tv Tomorrow Today Deutsche Welle September 16, 2019 5:30pm-6:01pm CEST
i knew it belonged to me. exploration. of destruction starvation. price government and corporate. culture. don't use fear no how you know it. starts september 18th on d w. hello and welcome to tomorrow today your science show on d w coming up this week the story of whales and how they grew so large. is this the protein of the future and microbiology facility that grows an alternative to meat. and modeled on the
galaxy a german team has revolutionized gear driven systems. but 1st the crime committed on a huge scale the scene the kitchen the perpetrators food fraudsters adulterating food products is a lucrative business and far more common than you might think now regulators are trying to stop the criminals behind it with a high tech d.n.a. database. olive oil isn't always what it says on the label it breaches regulations on marketing standards more than any other product often it's mixed with low quality salad oil coloring fragrance some flavoring sold as extra virgin 25 percent of all of oil on the world market is allegedly floor didn't. organic honey supposedly in fact start looted with sugar syrup.
she is sold a champagne. is widespread and highly profitable. estimated that the trade in fake food products is even more profitable than the drug trade. worldwide 10 percent of foodstuffs tested are fake even oregon and sometimes adulterated with chopped leaves other bulking agents. in general food fraud is a form of fraud committed on the consumer's pocket book the consumer is paying for a quality product but getting something inferior. to go by. the fraud often involves expensive products like stuff from for instance but it's why the spice is regularly examined by chemists at the food safety authority in this love in karlsruhe where they examine about 500 samples of food from supermarkets online
shops every day and often make astonishing discoveries. this doesn't even look like saffron and it looks like some sort of cellulose material paper that's probably just been dyed red. shredded red paper it's not dangerous but it's brazen fraud. out about 18 euro's or grand it's not surprisingly try this especially because as you've seen you can't detect the fake just by looking at it with other spices the fakes pay off because they're selling large quantities. most of the fraud can't be detected with the naked eye for that you need a chemical analysis until recently the chemists had to carry out a separate test for every compound and they had to know exactly what to look for but no spectroscopy has changed that using this method single scan can provide. genetic profile of an entire sample in just 30 minutes the technology
supplies the genetic fingerprint that looks much like a barcode comprised of millions of fragments of d.n.a. sequences. until recently only small amounts of such genetic information could be saved but now that's changed. now that computers have become so powerful we no longer have to choose just a few parts of the spectrum to save and discard the rest now we can save the entire spectrum of. that's an enormous advantage now the chemist can store the genetic fingerprints of every sample when a new one arrives the computer can quickly identify similar or identical genetic fingerprints from its database. the test can provide an immense amount of information where the food product originated what exactly it contains and whether it's organic or conventionally produced across the e.u.
scientists are now building databases for a large number of food products. the lab is specializing in eggs a lot can determine whether an egg comes from an organic or conventional that's another common form of fraud. a large database of organic and other eggs comes and that's supposedly organic we can feed that information into our computer and it will tell us whether it's an organic or free range eggs or a battery. and each spot here represents one sample and depending on what area it's an it's a free range or bad reargued or it's an organic egg. your. fish is also a major source of fraud the fish on the left is a pricey soul the one on the right an inexpensive. or old fish is treated to look fresh. it's on us. but you see this very popular trick here and to know
when to make it's old returns gray you can make the fish with prettier again by treating it with carbon monoxide gas it turns nice and pink again and looks a lot fresher than it really is. not so long ago this kind of fraud would have been time consuming to detect but now with a d.n.a. fingerprint detecting adulterated food can take just a few seconds. that's our goal we want to implement a system across europe and the stablish a large database with many authentic food samples and genetic fingerprints that will make it easier to detect food fraud on the global market. until now the food counterfeiters have always been a step ahead but thanks to the new databases that could soon change. the d.n.a. database to food stamps to uncover fraud committed on a massive scale it's
a pressing topic because food adulteration has now apparently grown common all over the world as we heard from you on facebook. letitia from chile writes that fruit she says there now contains plenty of chemicals but practically no fruit. in kenya kenneth complains that honey is mixed with mashed right bananas to increase profits. while her media from costa rica says that lots of what sold is natural brown sugar has actually been dyed. in peru and is has noticed a similar problem even though great chocolate is exported from the country he comments that people there mostly have to make do with a disgusting substitute. and finally in mexico miguel listed a whole range of products that he says are regularly adulterated he thinks it's a big problem that people simply don't read the labels.
well i certainly will the next time i go shopping thanks for those comments and keep them coming. in tif in furs and less on your shoulder the reale chain inspectors have discovered horsemeat instead of beef as listed on the label. detroit has been a regular issue when it comes to meat products despite that the demand for meat worldwide continues to grow at a steady pace. the average german can seems around 60 kilograms of it every year but him and haven't always eaten that much. meat it appears our earliest ancestors didn't indulge all that much just eating the odd bit of caring and that they scavenged and that was it. then about 2000000 years ago things started changing. humans began to make tools that could be used to hunt send carve up carcasses. despite that there is some evidence that
meat consumption remains relatively low for a long time experts think the ancient greeks and romans ate only about 20 to 30 kilograms each per year. gradually people discovered an animal that was particularly well suited to domestication pigs were happy to eat leftovers and acorns in the woods and when needed they could be caught and slaughtered by the early middle ages meat consumption in europe rose dramatically. at the end of the 10th century the population expanded and agriculture along with it. on average meat consumption hovered around 40 kilos per capita per year in the high and middle ages the majority of that was eaten by the affluent. way get that about a 3rd of the population perish. suddenly there was
a lot more land for livestock farming meat production took off. and the absolute high point came at the start of the renaissance in the early 16th century people living in the german speaking states ate around $110.00 kilos each year a population boom followed within just 3 centuries the population in europe had tripled . there was less meat to go around and harvests were also hit by the little ice age . by the beginning of the 19th century annual meat consumption had dropped to an average of just 14 kilos a head people didn't waste anything and consumed or used the entire animal but they couldn't eat straight away they dried cured or smoked. industrialization followed and technology changed agriculture for good meat could now be imported from other parts of the world thanks to new refrigeration techniques except during
the 1st and 2nd world wars and there aftermath meat consumption rose again and soon reached the 50 kilogram a year mark in germany factory farming changed the industry again and the meat production soared. it became cheaper and cheaper. in the 1970 s. 1st food like hamburgers were popular but the decade also saw the beginnings of the green movement driven by environmental protesters who wanted alternative lifestyles but that didn't affect levels of meat consumption even various disease and other meat scandals didn't spoil appetites but what about nowadays. in germany some $5000000.00 people now eat no or very little meat and one percent of the population is even vegan despite that for years now and more meat consumption in the country has topped around 60 kilos per capita per year.
meat production worldwide has nearly quadrupled in the last 50 years and all these products have a big carbon footprint cattle for example produce huge amounts of greenhouse gases around twice as much as that emitted by the aviation industry worldwide. more than half of the proceeds from the plant crops the rains is used to feed domesticated animals that makes finding alternatives to meet an environmental priority could algae help. these glass cheap reflectively a greenhouse for a micro algae called chlorella in order to photosynthesize it needs fresh water nutrients carbon dioxide and sunlight one of the pioneers in growing algae is yoko allman for the past 7 years he's headed up a farm called recap clips. we have 500 kilometers worth of glass tubing here holding a total volume of 600000 liters so during one season from mid march to mid november
we can produce between $30.50 tons of biomass. so up to 50 tons of algae biomass grown on just $1.00 hacked it's a highly effective use of land the same area would produce only 7 or 8 tons of wheat for example. protein makes up 50 percent of a clear biomass more than eggs all meat on the market for it is expanding. we're now growing more than a dozen different types of micro out jane most of it was using used for food supplements in the form of powder or pellets but we also sell it in direct form to the food industry and also cosmetics companies and animal feed producers. we show it all over the world. here in europe the u.s. canada and asia as you. tree is the company's nerve center
it contains samples of all the algae types that were cut plucked so gross. scientists 1st started doing research into algae as a food source 65 years ago after the 2nd world war the world health organization found a supporter of the global population suffered from protein deficiency so the focus was on algae with a high protein content like sparrow liner and chlorella. offer that would secure in the lab we kick start the initial propagation of the algae it all begins with a small single celled micro algae each day one cell divides into between $2.16 new cells so would grows rapidly then we work to increase the volume of algae until we reach the point where we're ready to go into the greenhouse and start production for people. but not all algae grow fast enough to be used for industrial
purposes that's something alexander matis is aiming to change he works at the swiss federal institute of technology in zurich. at the moment the algae are growing too slowly to concentration once we finish cultivating is still too low that means producing and processing the micro algae is too costly for me quite. the scientists are working to accelerate the growth of the algae using short high voltage pulses the single celled organisms have huge potential. because we could use micro algae to produce very interesting new substitutes we are able to convert the algae proteins into a meat like substance that would facilitate a protein rich vegetable based diet and reduce meat consumption at the same time. but many types of algae can be eaten directly without any process and that's all french chef piri piri regularly harvests the wheat in the city of brest west the
wheat has been a source of food for centuries. europe's coastlines alone now home to some 500 different types of seaweed and algae 13 have been approved for human consumption and marine uses 7 or 8 of them and his cooking. this one here is often referred to as meat in here it's very fine and part of the sea lettuce family you see that this is a very interesting algae that you know it's full of vitamin c. more than oranges it's also rich in calcium and minerals blood to consume the. algae can already be found in an estimated 70 percent of all processed foods to get saw the additives eve 402407 are made of algae so there are thickening agents amongst the fires or jumping agents they're not chemicals they're natural sure because that's if we let you in. to see we dishes wrestled up by the chef may not
appeal to the masses but in general clearly has a great future. for. the company recap clips that has already reached sales in the millions its products are selling so well that the company is now preparing to open a new pilot production plant. it's already up and running. definitely one of the foods of the future there is still huge potential here which we're only just starting to understand and exploit a lot of research still needs to be done in order to benefit more from this. when you consider how successful this is after just 65 years of the development of algae production it gives you an idea of just how much potential there really is. in.
recipes that incorporate algae all seaweed. and not just the dishes made in traditional japanese cuisine. they can be used to create. and even replace eggs in baked goods. food from the marine well that brings us to this week's question. why are whales so big. blue whales feed exclusively on tiny shrimp like creatures known as krill. sounds like they're just snacking all day doesn't it. but still they grow to a monster size. the
marine mammals can reach up to 33 meters in length and can weigh up to 200 tons. that makes them the biggest animals ever to have lived. larger even than the most gigantic dinosaurs. that's because in water gravity poses fewer constraints meaning fewer barriers to growth and more mobility another advantage of their large size is that whales lose less body heat than their smaller relatives. but they weren't always so cautious once upon a time the largest species measured only about 12 meters. it was only 2 or 3000000 years ago that they went through a growth spurt during the ice age oceanic temperatures dropped causing a disruption to establish currents. this led to an increased concentration of fish
plankton and krill and some coastal regions. from an evolutionary perspective it was worth developing large amounts and bodies to take advantage of the expanded menu. there are large size help whales cover great distances and hence kycia food sources faster than competitors. so an abundance of food was the reason that whales eventually grew so big. crowd that is red white otter latin even if they. didn't have a science question that you've always wanted onset we're happy to help out with a little less as a video text over a smell if we are sort on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you cannot just ask. if you can write to us on our
website at t w dot com slash science or give us a shout out on twitter and facebook. although not quite as large as blue whales many dinosaurs grew to gigantic proportions the bigger and heavier something is the more energy you need to move it. next story is about to drive designers have found a way to make that process more efficient. to increase or decrease the speed of rotation in a year leonardo da vinci knew that to 500 years ago. systems haven't changed all that much since then. just take a few gear wheels in a few different sizes and you're sad. but perhaps there is a way to improve traditional gear boxes for hundreds of years engineers and builders of said no. but thomas and munfordville were undeterred.
they thought it might be possible after all and went back to the drawing board. years have been around for a very long time and have been tweaked and optimized over the years we wanted to do something revolutionary a leap forward. when it comes to gearboxes what would a revolution look like one basic form of care boxes called an episodic like or planetary gear as the name implies it's reminiscent of our solar system the sun in the center rotates quickly setting the planet years in motion the planet rotate more slowly than the sun. but there's a problem along with changing the speed of rotation a gearbox has another job to do it has to increase turning force or torque. these forces are transmitted by the teeth that touch one another like here here and here
but when one tooth is doing the work all the other teeth are not under strain at all for hundreds of years that's just how it worked so why did a company from a small town in southwestern germany decide to try to change things. for 30 years my company has operated according to a basic principle we want to preserve the livelihood of future generations. taken to its logical conclusion that principle means that building a better product shouldn't entail making it bigger and heavier instead you strive to do more with less creating better products that consume fewer resources. that takes creativity and precision but how might that apply to gear boxes. it's simple to transmit more force in a gear box the teeth have to be larger that makes the gearbox bigger and heavier the opposite of what we're striving for. in another approach the force could instead be distributed across
a larger number of teeth. realized we needed to get all the teeth working all the time. the company decided to start from scratch and took the gears and the gearbox apart turning them into a pile of scraps each bearing a few teeth that sparked a new idea that the teeth are important not the gear wheel so maybe they thought you could build a gears strip. to create motion you could thrust a tooth up from below into the groove one after the other. like your strip stays in motion with a larger number of teeth doing the work. but you want it to rotate rather than move in a linear fashion. so that means bending it into a circle. now it looks like this but there's a problem the teeth no longer fit neatly into the grooves
a moment ago they were all triangles which fit each other perfectly so the teeth have to be curved and not just into any curve but a logarithmic spiral. it's a curve that often appears in nature our own galaxy the milky way has spiral arms so the company name their design the galaxy gear box. we've always set ourselves the goal to disrupt traditional modes of thought and to look for innovations that are groundbreaking we've been able to do that with the galaxy which change the gear wheels and relies on separate. it's an idea with a lot of potential gearboxes play a role in nearly every machine manufacturing process usually they aren't visible and when you can see them they don't look like much but the humble gear box plays many essential roles in the modern world. the list of it's astonishing sometimes
you do need to reinvent the wheel or at least the gear wheel and. leonardo da vinci would have agreed he studied gears in great detail but now it's time to pass on the baton to a new generation of. manatees or gentle creatures he's herbivores have no natural enemies only humans hunt them for their meat the amazon rescue center in peru is dedication to saving these endangered animals which play an important role in the ecosystem more next week. the food.
food. fake hair and real starry. where i come from a lot of women like me you have fake hair sometimes the hair style takes up to 2 days it's a lot of time that needs to be filled so people at the salon talk about what's happening in their lives. i became a journalist to be a storyteller and i always want to find those real authentic stories from everyday
people who have something to share. with all the time i spend at the salon i know i'm good quality hair when i see it and it's a good story and i hear it's my name is elizabeth shawn and i work at the delta. letters. when they will. be presented americans at some point in our lives will experience hardship. world unto itself. with its own gravitational pull out of. the finest musical compositions. with some mysteries terrific.
this is the w.'s line from bud laden britain's prime minister greeted with loud protests in luxembourg boris johnson was booed as he believes told sometimes countries do part of the big european youth with less than 7 weeks to go the e.u. says the u.k. has revealed a no concrete alternative to the controversial irish border. bringing the latest from love some but also on the program more tensions over the future of syria's last rebel stronghold. took his president said he fears a new way for rescue.