tv Doc Film Deutsche Welle May 23, 2019 7:15am-8:00am CEST
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a leader. in. the old germany was gone in the small town of lloyd store from the rhine like everywhere else it was all about just getting through every day life. was a good 3rd wasn't much discussion if we passed a piano standing in the street would ask where should you go. for and then we'd pick it up and carry it off. without fear of. crying shots was in the catholic youth organization. and charging the via the main thing was to do something to act sports seminars and studying weren't enough we realised we wanted to have a say in things as well. the parish priest encouraged younger generations to look
to the future and take things into their own hands. had already had political experience bad experience like millions of other young men he had been a member of the hitler youth years the the main issue for me and for my generation was not the nazis but what can we eat do we have a roof over our heads. how can we get through this day those were our priorities and where for our politicians as well. and therefore. at the beginning of 949 another former hitler youth returned to germany by train from a prisoner of war camp in the soviet union his captors had inspired his new world few hands ma drove had lost his home in pomerania and his family had been torn apart but he had a burning desire to do. i wanted to make amends in those who
knew i had spent my imprisonment in the soviet union and the region around moscow where the front lines were. if. i saw a scorched earth open do you pretty easy hard shelled trees in the forest so that homes could be rebuilt i was like you bought. more trucks brother lived in hamburg but he went straight to the soviet sector of the way he wanted to help build a new society. he thank you if i understood that this must not be allowed to happen again with lead in forces my side experienced war and i've experienced fascism and that this is not life you've even conceptually speaking i wanted a new germany the 1st though i had no idea about how it could or should be oh you know it all skip like really spring in munich after the giant statue of a very overlooks the light field of the tech easy and b.'s and in the background
the following in the foreground at the fest visa which again lives up to its festive name this spring. munich had been the capital of the nazi movement still a jewish lawyer and his daughter decided to move back to their old house on the to resume visa in munich. fritz neulander had escaped the holocaust i had survived by hiding in the countryside. it's not for me. it was incredibly important for me to know that i definitely wouldn't be staying in munich i didn't want to go back there because i didn't want to meet the people who had done this to us and i couldn't imagine that but he will think if we're stink and i believe i'll move you off munich here the streets here are bustling with life and there are still the ruins but the streets and squares are clear and reconstruction work is going on at. where our resources permitting at least.
heidelberg had been largely spared by the war center of the old town was the university which stood ready to greet its large student population one of them was going to do and he had served in the war and joined the student council. this is what i believe in he runs this this was a life like you can't imagine i would so forget about heating even in winter but we toughened up live on army with soldiers and so this though. the situation was diaf many students had so little money for food housing and books that the university was facing closure. dhamma done zone. so we went on strike against closing the university any on harm done i know and then we set up the students help students initiative of the fault.
in fact everyone got involved. and you referred goal not meet the goal of the modulation up to students to keep their free tables have not made a fight you should which were these special places where students could eat for free as far as i know they showed so much solidarity it was incredible. the highlight was a demonstration on the main street the u.s. garrison commander brought up his tanks but the students didn't allow themselves to be counted. as was or not over because there was this open mindedness almost a joy that something like this worked and does what that was the type of democracy we loved and fought for the one for the villains under she a time. in the spring of $949.00 germany was a divided country. split into
a state and west you could feel that especially on the elba. gets right on track not 2 hours on sunday afternoons the authorities on both sides of the border would turn a blind eye to the law they were happy reunion to see that the family's catching up and even enters on tea parties and i think that. a a in my 945 the 4 victorious powers divided germany into occupation zones the american british and french in the west and the soviets in the least and right in the middle of the soviets are equally split into 2 you see i think it was the kind of a hit of 949 was the treats onesie a song it became the unofficial anthem of the strange western zones which had begun working closely together. because the winners had never managed to agree on a common policy strong germany now the western powers will put in
a trip so new zealand's on course to their own separate western german state education. and the soviet occupation forces had been blockading west berlin since the summer of 948 after the deutsche mark was introduced against moscow's express will whisper lynn had become a frontline city in the cold war if you got there the you people of the world people in america in england in france look at this city such. as. the aerial resupply of west berlin became a political p.r. success for americans and britons both here and in west germany the airlift lady emotional foundation for a turn towards the west. would. be identified here from us air traffic from west germany to berlin. unsteadily increases police and eastern sector are
increasingly restricting road traffic within the city i think it set up your blocks on a sector borders and spam as a non-entity through it right back in 1949 and saw the exchange rates it was absolutely clear this is the west was stronger than this and wanted to use the exchange rate to show off its strength and the soviets couldn't keep up with can they were the losers which is why they piled on the pressure with. the new indian tocome off. drove who was already a member of the east german communist youth organization f t j now officially joined. the socialist unity party. the trying to mechanic was sent to a locomotive factory in the berlin of henning still there he was supposed to find recruits for the new system the traces of war and the nazi era was still to be
found everywhere. so i became a mechanic again. in this case at a plant in endings don't know her own thoughts even in 1949 there were engines waiting for repair there which still had to keep the wheels rolling for the war banners in creek i'm tired aboriginal on this believe part of the workforce where west berliners one of my name is of god not that he's and some the lads in the factory began calling me the russian horse because everyone had noticed out like he always argues i'm a bad mouth the russians these on their side getting your snow they've been tied to the host. it was a tough position to be in but hands madrasa didn't back down. it's been the here i'm also a jerk like you and you have a different idea of the world to mind but one thing is clear we're all germ. d.v.s.
the north 1st new postwar locomotives leave the heading start land it's a promising start to the new year it is not your 1st of our 2 year plans with honest. reconstruction was the most important issue in both eastern and western germany rebuilding houses and roads the economy and maybe even the state oh perhaps of 2 states. politicians in both east and west would busy trying to build support for their different solutions young people one else supposed to play an active role in political life the politics and parties had gotten a bad image under the nazi regime and people were loath to have anything to do with them anymore. i mean were. there can't be a worse climate than the anti party climate post world war 2 of us going initiative i don't know how many 1000000 members of the nazi party have. their war i don't
know how many members an organization is affiliated with the nazis. there was one in every family there were then suddenly everything was wrong and ordered everything was criticized and rightly so i was asked many times how i could join a party again. since the ocean of 940 s. politicians from the state parliaments in western germany had been meeting at the pedagogical academy in bonn drawing up a democratic constitution for the new western state at the behest of the occupying power as. this lower class was like well those on top of the establishment and now the new establishment are at it again well i'd say we've had enough of the establishment separation meant to mention it wouldn't get into the sea if people didn't care very much at all they had been defeated and he had no strength left and they didn't care about this or that law. he says because it's in this case it's.
public view $61.00 men and 4 women in the parliamentary council were discussing the future. but chairman konrad adenauer also wanted to take the pinions of the young people into account. the climate at heidelberg university had come. then one day a postman turned up in the office of the student committee. which he noticed today come i can still see the telegram from conrad i don't know are inviting me to attend the meetings of the parliamentary council as a guest was it the name accommodation and meals are provided by us but please bring badly and it would be debated treasurer me playing. by then going to durham and was working regularly as an assistant to the parliamentary council in bonn which gave him direct access to high level politics. as shyness one morning i was
walking along go to stagger i lay on my way to the plenary session when i don't know where drew up in his mercedes met status for why it was raining and he pulled up next to me rolled down the window and said when i take it you're going to find a recession so it's a come on i'll give you a lift. otherwise you'll get wet and so on when they arrived he told the driver this young man here if you see him again give him a lift in the name meet. the common goal of the delegates was to build a functioning democracy for which the parties were working closely together. the social democrats most important men carlos schmidt had even been sent from gothenburg to bone in place of a cd delicate. 8 kind of financial part time there was no interparty political hostility apart from with the communist party. because there was always
a run on reiman who was at that time the communist party's faction leader made inflammatory speech is full of getting a logical jargon which the 1st we reject you. they were dropped. and so did the occupying powers the british even had max reiman arrested. the angst for the income of his was the fear of communism the fear of the east was already there especially among the many people who had come from the east of and had already experienced communism and fled from it and from common this was the florence and. jewish aid organizations had settled in munich smoosh and around them lots of small stalls and shops servicing a large black market. holocaust survivors from eastern europe who were waiting to travel on to israel or the us
sold some of the russians they received in their transit camps here. the american occupiers turned a blind eye. so i saw him but he is usually jewish life was bustling there you could almost say it was a small town there were restaurants and a synagogue so it was like a real jewish village and of course there were many small stalls where they traded for their own and a lot of people not just jews came to buy things they couldn't get elsewhere and see to us the call from it was a good thing that the people there could earn a little extra money. is that the mention could get turned this is a christian 1st at $215.00 come. back. and plan. and. life in the western zones
in 1949 was still tough but people wanted to enjoy themselves again even though the past was still very close everywhere. each major sporting event after a 15 year break hines clear mind starts the 1st german 6 day race and munich. yesterday starts would begin hans ruman one of the nazi regimes favorite act as a return to his role as the crafty euro man his comedy the secrets of the red cat became a hit in western germany. meanwhile a cinemas in the eastern sun we usually showing most serious fish many celebrations of soviet successes. society in the soviet zone was being systematically politicized in the face of some resistance including at the locomotive plant in
heading store for. the act of a to go in his speech director berger emphasized that the 2 year plan can only become a reality through the work of us all of all the willing forces of our zone are now in the process of building a new better life for themselves through their own planned work. doing on this year the youth organization try a door to uganda made up around 20 percent of the company staff so and so there too we were the organized part of the youth and not the majority who could march through the companies singing big let's build it songs they closed over you don't mushy and on. the back of the parliamentary council in bone the student going to a dorm and was experiencing 1st hand how policies a made and not just as a spectator spawn and a vonnegut mine's a mythical exciting thing was the launches of the monarchy to source and there you heard a lot of things you didn't hear in the official sessions on the corner and no i don't know our came by and sat down at my table and suddenly asked me what was
happening with the students or the mission that's why they were so a political but also so engaged in portly do saw and i would also argue she had read a i told him some things and. he said can we talk about this in a little bit more detail. out now invited the student to his home in room door on the other side of the rhine for a good meal and a bottle of wine. and guns are they are anxious resi and the said goods and that is the case you write down what you told me and bring it to my office tomorrow if possible him or make you small insurance program that program the basis of a speech he made shortly afterwards. of god not. i'm right about identical shift on the 13th of october 1048 has gone down in history by the end of the shift henniker held by a 24.4 cubic meters of call instead of the standard 6.3 cubic meters on.
the a c d try to use the activist movement to boost the economy in the east and turn the mind ahead of cash into a great propaganda hero you won't know when you just saw it as we were young actors the same we also wanted and because of me to my great great efforts to do a good job in my workshop and to forget recognition yes but it wasn't the s.c.d. controlling that it was you putting your back into it so others accepted you and said no is one of us global made in most hmong they get through. but when it came to politics it was often hard for the young activist and his colleagues to find common ground in these and far in these issues there was always a distance one that was of course anticommunist. undue community plagued. the s.c.d. party headquarters determined life in the east and the s.c.d.
was doing what stalin the leader of the soviet union decided stalin's most important man in berlin was volatile bridged officially he was only a 2nd. politician but he was the one holding the reins the powers he wanted to control public life and especially the economy of the soviet zone the lots of spring fare of 949 was the shop window. something else in mind is that for the 1st time since the end of the war the technology fair has returned with its former glory not the b.m.w. eisenach stand. there be and be the baby m w 2 later 80 horsepower and a dream in blue and there's a 130 horsepower racer or even faster spirits with 3 carburetors that a delegation from the henning store locomotive works also traveled to this fair they were chosen according to political criteria and the. party leaders were always
talking can we win them over for him is he talking in our favor or against us. for the past year the s.c.d. had been trying to counter the increasing alienation between east and west with a major campaign for unity and a just peace the people's congress in berlin's admiral palace was to represent all germans in reality the make up of the delegates had been manipulated and with everything that the east demanded stalin remained the decisive figure in the background. keep on going give us our unity give us a just peace. whisper lynn was still under blockade by the soviets and had to be supplied from the air things began to hate up throughout the city.
to. this we want to cross to west berlin and sang americans go home we were followed of. and we were convince. start those following us to the esperance station because we had sung americans go home that they were the ones who wanted to drive a wedge between us and. the us headquarters in frankfurt had long since abandoned the idea of a united germany the western allies wanted a new german state but on their terms politicians had to navigate a tricky path. more let alone after months of negotiations by the parliamentary council in frankfurt complete agreement of the basic law of the future west german constitution has been reached. this is guns against this blathering of the military government that was discussed in the operational meetings in veiled terms. with him . not open or missed or discontinue at the border money should firstly because they
didn't want to make it with to clear to the public to avoid increasing the population's opposition to what they're doing it's by. no clear secondly. they didn't want to do the occupying powers any favors by making it such a big issue. so. the germans were still dependent on their occupiers but the president of the parliamentary council was thinking ahead. i don't know if. it's better if we compromise with them become sovereign and free ourselves from this permanent occupation approval procedure and so far it was the guns giving you exactly what he was doing us he knew that if we didn't go with the west now with the english or french or american and we had no chance at all yeah i'd say your only chance for germany to come back again it was with the west is just myth then this other note
for me i don't know it was the americans mass and so it was part of american policy . take and i can this past separate post office handles daily incoming mail. many of the letters deal with the question of what the flag of the new german state should look like. here is the design of a 13 year old girl here we can make you a flag committee is discussing the various proposals for slagle the western allies wanted germany to be a federal state to avoid power being concentrated in the center not all delegates like that and there was something else worrying. many members asked several times whether we were doing the right things with the home because in making a constitution for an federated entity of money we were basically cementing the division of germany for fossil. the name of the document is the basic law not constitution it was adopted on the 8th of may $949.00
exactly 4 years after the end of the war. it's a complicated document and was only supposed to be provisional only the communist and the various c.s.u. parties voted against it. ladies and gentlemen the basic law has been passed with 53 votes in favor and 12 votes against. the relationship between east and west was shifting. the my mail level 1949 i don't 3 minutes before midnight on the border between the british and soviet zones everything is ready for when they lift the blockade. the adoption of the basic law prompted the soviets to lift the blockade on berlin the division of germany now seemed inevitable. otta now flies to west berlin i think. the parliamentary
council was just filled with deep gratitude for your struggle. for your suffering for your patience which has now led to victory. west berlin breathed a sigh of relief the island in the soviet zone can now be supplied by land again trusses began dropping on shops filling up. the basic law was solemnly proclaimed on the 23rd of may 949 the parliaments of the federal states all had to give their consent before it could come into force. conscious of his responsibility before god and mankind inspired by their will to preserve his national and state unity. it was preceded by
a preamble referring to german unity. the 1st articles to follow with those that guarantee fundamental rights a church song was sung at the ceremony as there was no national anthem at the time . for me the fundamental rights were actually the decisive factor in what the parliamentary council did at that time the coolant has to those fundamental rights they were the be all and end all in the cauldron if the fundamental rights of the freedom of the citizen and self-determination that is and the freedom of opinions and all that are guaranteed in this then things can't go wrong again and condiments a few question you know. the east responded to the founding of the federal republic with a propaganda offensive for german unity and the election of a 3rd people's congress. but it turned into a fiasco for the s.c.d.
and some heavyweight manipulation was needed before it could claim the necessary 2 thirds of the vote at the beginning. june the party called invited members to attend the if deejays youth parliament staff and i take the d.j. karl marx started marching through the streets of leipsic where a total of 200000 young people met for a mass rally. the against the divide as for unity was heard a lot in law too but it was really just a rear guard action there would now be 2 german states the s.c.d. was betting on saving face and showing which germany was the better one who was truth of one religious book sort of hanukkah both of them talking about their find to stop what was happening in the west and those guns and the whole thing going to congress all in leipsic which was called the hall of the rising sun is desired are over and then sun. down that was also implying the message the west is going and we
will have the rising sun in this on the. in lloyd's doff a few kilometers up the rhine from bone the 20 year old apprentice hind shots had become a professional politician. as district secretary of the c.d.u. he organized events and took care of the contributions of the members he had been great is why i had a small moped which you always had to push started you couldn't kick started work on the concrete so i drove through the district to see if i could collect my salary . in the end but i also had the advantage that it gave you a chance to get to know people and talk with them as the large. new here did. before long the c.d.u. office had arranged to come off on high and shots to use in the bundestag election campaign and when the announced candidate was to late shots would give the election
speech instead. of off it was a catholic place a war no meeting on sunday morning after high and that is when we went into the church and then into a hall with 820130 seats backwards. you couldn't see across the room because everyone was smoking group no women but all their kind of. pseudo shut up the boy wants to talk. then i gave my 50 minute speech and then if there still has to be a discussion does anyone else want to say anything it's wrong ok we're all voting for the c.d.u. on sunday 80 percent of sent. election time in the young federal republic and it's summer which you would want to make the most of. at the end of july big things were happening on the cultural scene the good
surprise was awarded to thomas mann in front of us now they've been here after an absence of 16 years thomas mann and his wife have returned from america for a visit to germany. you comment on welcome or not but i would have felt my life this merged if i only paid homage to the genius of away from home and avoided germany in the process even if i but the east west separation cast its shadow in 1949 there were 2 good surprises thomas mann received the 2nd one as an elaborate ceremony environment in the east the poet kept his distance and gave the same acceptance speech a 2nd time east german t.v. was jubilant. that if i lived by the award i'd always go to prizes to thomas knocking on one of frankfurt on my nights and one weimar would up the
show made the indivisibility of german culture clear in the most beautiful ways i looked thomas man's books were once burned in germany and he remained guarded in both frankfurt and. the papers covered my visit with kindness and ceremony like from a rule book there weren't any abusive letters either as there were in the west only a flood of welcoming graduate or a telegrams from craig unions. you threat or asians political and cultural organization. while democratic governments of west germany have a tough fight against reactionary nationalism and real wakin not susan. in the east it is the bush why desire for freedom in the democratic rule of law and the dissatisfaction with poor economic conditions which work against the popularity of the regime. of course all criticism is banished to the private and are all spheres
. in fact national socialist beliefs had not disappeared in munich the nazis cults being demolished but when the newspaper the. talked about the jewish question reactions were frightening. why don't you go to america but they can't usually there either they've had enough of these bloodsuckers. and this image is most anti semitism was never dead. and it was never dead he told. the publication sparked a demonstration of outraged jewish refugees more. than munich riot police quickly waited in the holocaust survivors suddenly felt as if they were facing the nazis again the american military place was only able to calm the situation with difficulty. meanwhile bone was preparing for the 1st blunder start election just into gaucher
on these are the sounds that echo all across the pond as it's just one large construction site here with the new blunders house building in the center has holes . working against the clock the pedagogical academy was expanded to become the scene of parliament the small town on the rhine officially became the capital of the federal republic of germany last night and was. germany has elected its 1st parliament while the run up to august 14th still saw a fierce propaganda war election day itself was calm and all 3 western zones. the result the c.d.u. came in 2 points ahead of the s.p.d. with 31 percent a total of 11 parties entered the new bundestag on the 7th of september 1949. the allied military governors were present at the ceremony it was then that the
basic law because it came into force. this was followed by the election of the federal president and a week later the election of the federal chancellor the young man from lloyd stuart watched it all happen and they're going to go rouge and are there were seats outside the pedagogical academy so you could watch what was happening and hear what was going on through loudspeakers. here lord for hear me because when it came to electing the chancellor both sides would neck and neck would now c.d.u. take the prize. because come on with your version none of us knew so we were curious about the result. that's underworked. however the leader was wafer thin and odd now used his casting vote to clinch the election a week later he was sworn in as the 1st chancellor of west germany. but. was.
reborn as you're born a. sure the news dogs can form. the following day the new chancellor made his way up to the hotel petersburg on the other side of the rhine this was the residence of the high commissioners the representatives of the western powers the new federal republic was far from sovereign it was still under supervision as was written in the occupation statute. the document was signed by the 3 allies and then handed to the federal chancellor. the 3 allies were to step on the carpet. the chancellor was supposed to stand in front of it an act of symbolic subordination that adenauer didn't care for.
the boehner plan while the barn parliamentarians debate the high commissioners who created this facade dictate west german politics to pretty this government and bond it contravenes international law and must not be allowed to speak on behalf of germany which it only carries out the will of the high commissioners. now it was east berlin stern on the 7th of october 1949 the folks rats all peoples council a subcommittee of the people's congress met in the form of a ministry building and declared itself a provisional parliament. come out of people's chamber has unanimously elected the constitution of the german democratic republic and just as unanimously passed the law on the formation of the provisional government you'll. also girls of all became the 1st east german prime minister but the real power was still with moscow's man. the german democratic republic was coming into being in the same hole way hitler's germany capitulated just for. fish because we intend to wage
a determined struggle against the spirit of fascism and militarism that plunged the people into 2 world wars because. the soviet military governor a great. the soviet you in the soviet government has constantly tried to prevent the division of germany which was only deepened by the puppet run government of the q the soviet government recognises the efforts of the german democratic forces to take the restoration of german unity into their own hands as legitimate the s.c.d. control the new east germany from the very outset common electro lists and a block system turned the other parties into me extras president vilhelm peak was unanimously elected president of the republic he was congratulated by the youngest member of parliament margaret frost. on the evening of the election. if d.j. later every conoco organized a gigantic march of tens of thousands of young people
a short while ago there was still calling for unity now there was celebrating around state. look shocked is the message of general secretary stalin was the most important act of international recognition and culminated in this sentence the foundation of the german democratic peace loving republic is a turning point in the history of europe of all parts. me of all the voice if it came to an armed conflict i was aware that my brother was in the west and i was in the east this division went through whole families. and that was a feeling i had to know what that was a problem for us but with the future be like you through. the amazing year 949 came to an end with the germans inching on the same territory as 2 separate states. the success of democracy in the west and an
end to the division within just tops. today all germans are represented in the same democratically elected parliament and the division is a thing of the past. the bundestag meets in the old reichstag right where the berlin wall once divided the country. 949 s. legacy also contains a message for future generations. he says london bligh experienced how this country was lying on the ground and nobody thought that it could ever rise again. you have a lot to thank your ancestors for living in a country today where you can move freely where you have unassailable democracy is equanimity that but you have to defend it you have to cherish your country and be ready to stand up for it at all times over and.
their piece of video and its consequences a political bombshell in vienna. austria as government is in chaos. that was probably what role if any of the intelligence services play in this scandal. and how close are like when you populace to russia. 90 minutes on d w. 3 straight on to other news asia where hinder
one of the long drawn out problem. and even violent election campaign draws to a close. doesn't affect one in 6 people in this world. join me pretty excited to see as we try to understand brain death toll. on the lives of their newspapers. and action packed life. anything's possible as long as up because he and his friends can dream up this movie theater in kenya refugee camp. his life story ran around to a. 27 years ago but there's no holding back his dreams. thank you for cinema the hunger starts may 27th on the c.w. .
this is due to be dues coming to you live from britain's tree some may faces growing calls to resign as lawmakers across the spectrum reject her plan for and a key ally steps down in protests plus the election theresa may hoped would never happen again in britain people in the u.k. and the netherlands start casting their ballots for.