tv Tomorrow Today Deutsche Welle May 24, 2019 1:30pm-2:00pm CEST
if both and if one in 6 people in this world. for me to try to didn't reply to understand where you're at a local. district. leader of the news. hello and welcome to tomorrow to day your week a dose of science. coming up. back to the moon the new race to earth's nearest neighbor. satellites affect almost every area of modern life what would our world look like without them. and what language do robots speak a question that's not as obvious as it seems it's just.
a quick trip around the world what does how long they in vietnam have in common with it was a falls in principle and argentina and indonesia's common island they're all places that those countries are famous for and south africa. table mountain springs to mind but the bay of that tree is also a national treasure it's an ancient species that's now under threat. when the gods became angry they uprooted a tree and thrust it back into the ground which lands the african legend about the origins of the bay about some of the trees are more than 2000 years old stephen wood born from south africa has studied them for 13 years. but mysteriously the biggest and the oldest ones in southern africa are beginning to die out. we've done
a lot of research on the structure of the bab's and we found the. beds have a unique structure it's those multi-stemmed structure where several several trees are growing fused together we believe that that's driven by environmental conditions specifically by elephants elephants attack and those that don't have the smartest and structure will never reach old age the famous son learned a about tree in south africa was by some estimates more than 2000 years old a few years ago it collapsed stephen wood born is convinced that this abrupt die off a large old bear barbs can't be jewish and natural causes. a about growth is different to that of the trees determining the trees age is crucial to understanding the cause of the die off would form collected small samples from the tree stems from the structure of the core you can see these lines which are actually rings these so
these are ring structures that we know that perhaps these rings are not and that means we can't count the rings here and get the age of the tree so for that reason we carbon dating using accelerate to mass spectrometry to to get the edge of the tree. sometimes that they are about produces 6 rings in just one year in other years none at all in addition they are babs have a large cavity in their center that makes it difficult to count the oldest rings. the cavity of the sunland they are bob was large enough to hold a bar with room for 15 people to tourists from far and wide for many years but in 2016 the tree began to split apart. one last stand is still clinging to life but for how long would one doesn't know but he's documenting the deterioration of the last 2 years the storm has progressively collapsed and there's no evidence that we see any kind of disease we suspect that it may be an environmental
condition may be rainfall but when we look at the rainfall records that we've reconstructed from 7 cured much drier conditions in the past and much wetter so it's not rainfall by itself we suspect that temperature is a factor that combines with rainfall to produce that effect. the combination of rising heat and long periods of drought is currently the main suspect southern africa is one of the fastest warming regions on earth stephen would born suspects that's connected to the collapse of the old display of ups. but there's even more disturbing news. one of the concerning factors is that we are losing these very old and we would expect in a normal healthy population that they would be driven our trees that are growing all the maturing that would be replacing them and we're not seeing that we see
juveniles we see the loss of the old trees and so what we think is happening the edge of the distribution is shifting and we think that that's in response to how climate is changing. it seems that the oldest and biggest play about trees in southern africa will increasingly disappear would bourne's research as part of an international collaboration between several universities researching the bay about that's how the massive die off was discovered 9 of the 13 oldest giant bear barbs have collapsed in the past dozen also years at the temple of oratory in johannesburg were born is trying to solve the mystery. is climate records are part of the study he wants to find out what environmental conditions made it possible for bay about to live over 2000 years though we need to view the collapse of these as some time of something that's going on in the world climate changing and the i.p.c.c. reports that it's happening faster than we anticipated if we don't make
a change to the way in which we manage carbon emissions. the spro says welcome to. so far the die off is only been documented in southern africa that hasn't been any research yet on the rest of the continent scientists are hoping it's only a regional problem and that africa's legendary base will not disappear forever. germany has trees strangely of a quality where we asked on facebook if your home country is known for any trademark or natural wonder that needs to be protected. brutal you can shin says the philippines has some of the biggest that they help to pollinate trees in the wild but sadly these mega bats are an endangered species and say lani from the city says the kingdom is known for its mountainous landscape and wild rivers.
renate in peru says potatoes and corn are important as they represent the culture of his ancestors that's just a few of the many answers you gave us. and now we're off to the moon. unit exploration was at its height in the 1960 s. after that interest died down somewhat until now only 3 nations have so far managed to land on our nearest neighbor russia the u.s. and china neil armstrong's giant step for mankind entered the history books as he landed on the moon in 1989 who will follow in his footsteps. until recently the moon was considered fairly boring a dusty and barren place out of life and of limited scientific interest. but space
agencies are once again looking to our nearest neighbor. on hoping to use it as a launching pad to outer space. nasa wants to have a permanent man station on the moon. and the european space agency is likewise planning a space gateway. russia and china meanwhile are also planning manned missions to the moon. our understanding of the moon has changed fundamentally. a host of lunar exploration satellites have been launched in the past decade. they've ensured that it's now the most extensively researched celestial body in our planetary system after earth of course. since the $960.00 s. scientists had suspected the existence of ice in the permanently shadowed craters at the moon's poles. these colder trops are the chilliest
parts of the moon. the temperatures here can sink as low as minus 240 degrees celsius. in 2009 anough submission shed light on the mystery and confirmed the hypothesis. the agency's lunar reconnaissance orbiter circled the moon in a low orbit. nasa deliberately crashed a rocket into a crater on the moon's surface a 2nd probe collected a relay data on the resulting plume of deborah before it self impacting nearby. the lunar reconnaissance orbiter above was able to identify water vapor in the cloud of dust. india launched its 1st lunar probe in 2008. it's right our found evidence of water ice in more than 40
craters at the northern pole an estimated $600000000.00 tons of it. one day this water could help support a man station on the moon. the water itself might have arrived on the moon through collisions with asteroids or comets. or from the sun created when solar winds hit the moon's surface and hydrogen atoms in the wind react with oxygen in the lunar rocks and dust to create h 2 o. the water then pools in those deep chilly craters at the moon's poles. thanks to data collected by the lunar atmosphere and dust environment explorer nothing scientists recently made a sensational discovery. streams of meteoroids striking what appear to be dry patches of the moon from a fighter which enters the thin lunar upness fear and moves water around the surface. in the years to come lunar robots will
continue the exploration of the moon's resources. in january 29th seen china became the 1st nation to land on the far side of the moon in the region around the south pole. the probe is supposed to analyze the interaction of solar wind with the lunar surface. india is planning to send an orbiter land and rover to the moon very soon. meanwhile the european space agency is working with its russian counterpart on a mission to the lunar south pole. they plan to search for water ice and other chemicals under the surface and analyze them with a miniature look oratory. robots have their limits of course that's why samples from the south pole will also be brought back to earth. gathering the samples and
transporting them will require complex technology. china is prying to launch its 1st lunar sample return mission in the near future. the next man mission to the moon isn't expected to happen until after 2030. well what is red white why didn't you say. do you have a science question that you've always wanted answered it we're happy to help out you send it to us as a video text ovoid smell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you catalog just ask. send us an e-mail or contact us on twitter or facebook. coming face to me on a dirt from nigeria wants to know what language to robot speak. robots do indeed
have their own language but they don't all speak the same one. wandering distant there's not. many of us are familiar with c 3 p.o.'s from the star wars movie as you claim to be fluent in over 7000000 forms of communication in real life a robot can only understand its own programming language. that language dictates the particular instructions the robot has to follow in 1959 work by grace hopper led to the development of the 1st commercial programming language for use in business many other such codes followed each programming language is a set of rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks this robots can be used for all kinds of jobs including things that humans are unable or unwilling to do boring monotonous tasks such as stacking things. they can also help with special missions such as underwater where it may be too cold or too dangerous for human divers.
borin outer space in 2018 simon was sent to assist the astronauts on the international space station. but we can also do some small talk if you want to. but how do robots like simon learn to speak busy. it's not the same way that children learn by making sounds they gradually practice the words they hear scientists are still not certain exactly what the learning process is occur in the brain with robots it's more simple they use words or phrases that humans have previously fed in the words a stored in the robot's database and can be called up as required. some robots are even able to learn using the data they already have.
and thanks to the built in sound card the robot is then able to speak those words. to you. red lights on the only invention that changed our everyday lives some have been game changes others just simply conveniences. but there's one particular invention a spin off from space without which much of our world would no longer function. just how important are satellites for our society. well let's imagine for a moment what life would be like without them. the 2018 german soccer cup final in the dying seconds of the game underdogs frankfurt had the chance to wrap up a shock when i says this is the chance to nail it. no satellites no live matches on t.v.
even for homes that have care. able television signal still goes via satellite before being transmitted through the cable. so no more live broadcasting of events that could be annoying but without satellites things would get a lot worse than the. supermarket shelves would be a lot emptier. that's because satellites are vital for the container ships to transport so many of our goods they need the global positioning system g.p.s. to navigate without the perfect coordination of these huge freighters would no longer be possible. in these it's economically stagnant by so without g.p.s. the ship would no longer know where it is where it needs to go and how it gets there if you for that would be a problem for a large ships picking up goods from one port and transporting them to another
wherever in the world that might be global trade would be in jeopardy. not just the trade in goods. satellites are also important in areas you might never expect they're equipped with high precision clumps and are constantly sending time signals to earth. b.z. used by financial markets here computers execute trades worth huge sums within milliseconds for real time trading to work clocks need to be precisely synchronized without satellites the ensuing chaos could cost billions. another example where time is of the essence or energy supply. electricity grids must never be overloaded so the flow of power needs to be regulated down to the millisecond without satellites the systems would no longer be
synchronized. and collapse that would lead to serious repercussions. you know concessional forced and obviously if you have no electricity nothing works in your home and you couldn't fall back on your computer or anything else you could no longer communicate on the man the myth. no television no shipping no electricity and of course no weather forecast as that too requires data provided by satellites. and it's not just a question of rain or sunshine it can be a matter of life and death with no prior warning of giant hail stones an approaching storm or the threat of floods it's almost impossible to evacuate people in time. and when natural disasters do occur emergency management services now rely heavily on satellite images. we've been asking for the mayor the last week has no
idea which regions most need help i might see on the edge of an area that there was a flood but i have no idea how far they extend or which areas are worst affected so it will be a lot more difficult to organize everything and get help to where it's needed in supplying aunt dimensions and. so satellites affect large areas of civilian life but that's not all. the meteor shower and an absence of satellites would have a huge impact on the military or you would have no images of the territory that i want to capture or that you want to scout out the normal forms of communication between units would be gone and moving around the territory would be impossible without satellite navigation other governments around the world would no longer know what their enemies are doing and could start to get nervous quite possibly
declare a state of emergency. the kind of scenario that could easily lead to war. but don't worry that was all just us imagining what could happen. satellites positioned around our planet their way of earth any airplane the lowest ones which include scientific and observation satellites are just above the top of that atmosphere g.p.s. satellites are further out. and of way up high on satellites for weather monitoring telecommunications and. a real fight for orbital space is set to break out at the medium range heights 1100 kilometers. leading the pack in the corporate space race there are already a range of old and new companies vying for supremacy. among the 5 runners
must be electric car maker made his 1st fortune with pay pal but for years he's been setting the pace in space with his. 25th enough decided to also try his hand in the commercial satellite business is aimed to ensure global internet coverage via satellite the 1st post. types went into orbit in 2018 by 2025 musk plans to command a satellite fleet of 12000 almost 7 times as many as are currently orbiting the earth. must have real financial muscle. in 2015 the global conglomerate invested a $1000000000.00 in satellite project. the sun francisco based on it company is another american contender and one that also enjoys google backing founded in 2010 the company currently owns the largest
private satellite fleet in space with some 150 of them. makes its money with automated surface of aliens cities forests farmland planets cameras record every change. planet and space x. faced tough competition from one where it's headed by greg who plans to launch almost 900 satellites into orbit and he shares the same names as his competitors she satellite internet he has the support of billionaire entrepreneur richard branson who also wants to send to your wrists into orbit the earth from communications satellite operators like yes i've also joined the chase us aerospace giant boeing is to provide the satellites for the european company to mean one south korean tech an industrial conglomerate some son wants to loft full fouls and $600.00 satellites into celestial albeit. if all of these
companies fully realize their plans one thing's for sure the earth's orbit would get very crowded. how do you take a picture of an object that's invisible and very very far away a picture of a black hole in outer space that. so dense nothing can resist its gravitational pull it's a feat that an international team of scientists pulled off for the 1st time last month by focusing on the matter swirling around the black hole they recorded it so called shadow. astronomer eduardo dos and his team at the max planck institute for radio astronomy in germany were part of the project he explains how it worked. in the image of black hole you will need several things 1st of all we have 2 black hole. they are i mean the
7 so you produce a star this black waves of radio and to me to them we need a telescope last week as the earth we have the earth and we have some pieces of this telescope which are smaller but i believe this is that look all together the radio waves. which come from the black hole on this. record of these. they are shipped by airplane. to the correlation centers which are supercomputers where do you want to use the. scientists such dishes spread across the planet to produce images as if from a single telescope as wide as a. beach observatory received the radio signals from the black hole at different
times due to the earth's constant rotation there's a label to scientists to plot the outline of the black hole. and have another peer of telescopes in another direction that will give you another circle and you get all of these crossing points and then you can reconstruct your revenge these they are. 4 teams of people who took them in the in the and into one of them. show the picture amazingly they are one of the same that means nobody was looking for the black hole of all that the black hole was in that we could say you record with harvey that this is the 1st picture ever of a black hole we have seen where the time and space and in the most extreme case in the heart or 30 more galaxy which is just 55000000
i'm not nothing out of the jam while i just sometimes i am but i say laughing when it happens because you haven't think sneak into the german culture of looking at the stereotypes aquatics put in here think it's new for the country guy not the time. needed change to take fullest grandmother down. it's all about a new i might show join me for meet the gentleman from d.w. post. the birth of germany's it'll. be in our constitution the 17. you've served as a north origin for germany. are seen these basic 10 seconds this was.
during a big idea but what's become of it and what little boy tomorrow. g.w. gets ready for an in-depth look at the european elections asking the questions that matter more european voters hopes for the new parliament what challenges lie ahead the wrong way to. on the conversations and the people in power have gotten away with not doing anything to fight the kind of crisis. you know much of the breastplate expert discussion. is or force. as it all is in the european elections on may 26th on.