tv Doc Film Deutsche Welle July 19, 2019 11:15am-12:01pm CEST
and you can also use the date up you up to send us your photos and your videos. coming up next on g.w. the documentary the legacy of courage sons and daughters of the resistance will look at what happened to the descendants of the group that plotted to assassinate hitler in 1940 stitches for that. first climbing lesson. the doors granted moment arrives. joining a regular jane on her journey back to freedom. in our interactive documentary. an orang utan returns home on t w don't come to tanks.
i was born shortly after the 2nd world war and my brother was already there and we led a sheltered childhood in the 1950 s. . then at some point i realised our family was different from the others my parents had a lot of friends and i often heard words like resistance and red orchestra. at school some people started or spring when my father's name was mentioned and i caught things like espionage and treason. for my parents spies traitors. and later i realized that i was not alone in having such thoughts. from him from i felt from the very beginning that i was somehow an outsider but i could not figure out why the other children was so hostile towards me and once there was several times when children jumped on me and wanted to beat me up. and
then finally my teacher said to my mother it's view of the. now it's clear to me why axl is so bad at school as the son of a traitor i cannot expect anything else of a or and with a deep in this car when my mother came home after that or i never actually seen her cry before but i remember that i saw something terrible and realize that she had tears in her eyes weren't. about those things you never forget when you're a child or to order since your dignity when it's couldn't against. germany at the end of the 19th thirty's the polish facade of
a dictatorship the nazis were pumping a lot of money into rearmament the economy was booming and the number of unemployed had fallen below the 1000000 mark. the people were excited about germany's new power but also hitler was about to lead germany into a war that would cost tens of millions of people their lives and destroy half of europe. if you people resisted. but a group of officers saw that hitler was policies were pushing germany into the abyss. caesar from hope because i know of close shrink but our french often bag the army officer who tried to assassinate hitler joined in the plans for a coup he had moved his wife and 5 children to upper bavaria his son and freed remembers him the biota and by an uncut as soon as he arrived in bavaria the 1st thing he would do was take off his uniform and pull on his leather shorts up and i
have very happy memories of my father he was laughing for the 100 there was of course because it was the holiday season he was at home and could devote himself to our family and was able to laugh heartily that's an image that has stayed in my memory one for which i am very grateful to have been shut up for. lieutenant colonel going to smith was only 30 when he was appointed to the german army's general staff punched off and back managed to recruit him to the ranks of the plotters x.o. spent was born in may 1904 the tool is pushed and he is of course although they were married for 6 years from 1988 to 944 my mother once told me that they had only seen each other for a total of $44.00 days you. see although he wrote more than 2000 letters from the front and that was the way things were back then don it's. my father gunter visor born and my mother joy married in
berlin in 1941. he held the reception that evening in his studio. my father was a successful playwright and he get a lot of friends in the berlin art scene. and his best friend paro schultz a voice and turned up in uniform. a large circle of happy fascist friends had formed around him and his wife labor touch. because stop assuming that circle the red orchestra. it was like dancing on a volcano some of the wedding guests would be executed a year later labor toss and haro to. ante nazi resistance had begun earlier how osho the boys and worked in the air ministries intelligence section he knew about hitler's secret plans for war against the soviet union in 1941 before hitler came to power shultz of boys and was
a staunch opponent of the nazis in 1933 he was severely mistreated by the s.s. and they beat a jewish friend of his to death in front of his eyes. after you tanakh and his american wife mildred were friends of fruits of boys in the naacp worked as a senior civil servant in the ministry of economy. the 2 made contact with the american and soviet embassies and passed on news about hitler's war preparations. the soviet embassy gave hanukah radio transmitter and said his friend hunts copy was to use it to send messages to moscow. copy came from the communist youth movement he was just 17 when the nazis put him behind bars for almost 2 years in 1901 he married his fiance hilda. the nazis vance as anti nazis they were not just willing to discuss resistance or make jokes about the nazis but also to help people or hand out leaflets with
a look at that. they were ready to run these risks because they thought who will do it if we don't have an h.b.o. . the members of the so-called red orchestra came from all walks of life aristocrats communists christians artists and workers all circles where not everyone knew each other personally a lot of women were involved office worker erica from book door was brought in by her husband kai a sculptor her daughter saskia was born in 1937 or 2 beaten homes even they were not easily intimidated by authority and will never taken in by the nazis hollow rhetoric. of goodness and. what everyone in the group shared was the desire to get rid of the hitler regime to end the war and to stop the persecution of the jews they didn't look the other way
like the majority of germans did they helped the persecuted hid them and got them out of the country dentist dr hellmuth hippel treated jews in their hiding places and his girlfriend helped them with food packages a young pianist how much of all of sometimes played music with the couple. when don had him on my mind one day hempel took my father aside and asked him if he wanted to work with him and father was gone and my father didn't understand what he meant because he was a pianist and hempel was a dentist and he didn't know at that point why or how they should collaborate. but then hempel said what i say now puts my life in your hands and. then it immediately became clear what he meant when my father applied then we can work together that was a huge relief. all of a sudden and this and this extremely narrow and fascist world he had found some
like minded people because. most members of the group came from the youth movement. sailing camping hiking and making music into the countryside and into the blue. they loved life. their celebrations were legendary a lot of the romance and the freedom it was all part of their lives the lives they risked every day and their resistance to hitler and the war any of their clandestine activities were punishable by death. the red orchestra wanted to use information to counter the nazis propaganda. in february 9427 months after the invasion of the soviet union they wrote victory by nazi germany is no longer possible we will lose this war c. the 2nd conflict in
1902 reported the mass murder of jews and soviet civilians in the east. schultz a boysen was working in the cultural film center which was collecting secret information and picture material about german war crimes on the eastern front the mass murder of the jews pushed many officers into the resistance my father knows with violent feuds and my father was transferred to the general staff in 1043. and then he saw probably for the 1st time all the terrible things that were happening because then he started to take part in the briefings sort of and then of course he also saw how much injustice there was in germany because he had to. can dismantle his adjutant to army chief of staff courtside. french dolphin back him to win over
tights low for the coup. or decent for what he tried but failed to cite let's hope my father as far as i'm concerned this conversation never took place and . on july 20th 1944 a bomb went off in hitler's eastern headquarters. the would be assassin colonel klaus functional from bag had launched a coup his cousin says often hope aka who was one of more than 200 officers and civilians involved in the coup was in paris where detained the local gestapo and s.s. leaders. for a phone hope aka remembers that radiant summer day all too well. and every night i think it was around 7 o'clock we used to listen to the damage
opportunities on the day that night there was a special announcement and these were the words he used a criminal group of german officers has tried to murder hitler who didn't know. we all froze the next thing i remember my mother silently rose from the dinner table which was quite unusual i looked out the window because i wanted to know what she was doing and i saw her hurriedly lighting a fire in the garden a few. stricken for your garden and and for no fuckers mother was burning letters from his father sees a friend who was arrested 5 days after the failed assassination when i'm out of food and my mother found out about my father's 1st interrogation when i guess stopped the officer asked him to stop or whatever were you thinking of half and i don't mind if you have a wife and 5 children and fatah madonna behind it to talk on photos which my father responded with a quote from hina slightly modified what do i care for my wife and child this is about my country if i had to make a great effort to understand that and i'm sure my mother had problems with it too
he knew that the prospects of success were minimal he told my mother the chances were $98.00 to $2.00 so they all knew they were going to do something and not survive and he mom at those vendors maturity. the family was separated the mother and older siblings were sent to a concentration camp guarded by 2 gestapo officers crude was put on a train to bad success in the arts mountains where the nazis interned the children of the conspirators given that we arrived totally exhausted of course but i still remember what the warden told us if anyone asked you who you are then you only answer with your 1st name for the nazis wanted to wipe out the families of opponents of the regime and put their children up for adoption yvonne and i was and we were housed in a large dormitory and had already turned out the light and the kindergarten teacher had gone to bed when tough 15 said i will now say our last name so we can get to
know each other i heard. and then my name. i then astolfo my cousin mentioned a great aunt of mine and i said hey you that's my great aunt. it was quite strange within a few minutes we found we belong together but we still didn't know why we were there even on his recent phone that autism about. caesar from her father was subjected to particularly harsh interrogation because because stoppel wanted to squeeze the names of the coconspirators out of him. he was able to smuggle packages out of prison through a guard and. there was even a package with a tattered blood stained shirt where we wondered what my father wanted to achieve with that not that the shirt was mended and was but he wanted to give a visible sawing to the outside world record. in the spring of 1902 the discovery of red orchestra agents in belgium had led to the arrest and
interrogation of members of the group in germany. my father always kept a diary. but the entries stop abruptly in september 1042. to stop all came to the studio at 5 am on the 26th. my parents were arrested they'd already arrested their friends haro shots of voices and argued hard luck the gestapo would track them down by decipher a radio message from moscow to brussels giving their names and addresses they had been watched. gradually the gestapo found out how large the group was over 120 people were arrested in germany alone the oldest was 86 the youngest 17 when the gestapo found a suitcase with a broken radio at the home of the pianist helmut all of he and his friends were
interrogated there's these and that's the crucial point was that these friends had covered the head with and he knew it would use or and they knew about him in return as they were knew about each other to such an extent that they could rely on each other. promote all of pretended to be an innocent musician that saved his life. but because shorter boys and some of the others were military officers they faced a court martial the nazis wanted to keep the extent of the group from the public and ambitious investigating judge monthly to go to was put in charge of the prosecution he was to ensure that all the defendants received the death sentence and the game would out of the void my mother really had a small private fight with the rig he was so autocratically deluded but she didn't let him humiliate her and then also loft that he couldn't take that.
my hand military chief justice and this woman loft wouldn't the lefties of all. hitler personally insisted that the prison sentence handed down to erica from blocked off was converted into a death sentence for a 5 year old's askia it was a huge shock when her mother suddenly disappeared from her life. killed a copy was pregnant when she was arrested and her son hunts was born in the women's prison. his father was executed less than a month later. because i was in my the mood of often with my mother was always a particular reference point for the pain i suffered. with but with the it was an unconscious thing because i couldn't really remember that but it left me with a feeling that never diminished with all the ups and in fact it's recently become
even stronger. and i can't bottle it up. and as the income of the shelf list. 50000. killed a copy was allowed to breastfeed her son for 8 months then on august 5th 1943 like the other women in the red orchestra she was beheaded by the guillotine inputs and as a prisoner she was 34 years old special preparations were made for the executions at jetson's a prison even before the death sentences were handed down hitler had ordered the installation of an iron rail with 8 hooks to hang several prisoners at the same time it was a particularly cruel method of execution that reflected the nazis hatred of a group of conspirators at the very heart of german society after july
20th 1904 the plotters were hanged on the same books that were used for the red orchestra. the nazis had wanted to keep the trials of the red orchestra member secret but the trial of the july 20th plotters was to be used for propaganda purposes. make sure the very marked officers put them before a so-called people's court and filmed the whole farcical process as court president all done for us a condemned the defendants to death. but fraudsters humiliation of the defendants was so shocking that the nazis never even released the film. on top. of the way. i put it which is to police officers what
a rally that must have bad all of them sitting here at the same tone. and if you will. not. i. you can hardly imagine how behaved. i think you're going to see if i can actually think in terms of right or wrong here to. of course i can really only see my father and so i was a very anxious in this room. these forms. of course i know what moved him he knew he wouldn't get out of this situation and his last thoughts were certainly with his family was so if some good. bones usually he were there for me.
as for who for me and for i try to imagine my father that i think he was certain he had no way out so i could put all those passion into his own plea because he had nothing to lose. and his statement mr president it is about my life today but tomorrow it will be about yours shows that it must have hit hard and question of questions. if i think. what. i predicted i thought i'm doing with. it from now on if you look. like an. awful lot about it i bet. so in the light of winter when i stand here now i really admire the defendants who stood here
and you had the self-control and courage to express things with clarity in their rhetoric and in particular with clarity in their minds and are in the record for we are not in christ. you know you know it should be here and i know. you are leaving don't. you know you think i did a good or to be. paid. almost 3000 death sentences were carried out in person saying under the nazi regime . before her execution erica from blocked off wrote a farewell letter to her little daughter but the letter never reached as i ask you who was later found in the east german archives no one had thought it necessary to actually give it to her it was a fun day existence as i knew nothing of the existence of the letter so not like if i'd received it at the right time let's say as a teenager not as
a child maybe it would have been too much for a child but if i'd got it when i was still young my life we would have been different. yeah for years i was angry and i also felt forsaken. at the meal for less than. a. little bit that's the way it went i didn't get the letter until 62 years later. listen the volume is close and say was san still lives and can a spacious place for me. and it's also a place of silence and individual encounters with the. people and he said with off on them i haven't had any good experience of this when i've shared with others. and
i don't feel very good about it i can't actually get my pain across to people. in the death of plots and say interests meant was flipped on little book the thoughts of shallow and hurled are lame and sayings from the bible. you had to fear me if i got the roads in it just for me. the x. was baptismal of us. another day he wrote. i can hardly speak now because the lump in my throat is too big. then in another place he wrote. if only i could see our children again. i was he could too. that's what he wrote on 8 the september the day of his execution i'm talk to him
which the. qantas meant was 31 years old. by the end of the war more than 150 people who were taken part in the july bomb plot had been killed. it's our interest this week it's really the most horrible place i know. it's the place where i always see my father on the gallows and i can't get that picture out of my head and the real dispute here only shows. every year on july 20th the family members meet for prayers for. doctors and the i'm going to work and we family members are basically alone in a protected area and every time is always a renewed experience for me. because i not only see the hook above me this need condition of the heart but of course i also see my father hanging there and.
cellar door and the door opened and in front of us was a negro black as night but. far you know. we've never seen a negro with a helmet and a machine gun and a big smile as he looked at us children thought he reached into his pants pocket and gave us some chewing gum and that quickly dispelled our fear. well done for going on. and then it must have been a week or 2 later when we were all summoned and then this mayor a social democrat who had been released from the concentration camp turned out. he stood on the table and we children were all lined up in front of the table. and he said you can be proud if your father is they were heroes and we all looked at each other quite moved and then he left and we went back to business as usual. but it didn't have the effect on going and what it really happened was not actually discussed much damage that i would describe as visits to thank you for such a pursuit. the period of the not separate cation and reconstruction began.
at 1st nobody cared about the resistance fighters. my father survived the prosecutor had asked for the death penalty but he avoided execution through luck and the help of friends my father got 3 years in prison for failing to report a crime after the liberation he plunged back into cultural life he collected information about the resistance in 1907 he gave a speech on the anniversary of the burning of the books. this pyar this fiery farce of stupidity was ignited by misguided use it as small a fire on the open plots marked the start of a global conflict ration which blew back on us and destroyed these houses around it should look at it like. that even. my father wanted to bring munford roeder to court and he denounced him to the americans in nuremberg who were to did appear
at the nuremberg trials but as a witness not a defendant he had been working for the american secret service under the code name othello he gave the americans the gestapo version of the red orchestra a supposedly europe wide network of paid communist agents who were just waiting to become active again under moscow's leadership. in the cold war that was now beginning rohde became a valuable ally of the west the public prosecutor in the book investigated the 40 death sentences he had passed. come in. there you can read among other things by a prosecutor who was in actual fact running the investigation into reuters activities . he said he had acted relatively humanely given the importance of the case. and in fact a lot more death penalty should have been handed down for the month of august.
in the end the investigation against month trade order was shelved he ran a farm near luna borg and campaigned for radical right wing parties. then because he was so close to the east german border and feared he could be kidnapped he moved to the thomas region the citizens of glass or to elected him deputy mayor for the c.d.u. . none of the 3rd hikes hanging judges was ever held to account in west germany a generous pension allowed to order to live comfortably until his death in 1971 the families of the resistance fighters had a different tale to tell often they had to fight for years to get their pensions oxus ments mother was one of them written event and the pensions offices were a bureaucratic jungle. and you can tell from an all 4 letter to my mother. you could tell from the german that the clerk was disgusted at having to write to
my mother to leave it was certainly a terribly unpleasant time for me so i was usually fewer words were. virtually no one was removed from the stance of the administration in judiciary in the new federal republic of germany all eyes were on the future. that if we didn't have a complete replacement of the population in germany to mention the same people live there often may 8th 1905 as the forest uncomfortable and that meant that the resistance fighters were not on it but on the contrary for many years were vilified as traitors as over. and their families as their wives or children of traitors of the 950 s. were not a good time for the families of the resistance fighters and for. should such. public recognition for the victims of july 20th 1904 came slowly the 1st major memorial service with president to go to hardee's sent chancellor conrad out an
hour only took place in 1954. meanwhile the german democratic republic saw itself as the 1st anti fascist state on german soil had promised to do everything better. than. i was a pioneering pioneer if you like look pretty and of course i later joined the free germany's organization and was also a candidate for party membership but because my father simply refused to talk about my mother it was always a kind of hard core inside me but he does very hard to count me and. the nazis that sentence does ask his father to 4 years in prison and he survived the war in a penal battalion in the g.d.r. he tried to adapt to the new regime. and scorpio grew up with his grandmother at the beginning of the 1950 s. street schools and even nurseries were named after his coming as the parents he
became the child of heroes and marks and as an adolescent as an 111213 year old i just couldn't live with that. those were the times where i lay in bed at night and said man why did you do that. get as good mom. that's me to a time for the what really made me angry was kind of like when i was 14 i asked my father about the red orchestra and he said to me we promised the soviet comrades in this sort of voice i'm using now very official we have promised the soviet homewards not to talk about it the struggle is not over there comes it's not was it formed with. the communists saw the red orchestra is to bush why into ideologically diverse paying too little attention to the moscow line in east germany if you had time for the july plotters either just
a bunch of aristocrats and officers who were worried about their farms but suddenly in the mid 1960 s. the red orchestra was honored after all but in the soviet union the east german leadership hurriedly changed its tune. again because as. we got to you and forgive it was because of the publication of the history of the labor movement in which the schultz boysen are not a group became the schultz of boys and hard knocks organization. that's why the and then they discovered it also had contacts with moscow. and sent in portland or information from berlin to moscow with the radio my father had sapped out from my father is this a. secret police boss you know as milkha had a feature film made. keylock a to p.t. ex one of the most expensive east german productions ever telling the tale of
agents to do the party line and scrappy jr did some of the research in moscow. what the government because i'm betty ford yes i want to find out which radio messages he sent they surely must have arrived here and so on. but i was told no we don't have any radio messages why are there somewhere else you know i was told there's only one radio message from the 23rd or 24th of june 1041. in other words right after the invasion of the soviet union began it was called a 1000 greetings to all french before and. but the film shows a lot of radio traffic both mucous mounted this meatless men did it against that with a judgment that you could form. a new that had never been any radio traffic but that didn't stop them spreading all sorts of fantastic nonsense about it just had to be
heroic and authentic and these mutual stereotypes in east and west meant that the stereotypical image of the spies of the red orchestra had remained so powerful for so long and so many mines almost until the present day isn't your thing time if you . as i just got. let me as motivated as i would move towards this myth was so good that one could hand it seamlessly down from the interrogation protocols at the top of the interrogation records of the nazi courts martial to speak to a news magazine in 1968. in a 10 part series that year beagle repeated the gestapo his lies about a europe wide intelligence group under soviet leadership and $500.00 radio messages .
from brock gough felt hemmed in in the g.d.r. she wanted to travel in 1902 she married a peruvian and moved with him to south america. she later moved to west berlin but she still couldn't shake off the past. but it was only when everything came to a head that i said to myself i understand it cannot be good for your life to run around with this bitterness inside you someone recommended a psychologist he was a q. issue whose parents also tried to oppose the nazis how i told her how i felt and she said listen it's completely normal for you to be angry and feel abandoned as a child you couldn't feel any differently if you knew nothing about it can come in another entrance and reverse a 1000 itself into. the loss of our friends one who fockers father also left in his family. but what of i was the one who had a problem with my mother and i couldn't deal with her. and i was always
a very angry child and when i was even angrier after the war my mother often stood in front of me and said what would your father have said now if you were with us. that was a club that managed to silence me at once of course for them because my mother would then shut herself away and then come out again with tears stain dolls. then in the mid 1970 s. our frequent hope in our father and self made a surprising discovery. indictive is often by phone the proverbial trunk in the attic of our house of fun i opened it and found loads of material about my father. and for years and suddenly i had a completely different picture of him with that took it i had to recognize my father was a resistance fighter. but how does that work he was originally a fervent nazi too he was far. from these 2 extremes merged and that was
really difficult. what i think is that for me was ultimately decisive that these contradictions in my father's biography 1st auden socialist and supporter of the system then passionate resistance fighter. this iraq in the same biography strange as it may sound only brought me closer to my father. now he stands before me as a person i can worship as a son whom i can love and feel emotionally connected to the young son even con emotion i made him a full blown. farewell from home the holidays are over i have to go back to boarding school my father found his way in cultural life he tirelessly fought for the recognition of the resistance but he
never achieved his life's goal to rehabilitate his friends in the red orchestra. he got caught between the millstones of the east west conflict and lies on both sides . he never had a chance. my father died in february 1969 at the age of 66. months copy is devoted decades to the history of the red orchestra and written numerous books. as of course it has followed me and i've really got no reason to distance myself from my parents. the didn't i think they would be fine with what i'm doing in this field. and the story hasn't let me go because my parents didn't let me go i cannot bid them farewell when in fact she. in 1908 the convictions of the conspirators of july 20th were a nod but it took longer for the women and men of the red orchestra the german
parliament did not know their convictions until 2967 years after the fact. to miss rice that since then i've known that there should be a memorial stone here that was some time in the forward in the next spring i said to myself you have to do something and because berlin has no money anyway i've taken it on myself when i look 63 years after her mother's death as a scare received her farewell letter at last. but leaves us clear if you offered that my dear saskia i hope that these lines will reach she one day by then i will have been long gone but i wanted to tell you that i have very often indeed almost always thought only of you in my cell my dear dear child i wish you all the best for your life may you be an open honest upright person except for your father whom
i loved above all else you were everything to me even if you are still very small now you will still remember me and that will comfort me on my last journey do you remember when i said nobody loves me and you jumped up and put your little arms around my neck and said but mommy i love you so much in these 4 months i have relived the day in the hospital when i held you in my arms for the 1st time so you can blame me for many things but not for being a bad mother. i firmly believe that there will come a time when you have 2nd thoughts about me and many others i would have liked to experience that but now i am also not that it's different and there is a wonderful calm encouraging within minutes and a 1000 greetings and kisses from your mother goose from chris from the number.
have one. it's 50 years since the moon landing. and the adventure continues today scientists are still trying to determine where the celestial body came from. and astronauts for training practices. soon to receive a visitor from berlin. as long as. my lectures do not go to day nothing would change you know the banks be mine and so was the language of a bank money. speaking the truth global news that matters g.w.
made for mines. the but . this is to me is coming from the u.s. claims one of its more ships has shot down an iranian drone in the gulf us president donald trump says unmanned aircraft posed a threat to the american naval vessel a few don in foreign ministers says he has no information about losing a draw and what will this mean for relations between washington and. also coming up democratic congresswoman. clear.