tv Doc Film Deutsche Welle August 26, 2019 3:15am-4:00am CEST
it's person it's divisive it's about topics that affect us all solution climate strange turn. color is shouting. put some stuff on hardly anyone knows how nontransparent this market really is still for that one ton of charcoal requires 5 to 10 tons of wood. this has an enormous impact on the environment. the water. where the wood comes from there's often terrible human rights abuses of that there's poverty there's
deforestation there's deserts protection lies of. no go it's completely unacceptable the tropical rainforests are being destroyed just to produce cheap charcoal should be happening it's madness bombs in. nigeria with 186000000 inhabitants it's the most populated country in africa this is where most of the charcoal imported to the e.u. comes from it's a huge business not only in nigeria paragliding in south america is another big global player. according to the un over half the trees cut down worldwide are burnt to produce charcoal with severe effects to the climate. nigerian. praised the high
quality of charcoal derived from tropical wood it's particularly durable and its embers last much longer but these traders don't have to certify where they get their charcoal the wood could be from one of the few sustainable plantations for tropical timber and africa or it could have been illegally logged in the rain forest. kingsley specializes in export ready to receive over charcoal. merchants who want to import tropical timber to the e.u. have to certify its origins the process is strictly regulated but those guidelines don't apply to charcoal. 88 percent of the charcoal used in germany is imported nigeria alone supplies $31000.00 tonnes a year but most consumers have no idea what they are using to grill their sausages . there's a gemini and. where it will form and.
it doesn't. fill up. all the steel 40 feet. charcoal from nigeria made in germany made possible because there are no restrictions on importing charcoal made from tropical timber to the e.u. . the spoke of garden trade fair in cologne this is where the outdoor grilling industry comes together many distributors can't see any problem with charcoal from the tropics the trade association however would rather not comment. here. from france has been fighting against imported tropical charcoal for years he works with the forest trust t.f.t. . they want charcoal to be processed only from sustainably cultivated forests and for consumers to easily see if they're buying charcoal from native or illegally logged tropical. would there is no transparency. but then what is the way in
particular. because of some info to spread them to be produced. but there we are british on of their tree can create a european working work on the book because. if we don't do that if we'd not be clear also for students. there's a lot although i may amend says it is a small brick us there are distributors who keep importing. and this is what the market will force their hand the moment we change the market everyone who wants to carry on as usual for will be left no other choice as the kaldis often i think. in france t.f.t. has already managed to change the market most buyers for a large retail chains have come to reject charcoal from tropical forests. is meeting a belgian who imports african charcoal the man is convinced of his products quality
and he even has a seal to prove it's been produced responsibly she can't understand the concern about a tropically source charcot. with highly paid what if what you have to realize that there are also sustainably managed tropical forests to solidify it i don't see why these products should be banned or yet you do and if you can't forget that the charcoal market is helping feed thousands of people in africa with the 5th seed of sea weed be making things too easy on ourselves if we suddenly decided to just ban everything sourced from nigeria which i moved down to this he could just get in asia we need to actively deal with the problem south who we fish for such as i say i for. in nigeria it's true that many people depend on the charcoal business in places where qualified jobs are hard to come by they're they often live in the humblest conditions. people like kobe he and his
family make charcoal for a living they travel across the country as nomads and love trees wherever they can in the wild not unsustainable estates. the process is simple enough the wood is stacked covered with dirt and then let. these so-called kilns seal off most oxygen allowing the wood to burn down slowly in about 11 days it's reduced to charcoal 5 i walk past that are strong they found produce about $200.00 baths within a month. with only enjoyed the walk to me since i wouldn't enjoy the work is a hard. level most times when you come back you were tired and. most of us used dogs on and off on the walk in order to regain your strength.
for one ton of charcoal the workers need up to 10 tons of wood most of the energy escapes as excess heat exhaust leaks from the highlands and the surrounding soil is contaminated with toxins. forestation is a huge problem in nigeria. a study by the un food and agriculture organization found that $410000.00 hectares of forest were cut down each year. not only does that have a major impact on the climate it also leads to erosion and the forming of new deserts. but the forests aren't being destroyed just to make charcoal they're also being cleared for farmland and yet 87 percent of all trees logged in nigeria are used for firewood or charcoal. harry hoffman is a scientist for years he's been concerned about the charcoal production in africa.
is this it's the only way they can make a living during the dry season wants the end of the dry season before they return to that field if there's nothing left to pay for school so they go to the forest and cut down trees to make charcoal they can sell on the street even if it is illegal. when they do they risk their fields drying up. back to germany. is the wood specialist at the world wildlife fund today he's brought bags of charcoal to the tune institute in hamburg to once trade restrictions for charcoal and he's backing up his arguments with facts if it were up to him importing illegal timber into the e.u. would be banned as would the charcoal produced from that. call and his colleagues want to see just how much wood from tropical forests these bags contain. there's
a lot of pressure from consumers not just for these products coal in particular is almost a cultural asset for germans finding a legal wood in their charcoal would leave a bad taste in their mouths that's mistress' businesses can't afford that that utilise the few months or years ago this product wouldn't have gained such broad attention. to date importers don't need to show that the wood for their charcoal was legal. and any product information on the back doesn't show the country of origin either. is one of germany's leading specialists in determining what. he can say where the charcoal is from can discern which type of wood it was made from even if it gets imprinted on the back. he instantly recognizes some native trees species. before i put it under the microscope i do a pretty examination sometimes i use
a magnifying glass to determine what type we're dealing with. i've already dock a bit out from the bottom of the bag and as you can see what makes trunk also special is that unlike wood it's brittle to. break it off a creates these clean edges and i can look at those with my magnifying glass. here for example we have an ash tree. this bag doesn't contain any tropical timber other bags do. when. you swing by the nearest gas station to pick up a bag of charcoal of course you have no idea how far it has traveled already and what ecological footprint it has left behind. the entire forests are being cut down in countries like nigeria or in eastern europe and sometimes even protected forests are being plundered when that has an immense impact on the ecosystem or
biodiversity and on the climate overall we need to act. we care we have briquettes. here we have a product that we're looking at. you know yes. this is pure charcoal. here we have a different product with the slogan for the sake of the environment it's a b c o 2 neutral. inspects 20 bags of charcoal that you then had various hardware and grocery stores in many cases it's evident the wood isn't needed. before just because before i've had a look at them under the microscope i can't say for sure these samples definitely have tropical origins kind it's not that simple but i can say that the ones i've looked at are definitely not from regular wood. so we know for certain that it isn't.
compressed bearcats are especially hard to examine they consist mostly of coal dust and starch but even here the expert is able to find traces of wood. image told them individually identifying would species is called wood anatomy we identify types of wood based on their anatomical structure model and deal have been examining plant structures for 2 or 300 years what's important is to have reference material but they aren't. that's why the kunin institute of wood research stores thousands of samples of various trees. but in spoke to him at my ease on the structural features we can see here we can definitely say this word is not from a temperate or even boreal reacher at a boy ours who rushed out. that means this charcoal was definitely tropically sourced. 8 of the 20 bags they examined did contain wood from rain forests.
that amounts to 40 percent of their samples 6 5 bags even contained red list species of endangered or restricted blood. the findings are upset ng for your highness tannen of the world wildlife fund. not the innocents who feel this is been a topic for so many years to find such a catastrophic results here in germany was shocking it can't go on like this. many distributors won't take responsibility for their products origin sustainable conservation environmental protection labor laws none of it matters. the important ones cost and seduction costs are much much lower than operating a colliery here in germany and voice so that makes it attractive to transporting it over the ocean from nigeria to germany or europe is a fairly small portion of the total cost to untie what they can some cost in others
and. most germans have no idea that their charcoal is sometimes produced with people's bare hands and colby would never have guessed that he's talking was used to grill german sausages for many interesting make use of from cost. to down make use of it's like this before. they also make use of charcoal. also people who take it they find us there but i don't know what they use it for all we need for them on the tickets is time. koby and his workers get $3.00 for each bag of charcoal even in nigeria that's not a lot of money but the supply chain in africa is low transporters sorters distributors everyone wants to turn a profit the jobs are highly sought after. most jobs provided i
knew they were out of $0.60 south what shop will be chocolate aussies one of the few jobs that actually brings joy down to the rural areas to the local women to people who otherwise they have no education have nothing to fall back to they have nothing. for the. and here is the lesson there's really no major industry here to cry to call me this is a boss. that also wanted to work because the other thing. and this secret or this growing. list of one study estimates the market could be worth up to $12000000000.00 by 2030 with $12000000.00 people working at it that's a shadow market most of the money made in that sector will stay with a powerful distributors solution and paying. the money isn't made in nigeria it's
made in europe. over here we have the products were ready to ship to places like poland this is ready whenever the continent. will ship it out. in 2015 alone exports from nigeria to poland grew by 51 percent. but i'm biased from africa most times there repackage and there seltzer water. on trees for land is a very big haul that by a lot of friends around markets. the charcoal is shipped to europe in containers the t.f.t. organization has seen to it that less nigerian charcoal is imported to france but exports to poland are on the rise here conservationists say charcoal from tropical wood is simply repackaged and distributed throughout europe.
continues his search in poland. more loaded up for sister like. we are here to see if this factory really does produce charcoal look at all some of the we want to know if all the wood was locally sourced and processed with us. as this is on our previous visits to poland. we learned that some only pretend to be producers. actually imports charcoal repackage it and then sell it. and then they claim it was produced here in their factory orders. today only gay and his colleagues are visiting europe's largest charcoal producer once the company grease gowned has 3 factories that produce 15 percent of all the charcoal consumed e.u. wide. the managing director is guiding a tour through the facilities. the conservationists want to find out if all the
charcoal is truly produced here in poland or if it's mixed with charcoal from tropical woods. the most important clue is a look in the business books he's interested in the amounts of charcoal and wood coming and going is so far he's been acting on behalf of french chains that have committed themselves to offer only sustainable charcoal. and that the forest trust checks that no tropicals would find its way into the backs of. their biggest difficulty is figuring out how many tons of wood the company needs to produce one ton of charcoal. based on the method employed the amounts can vary greatly. now it's p.-l. of these job to estimate how efficiently the plant works and compare the wood purchases with the charcoal sales competition in this sector is fierce as is the
temptation to cheat with illegal african charcoal. when the countries keep production costs down and companies manage to buy raw material from dubious sources then they can earn higher profit margins on the import and trade when done by import of them hunted for the. bit it's. just. while importers pay very little for their raw material european producers must dig deep into their pockets for the wood. producers traders everyone looks to cut corners to make sure that i can make those prosper ducks and forced onto them by the market by consumers in fact and not forcefully often leads to the cheapest would be illegal would getting into the system. the largest producer in europe states that it's wood is purchased from native forests that's a big cost factor in the book there's lots of ward what's important is that the
wood is actually from this region cultivated sustainably and is so that it can be labelled as responsibly produced a charcoal. native wood from responsible forestry that means the amount of wood that can be logged is limited to how much can read grow. european foresters have known this principle for centuries that's how they responded to the massive clearing of forests in the early 18th century they call it sustainability. of gold from this region. this particular place. for 5 to make sure the charcoal is as sustainable as the managing director said it was their next appointment is with the forester again checks the production books and the woods origin. to make sure the forests are large enough to supply the amount of wood the manufacture needs are you know of
takes careful note of the numbers of hectares the age of the trees and the amount of wood extracted. from the 4 as they plant or in the not raw way. place he hasn't found a bug in the system yet but he keeps asking the manufacturers. quality manager and the forester both take all his questions. unlike in africa the amount of woodland in the e.u. was growing. in poland it went from 8800000 hectares in 1990 to 9400000 hectares in 2015 that only works with truly sustainable methods. is very pleased with what he's seen here.
they have a forest cultivation plan set up for 10 years with a registry for each logging so. and that way they know exactly how much wood they're allowed to take from each plot or do dismiss means traceability right back to where it was felled and we know they've been cultivating sustainably for years. disorder for example is 60 years old supply. word for guilt free charcoal. thanks to traditional forestry guidelines modern technology and careful documentation this forest will continue supplying as much wood as it does today for centuries to come.
is that it's that simple it's that there's plenty of wood right here in poland that you don't need to buy it in africa. that out there is enough deciduous trees to cover the demand for charcoal. hopes to someday find charcoal in supermarkets that is only produced from sustainable way but in europe there are many sustainable manufacturers like this one in poland and companies that produce charcoal and electricity i think sachin to the rule and so he sets off for france. one of the most modern charcoal factories in the world is here in the region. the region is also home to vast deciduous forests and yet france still imports most of his charcoal. this manufacturer wants to prove that producing charcoal in france can in fact be profitable. you know what it lacks in size the business makes up for in innovation
. the french government supports it with subsidies. the managing directors were even invited to the world climate conference in bonn in 2017 to talk about eco friendly charcoal production at home and in developing countries. had also this word here comes from the forest guard use of sun. thanks to modern technology they only need 2 and a half tons of wood. for each ton of charcoal they produce that means they can preserve 40 percent of the wood in comparison the earth mounds in africa only have an efficiency rate of about 10 percent interest meaning their kilns require 4 times the amount of wood. but yeah there. was a surprise has already offered to help if i knew it had been taking into. the charcoal is dried in huge baskets with the excess heat given off during production
. 1st i was just set up. this here is proof that we're able to make renewable charcoal. all it takes is sustainable forestry and today's technology. that using this method we can produce charcoal electricity and heat 3 products at once from one single resource. it's what makes this product competitive and profitable in your art of when he visited. this site provides 10000 homes with steady electricity. the tropical charcoal producers can only dream of having such a modern plant. built by world wide filed where experiencing the deforestation of several 1000000 hectares each year or this is so that is so much and so relevant that it makes up about 15 percent of manmade carbon
emissions by tate. satellite images reveal that 30 percent of africa's oldest national park has already been destroyed. by the wrong national park is very old and has been particularly affected by people illegally extracting wood to produce charcoal onslaughts we facetious that's a stand in. the room good national park lies in the eastern part of the democratic republic of congo. the charcoal produced here isn't export it 97 percent of the people in the region use it for cooking and heating the areas surrounding the national park have already been cleared. according to the world wildlife fund 90 percent of the trees fell here are used to produce charcoal. over 4 years ago this whole area was full of trees but now 4 years later all the trees have been cut down and not only that even the roots have been pulled out of the
ground. the world wildlife fund foresters are shocked. the demand for charcoal is so high in this region that even digging up and charring tree roots is worth the effort. 3000000000 people on the planet cook with word and it's not just cooking used for heating to it's essential to them and there's no way of replacing it. producing wood sustainably requires space space they don't have the population in africa will quadruple by the end of the century capacity limits are often exceeded now. one big problem is the lack of infrastructure only 3 percent of the people living in the huge city of goma and its surrounding villages have access to electricity cooking with gas would be easier healthier and more eco friendly but charcoal is often the only source of energy they have.
people need to be certain that they'll have gas when they need it otherwise they can't cook it's a crucial source of energy for many people and it will be for a long time to come. the last 10 years have seen huge forest areas vanish the w w f workers are certain the ongoing political conflicts in the region are contributing to the deforestation here. this all used to be forest monkeys lived here now there aren't any left. to save the national park the w w f workers want to turn around their charcoal market and are reaching out to all parties involved even the transporters they ride their bikes 30 kilometers to the next city q one in. the city. of
this. specific and build up here they say it costs $20.00 and in goma it costs $23.00 and it was elected since we asked them if they produce the charcoal themselves but they just buy it to resell it and it's shit. the destruction of the wrong a national park is immense the region is one of the most densely populated in all of africa. the conflict in neighboring rwanda have only made matters worse countless refugees are seeking shelter and using charcoal for cooking. the world wildlife fund in goma is very engaged in the topic. and his team hope for a lasting peace in order to save the national park. vigil and city since 1906 this region has gone through a lot of unrest to produce that was before that there were the looting wars from
1902 onwards is here and then came the 1st liberation more in 1906 that forced many to flee if she had had an impact on the environment but this one of them. in goma the number of residents has nearly doubled in the last 7 years. especially due to the many refugees who have come. only 11 kilometers separate the city from the national park so it's no wonder that 80 percent of the charcoal used here is illegally sourced from virunga. like in most places in africa the charcoal business here is also a shadow market. that dealers buy their charcoal in villages and then sell it here. well enough that i got a good price range depends on how old the tree was that used to make the charcoal
you know what i shall call from young trees cost $20.00 u.s. dollars so. the older the trade the more energy it supplies and the higher the price like you are going to be. or. retailers prefer cheaper softer charcoal because they can sell it in small portions i knew some households by the higher quality tougher charcoal and i personally delivered to the wholesale dealers. just as in europe here too it makes a difference where the wood for charcoal is from but it's also just as important to reduce the charcoal consumption. the men and women of goma stove are contributing to just that with direction from the w w f they conducted several tests and studies that helped them develop
a particularly energy efficient other it only uses half as much charcoal as a traditional oven. under the metal plating is a clay core that is bakes the 1st time the oven is used. the 1st use should be for something that needs to be cooked for a long time that's the case for most things called regularly here such as beans song by corn fufu so yes i do mind that long 1st use bakes the clay cole as. possible that. the demand for efficient cooking is huge go musto has produced and sold more than 80000 other and since 2009. they've even delivered their product to the capital kinshasa. that what. we produce a lot we used to make 7 ceramic inserts today now it's 3035 even 150. this
customer just bought her 2nd goal must of the savings have made a noticeable difference in her household budget. the oven manufacturers smart marketing water over straight away. some households were uncertain about how they would cut their coal consumption in half it was that we asked them how much they used with their traditional style a bit better and said 2 bags so we told them to go and buy 2 bags and when i do we give the mouse died as a credit and tell them to use it and pay us at the end of the month yes that is then by the end of the month they realize they still have one bag of charcoal left because that's good bread and what you now call is that in my. favor one bag less a month each family can save one and i have tons of charcoal over the 2 year life
expectancy of the stove and it's affordable the cost can easily be paid off in a month. at the end of the month families are left with more money. with efficient cookers it's possible to drastically reduce per capita charcoal consumption. sustainable charcoal production on the other hand is more difficult outside of the national park hardly any trees are left and inside armed rebel groups from rwanda have a tight grip on charcoal production they wouldn't dream of giving up this critical source of income. lives in a small village on the edge of her own gun national park he still clearly remembers when the rwandan rebels came into his village and turned everything upside down avar. they invaded the park
and cut down all the trees. since then the environment has been out of balance. we don't have any rivers or streams and then the dry periods of become longer. in the pool engine well that's when we decided we need to plant trees and some dickey for like a minute and restarted looking for partners who would help us in the city it's an easy for. you to give us a parisian. became their trusted world wildlife fund partner he's a forester and knows what it takes to create a plantation. but letitia in footloose you certainly sleeve you need to keep a close eye on the seedlings live plants so they reproduce at the right time. to plant the end you full mystery must be planted at the beginning of the rainy season
or did be the last as would be proved. that you missed your window even by just a few days of the plug your plantation might not survive in the vicinity of. the w w f support plantations across the region with their eco project. knows the people here well and understands that close contact with local chieftains and mayors is just as important as a trainer 3. is also an advocate. on the hills this will help us fight erosion. if only for when you would be leaning his water there flows down the slopes and destroys our fields. looking. at even tears houses down. the advantages are already visible after just
a few years the. w w f was successful now 103 nurseries 13000 hectares of plantations and 9000 farmers have joined the project. geoff a village chief is also convinced of the advantages ever since the project began he's been working to persuade the 6700 families in his tribe to plant trees in order to secure the villages future. villages. plantations they taught us a different way to cut down trees and build kilns the 6 you would do for that way we can produce higher quality charcoal that we can sell in goma for a higher price that's our guy who live on my i am pretty sure superior but a breeze to load so we have charcoal we can cook without sounds.
in line we can sound. and that will pay for our children's education and for medical treatment and also for food is the amount that is to look at. today he is showing others how to plant trees to protect the fertile soil from erosion and landslides. in 5 years these little saplings have become fully grown trees perfect for producing charcoal. when they're ready for harvesting they provide a clean legal alternative to trees from the national park. so the we can save the national park if we plant more trees said the end of the same time we reduce our consumption our use of charcoal.
though for. proving methods of recall making have doubled the amount of charcoal we can produce. combine that with our improved stove and we're saving on both ends. of the lid on them on the one hand we're improving charcoal yields while on the other or using less charcoal. of the soup 1st so basically we're raising supply and lowering demand or diminish. the u s b the charcoal makers have learned that drying the wood for 2 months before charring it is more effective. this dense pile will be covered with dirt later and set on fire then to lation shafts to light the pile and a chimney made of old barrels will double the amount of charcoal this kiln can produce for in addition the quality will be much higher if. 15 percent of the charcoal
used in goma is sourced from the w.w. abs project the long term goal is to raise that to 30 percent. the farmers have already begun to notice a positive effect on the environment the progress of course you have to be there ever since the project started we've noticed an upward trend for example the times for planting used to be messed up as we are losing our crops thanks to the plantations we planted with the eco makana project we've seen the ecosystem restore itself. that's good. we can now go back to planting based on the old calendar don't. but 30 percent is all this plantation can cover. wouldn't leave enough room for farming. the project has helped slow down the destruction of the national park but
it can't stop it all together further solutions still need to be developed and new energy sources tapped into. back to france the charcoal pioneers are working on making their method more attractive for developing countries. lower wood requirements reliable electricity and quality charcoal together these 3 things might be able to save the room national park. the charcoal visionaries and. are convinced that all it would take is enough political will to reach a sustainable solution for africa's charcoal problem. without the correct circumstances however they don't want to introduce their method. of. plantation programs are a necessary condition for setting up
a factory like aus in africa. may i make them for growing share jewels supported by the government all local groups would make that absolutely possible i mean one particular advantage is that they'd not only have charcoal but electricity to vote in your shop on in an explicit sounded. to many people in africa charcoal is a necessary energy source in europe it's central to the grill culture. of fission production and sustainable forestry can make charcoal a renewable resource only the combined efforts of governments businesses and consumers can stop the destruction of our tropical forests.
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