the summer of 948 after the deutsche mark was introduced against moscow's express will whisper lynn had become a frontline city in the cold war. but get out of it people all over the world people in america in england and france look at this city that.
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the aerial resupply of west berlin became a political p.r. success for americans and britons both here and in west germany the airlift lay the emotional foundation for a turn towards the west. beyond that effect here from this air traffic from west germany to berlin steadily increases police and the eastern sector are increasingly restricting road traffic within the city they have set up your blocks on a sector borders and found. the non-truths it's already tried him back in 9849 and saw the exchange rates it was absolutely clear this was no west was stronger and wanted to use the exchange rate to show off its strengths and the soviets couldn't keep up with the it's good they were the losers which is why leave piled on the pressure as i hardly knew and didn't talk to mark. hands more dr
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who was already a member of the east german communist youth organization f t j now officially joined. the socialist unity party. the trying to mechanic was sent to a locomotive factory in the berlin suburb of henning still. there he was supposed to find recruits for the new system but traces of war and the nazi era was still to be found everywhere. so i became a mechanic again and here in this case at a plant in endings don't know what unfolds even in 1949 there were engines waiting for repair there which still had to keep the wheels rolling for the war banners even in creek i'm tired of nature on this believe part of the workforce where west berliners one of my name is of god he's and some the lads in the factory began
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calling me the russian horse because everyone would know to sound like he always argues i'm a bad mouth the russians these on their side getting us to leave the toilet as the host. it was a tough position to be in but hands madrasa didn't back down. it's been the here i'm also a german like you and you have a different idea of the world to mind but one thing is clear we're all germans vs them not the 1st new post war locomotives leave the heading story plant it's a promising start to the new year your 1st of our 2 year plan with honest. reconstruction was the most important issue in both eastern and western germany rebuilding houses and roads the economy and maybe even the state perhaps of 2 states. politicians in both east and west would busy trying to build support for their different solutions young people one else supposed to play an active role in
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political life the politics and parties had gotten a bad image under the nazi regime and people were loath to have anything to do with them anymore. nima. there can't be a worse climate than the anti party climate post world war 2 and yes. i don't know how many 1000000 members of the nazi party had in. their war i don't know how many members an organization is affiliated with the nazis. there was one in every family and there were that suddenly everything was wrong and ordered everything was criticized to raise and rightly so i was asked many times how i could join a party again. since the autumn of 1948 politicians from the state parliaments in western germany had been meeting at the pedagogical academy in
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bonn drawing up a democratic constitution for the new western state at the behest of the occupying power as. this law plus it was like well those on top of the establishment and now the new establishment are at it again well i'd say my pattern of the establishment separation meant a certain mention of even getting to see if people didn't care very much at all they had been defeated and he had no strength left and they didn't care about this or that law. he says is it's i think in this case it's. public view $61.00 men and 4 women in the parliamentary council were discussing the future. but chairman konrad adenauer also wanted to take the opinions of young people into account. the climate at heidelberg university had calmed down then one day a postman turned up in the office of the general student committee. and thus he
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noticed today come i can still see the telegram from conrad i don't know are inviting me to attend the meetings of the parliamentary council as a guest was it the name accommodation or meals are provided by us but please bring badly and it would be debated thresher me playing and. by then going to the dorm and was working regularly as an assistant to the parliamentary council in bonn which gave him direct access to high level politics. as shyness one morning i was walking along go to spend go on laying on my way to the plenary session when our knowledge drew up in his mercedes know i meet him at cedars for why it was raining and he pulled up next to me rolled down the window and said i take it you're going to find a recession soprano's it's who come on i'll give you a lift. otherwise you'll get wet and so on when they arrived he told the driver this young man here if you see him again give him a lift in the name meet. the common goal of the delegates was to build
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a functioning democracy for which the parties were working closely together. the social democrats most important men carlo schmidt had even been sent from britain to bomb in place of a seedy delicate. kind of financial spotlight there was no interparty political hostility apart from with the communist party. cause there was always a run on my man who was at that time the communist party's faction leader made inflammatory speech is full of illogical jargon where she said we reject your view shark all. they were up killing. and so did the occupying powers the british even had max reiman arrested. for the income of his was the fear of communism the fear of the east was already there especially among the many people who had come from the east coast and had
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already experienced communism and fled from it and from common this was the florence and. jewish aid organizations had settled in munich smoosh and around them lots of small stalls in shops servicing a large black market. holocaust survivors from eastern europe who were waiting to travel on to israel or the us sold some of the russians they received in their transit cantina. the american occupiers turned a blind eye. is your dishes leave jewish life was bustling there you could almost say it was a small town there were restaurants and a synagogue so it was like a real jewish village and of course there were many small stalls where they traded for the organ and a lot of people not just jews came to buy things they couldn't get elsewhere and
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see to us a call for it was a good thing that the people there could earn a little extra money. that the mention could get turned this is a christian 1st at $215.00 come. back. and plan. to god. and. life in the western zones in 1949 was still tough but people wanted to enjoy themselves again even though the past was still very close everywhere and. each major sporting event after a 15 year break and starts the 1st german 6 day race and munich. yesterday stocks would begin hans ruman one of the nazi regimes favorite act as
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a return to his role as the craft a little man his comedy the secrets of the red cat became a hit in western germany. meanwhile a cinemas in the eastern sun we usually showing most serious fish many celebrations of soviet successes. society in the soviet zone was being systematically politicized in the face of some resistance including at the locomotive plant in headings store for. the act of etiquette in his speech director berger emphasized that the 2 year plan can only become a reality through the work of us all of all the willing forces of our zone are now in the process of building a new better life for themselves through their own planned work. and healing on the 0 the youth organization try a daughter you're going to made up around 20 percent of the company's staff so and so there too we were the organized part of the youth and not the majority who could
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march through the companies singing big let's build it songs they call over to you that mushy and go on. back at the parliamentary council in bone the student going to a dome and was experiencing firsthand how policies a made and not just as a spectator spawn and of onondaga minds a metre high exciting thing was the launches of the monarch feel as well so there you heard a lot of things you didn't hear in the official sessions on the calendar and no i don't now i came by and sat down at my table and suddenly asked me what was happening with the students or the mistress why they were so a political but also so engaged in portly do saw and i would do so on her she had read a i told him some things and. he said can we talk about this in a little bit more detail or. not now invited the student to his home in rwanda or on the other side of the rhine for a good meal and a bottle of wine. they are unsure
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c.n.d. said goods and that is the case here write down what you told me and bring it to my office tomorrow if possible him or make you small insurance program that became the basis of a speech he made shortly afterwards could solve. i'm right about 100 years shift on the 13th of october 1048 has gone down in history by the end of the shift henniker held by a 24.4 cubic meters of coal instead of the standard 6.3 cubic meters on the come up vehicle between. the a c d try to use the activist movement to boost the economy in the east and turn the mind ahead of track into a great propaganda here are you avoiding the one you just saw and as we were young actors the same we also wanted and because of me to my great great efforts to do a good job in my workshop and to forget recognition yes but it wasn't the s.c.d. controlling that it was you putting your back into it so others accepted you and
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said no he's one of us global made in most hmong to get our true. but when it came to politics it was often hot for the young activist and his colleagues to find common ground in these and far in these issues there was always a distance one that was of course anticommunist. undy community should get plagued by. the a c. d. party headquarters determined life in east and the s.c.d. was doing what stalin the leader of the soviet union decided stalin's most important man in berlin was volatile bridged officially he was only a 2nd. politician but he was the one holding the reins. the powers he wanted to control public life and especially the economy of the soviet zone the lot 6 spring fare of 949 was the shop window. just for the 1st time since the
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end of the war the technology fair has returned with its former glory larger than the b.m.w. eisenach stand. there b. and b. the baby m w 2 liter 80 horsepower and a dream in blue and there's a 130 horsepower racer even faster spirits with 3 carburetors. a delegation from the henning store locomotive works also traveled to this fair they were chosen according to political criteria and the. party leaders were always talking can we win him over for him is he talking in our favor or against us. for the past year the s.c.d. had been trying to counter the increasing alienation between east and west with a major campaign for unity and a just peace the people's congress in berlin's admiral palast was to represent all germans in reality the make up of the delegates had been manipulated and with
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everything that the east demanded stalin remained the decisive figure in the background. to. keep on going give us our unity give us a just peace. whisper lynn was still under blockade by the soviets and had to be supplied from the air things began to heat up throughout the city. children do not miss 1000000 we went across to west berlin and sang americans go home or fall or drove. and we were convince. start those following us to the esperance station because we had sung americans go home that they were the ones who wanted to drive a wedge between us and. the us headquarters in frankfurt had long since abandoned the idea of a united germany the western allies wanted
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a new state but on day terms politicians had to navigate a tricky path. no more let alone after months of negotiations by the parliamentary council in frankfurt complete agreement of the basic law of the future west german constitution has been reached. this is going to get c. the one with all this blathering of the military government that was discussed in the official meetings in veiled terms. with him. not open. yet the disorder money should firstly because they didn't want to make it with to clear to the public to avoid increasing the population's opposition to what they're doing is beyond. know chris is certainly on this world and they didn't want to do the occupying powers any favors by making it such a big issue. so. the germans was still dependent on their occupiers but the president of the
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parliamentary council was thinking ahead oddly. i don't know if. it's better if we compromise with them become sovereign and free ourselves from this permanent occupation approval procedure and so far it was the guns getting new exactly what he was doing us he knew that if we didn't go with the west now with the english french or american and we had no chance at all yeah i see your only chance for germany to come back again it was with the west is just myth then this other note for me i don't know it was the americans mass and so it was part of american policy . and i can just pass a separate post office handles daily incoming mail. many of the letters deal with the question of what the flag of the new german state should look like. here is the design of a 13 year old girl nearly give me a flag committee is discussing the various proposals. the western allies wanted germany to be a federal state to avoid power being concentrated in the center not all delegates
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like that and there was something else worrying. many members asked several times whether we were doing the right things with the home because in making a constitution for an federated entity of money we were basically cementing the division of germany for fossil. the name of the document is the basic law not constitution it was adopted on the 8th of may $949.00 exactly 4 years after the end of the war. it's a complicated document and was only supposed to be provisional only the communists and the various c.s.u. parties voted against it. ladies and gentlemen the basic law has been passed with 53 votes in favor and 12 votes against. the relationship between east and west was shifting. the my mail out of 1049 to
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3 minutes before midnight on the border between the british and soviet zones everything is ready for when they lift the blockade. the adoption of the basic law prompted the soviets to lift the blockade on berlin the division of germany now seemed inevitable. otta now flies to west berlin i think. the parliamentary council. is filled with deep gratitude for your struggle. for your suffering for your patience which has now led to victory because. west berlin breathed a sigh of relief the island in the soviet zone can now be supplied by land again crosses began dropping and shops filling up. the basic
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law was solemnly proclaimed on the 23rd of may 949 the parliaments of the federal states all had to give their consent before it could come into force it was. that of bob conscious of his responsibility before god and mankind inspired by their will to preserve his national and state unity. it was preceded by a preamble referring to german unity. the 1st articles to follow with those that guarantee fundamental rights a church song was sung at the ceremony as there was no national anthem at the time . for me the fundamental rights were actually the decisive factor in what the parliamentary council did at that time the coup and those fundamental rights they were the be all
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and end all and he called for fundamental rights and the freedom of the citizen and self-determination that is and freedom of opinion and all that are guaranteed in this then things can't go wrong again and condiments a few pussy of. the east responded to the founding of the federal republic with a propaganda offensive for german unity and the election of a 3rd people's congress. but it turned into a fiasco for the s.c.d. and some heavy weight manipulation was needed before it could claim the necessary 2 thirds of the vote at the beginning. june the party called invited members to attend the 50 j's youth parliament staff and i take the oath of d.j. karl marx marching through the streets of leipsic where a total of 200000 young people met for a mass rally. the against the divide as for unity was heard a lot in law too but it was really just
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a rear guard action there would now be 2 german states the s.c.d. was betting on saving face and showing which germany was the better one who was truth of what russia spoke sort of hanukkah both of them talking about their find to stop what was happening in the west and those guns and the whole thing going to congress all in leipsic which was called the hall of the rising sun rise desired are over and then zone. down that was also implying the message the west is going and we will have the rising sun in this are not. in lloyd's doff a few kilometers up the rhine from bone the 20 year old apprentice hind shots have become a professional politician. as district secretary of the c.d.u. he organized events and took care of the contributions of the members he had the greatest why had a small moped you always had to push started you couldn't kick started we've worked
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on the concrete so i drove through the district to see if i could collect my salary . in the end but i also had the advantage that it gave you a chance to get to know people and talk with them the logic. here did. before long the c.d.u. office had arranged to come in shots to use in the bundestag election campaign and when the announced candidate was to late shots would give the election speech instead. of off it was a catholic place of war no meeting on sunday morning after high that is when we went into the church and then into a hall with 820130 seats backwards. you couldn't see across the room because everyone was smoking no women but all their kind of. pseudo shut up the boy wants to talk. then i gave my 50 minute speech
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then there still has to be a discussion does anyone else want to say anything it's wrong ok we're all voting for the c.d.u. on sunday 80 percent of cent. and the action time in the young federal republic and it's summer which you would want to make the most of. at the end of july big things were happening on the cultural scene the good surprise was awarded to thomas mann in front of us now they've been here after an absence of 16 years thomas mann and his wife have returned from america for a visit to germany. you comment on that welcome or not but i would have felt my life this merged if i only paid homage to the genius of girder away from home and avoided germany in the process even if i. but the east with separation cast its shadow
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in 1949 there were 2 good surprises thomas mann received the 2nd one at an elaborate ceremony involved in the east the poet kept his distance and gave the same acceptance speech a 2nd time east german t.v. was jubilant. that if i live by the award i will go to prizes to thomas mann with one of frankfurt on my night and one would up to show me the indivisibility of german culture clear in the most beautiful where his i look thomas mans books were once burned in germany and he remained guarded in both frankfurt and. the papers covered my visit with kindness and ceremony like from a rule book there weren't any abusive letters either as there were in the west only a flood of welcoming graduates or a telegrams from trade unions. you federations political and cultural organization
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. while a democratic governments of west germany have a tough fight against reactionary nationalism and reawaken not susan. in the east it is the bush while desire for freedom and the democratic rule of law and the dissatisfaction with for economic conditions which work against the popularity of the regime. of course all criticism is banished to the private and oral stream. in fact national socialist beliefs have not disappeared in munich the nazis cult sides had been demolished but when the newspaper the. talked about the jewish question reactions were frightening. why don't you go to america but they can't use you there either they've had enough of these bloodsuckers. that this image is most anti semitism was never dead. and it was never dead he told. the
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publication sparked a demonstration of outrage jewish refugees in. the munich riot police quickly waited in the holocaust survivors suddenly felt as if they were facing the nazis again the american military place was only able to calm the situation with difficulty. meanwhile bone was preparing for the 1st bomb to start election just in to go washer on these are the sounds that echo all across the pond as it's just one large construction site here with the new blunders house building in the center's halls. working against the clock the pedagogical academy was expanded to become the seat of parliament the small town on the rhine officially became the capital of the federal republic of germany last night and was. germany has elected its 1st
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parliament while the run up to august 14th still saw a fierce propaganda war election day itself was calm in all 3 western zones and. the result the c.d.u. came in 2 points ahead of the s.p.d. with 31 percent a total of 11 parties entered the new bundestag on the 7th of september 1949. the allied military governors were present at the ceremony it was then that the basic law. came into force. this was followed by the election of the federal president and a week later the election of the federal chancellor the young man from lloyd stuart watched it all happen and then pettigrew version are there were seats outside the pedagogical academy so you could watch what was happening and hear what was going on through loudspeakers. here lord for your meat because when it came to electing
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the chancellor both sides would neck and neck would now cd you take the price of. your time armed with your version none of us knew so we were curious about the result. that's underworked. however the lead was wafer thin an art now used his casting vote to clinch the election a week later he was sworn in as the 1st chancellor of west germany. but. we've all measurable in a. giordano's dogs can form. the following day the new chancellor made his way up to the hotel petersburg on the other side of the rhine this was the residence of the high commissioners the representatives of the western powers the new federal republic was far from sovereign it was still
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under supervision as was written in the occupation statute. the document was signed by the 3 allies and then handed to the federal chancellor. the 3 allies which is step on the carpet. the chancellor was supposed to stand in front of it an act of symbolic subordination that adenauer didn't care for. the boehner plan while the bonn parliamentarians debate the high commissioners who created this facade dictate west german politics to pretty this government and bond it contravenes international law and must not be allowed to speak on behalf of germany pushed it only carries out the will of the high commissioners. now it was east berlin stern on the 7th of october 1949 the folks rats all peoples council a subcommittee of the people's congress met in the form in ministry building and
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declared itself a provisional parliament. from other people's chamber has unanimously and necked in the constitution of the german democratic republic and just as unanimously passed the law on the formation of the provisional government you'll. also girls of all became the 1st east german prime minister but the real power was still with moscow's men volatile. the german democratic republic was coming into being in the same hole where hitler's germany capitulated just for. up to begin we intend to wage a determined struggle against the spirit of fascism and militarism that plunged the people into 2 world wars because. the soviet military governor the great. he's obviously the soviet government has constantly tried to prevent the division of germany which was only deepened by the puppet government of the cuba's soviet government recognizes the efforts of the german democratic forces to take the restoration of german unity into their own hands as legitimate the
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s.c.d. controlled the new east germany from the very outset common electro lists and a block system turned the other parties into me extras president vilhelm peak was unanimously elected president of the republic he was congratulated by the youngest member of parliament crossed. out on the evening of the election in. every konica organized a gigantic march of tens of thousands of young people a short while ago there was still calling for unity now there was celebrating their own state. people shot is the message of general secretary stalin was the most important act of international recognition and culminated in this sentence the foundation of the german democratic peace loving republic is a turning point in the history of europe of all parts i. may evolve of was if it came to an armed conflict i was aware that my brother was in the west and i
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was in the east this division went through whole families. never was a feeling i had 200 heart that was a problem for us but with the future be like you through. the amazing new $949.00 came to an end with the germans intron on the same territory as 2 separate states. the success of democracy in the west and an end to the division within just how the. today all germans are represented in the same democratically elected parliament and the division is a thing of the past. the bundestag meets in the old reichstag right where the berlin wall once divided the country. 949 s. legacy also contains
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a message for future generations. have believed it is london by experienced how this country was lying on the ground and nobody thought that it could ever rise again. you have a lot to thank your ancestors for living in a country today where you can move freely where you have unassailable democracy sigman in the leader but you have to defend it you have to cherish your country and be ready to stand up for it at all times over and.
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came over after the european injury. it's my. to be a community of freedom without a bullet has. its own a consonant discontents on the wrongness of. your it was a way said the next level. made in germany 30 minutes w. . entered the conflict zone. last
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known as venezuela's opposition a sense of just lose yet the size you get the military is a come over to their side my guess is the mood there in london is the most annoying one representative to the venezuelan opposition leader and is so thick you have presidents quote quite oh what happens next the conflicts of the stops the minutes on details of. an action packed life bookmarklet. anything's possible as long as our coffee and his friends can drink. this movie in kenya as dobbs refugee camp . his life story may have ground to
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a halt. 27 years ago but there's no holding back his dreams. thank you for watching. cinema the stars may 27th on t.w. . own game. u.s. president donald trump has stalked out of a meeting with democrats refusing to work together with them unless they drop all investigations an increasing number of opposition lawmakers say they want an impeachment inquiry over the aftermath of the russia probe. the pressure is mounting on british prime minister to resign may after prominent brags that supporter and release some resign.


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