tv Doc Film Deutsche Welle September 25, 2019 11:15am-12:00pm CEST
the arctic is often described as a vast expanse of eternal ice but in some parts of the region that's no longer the case. this is alice muir island in the canadian arctic. this strip of coastline was once covered with ice but the nearby glaciers are melting so we can see more and more of the land that lies beneath them. some researchers predict starting in 2050 the arctic will be ice free in summer so what will happen to the region is all that ice melts. this for. almost a week to rise in sea level. the arctic helps to determine the climate for a much wider area including parts of the us due to climate change due to the ice
free feeding. the wall maps the retreat with the arctic in the center. that will cause massive changes here and in other parts of the world. i think. the biggest challenge facing the whole in the future. a challenge or an opportunity during the summer after the ice has melted but to taishan blooms along the coastline animal bones indicate that wildlife has returned . more and more scientists are coming to the region and several countries have claimed mining rights how will those rights be allocated. geologists can now study land that used to be covered in ice land that is rich in natural resources. the competition for the arctic treasure is fierce.
these resources include oil natural gas and rare earth elements. taken together they're worth trillions of dollars. to indigenous peoples who live in the arctic region say they deserve a share of these riches new sources of income would help them improve their lives and have more of a say in government policies that affect them. all .
the scientists will be the 1st to study a particularly remote part of the arctic canada. or feels great you know our days are waiting in the new gary to go on the field. we got calls twice and now we get none it's actually right. see what awaits. thank you spot just tuck your bag underneath your seat it'll probably be a bumpy ride because of bad weather. more than a century ago arctic expeditions led by. an alfred vega made headlines around the world. today research trips to the region are not nearly as demanding as they used to be but they are expensive about $15000.00 euros per person.
resolute bay is often used as a starting point for scientific expeditions in the 1950 s. the canadian government forced indigenous people from northern quebec to settle in this remote but strategically important region. susan sullivan it was a child at the time. there has been a thing that has come up here. i guess there are more now i'm expecting that they'll be a lot more. people coming up north to find out more about. the details. things that were frozen.
july 1st is canada day the country's national holiday but the local any with residents don't have much to celebrate. the village of resolute bay needs more jobs schools and hospitals the innuit want more financial support from the canadian government they also demand more autonomy so that they can live according to their traditional values. susan sullivan it copes that her grandchildren will be able to lead better lives than she and her parents did she says that the canadian government should formally a. for the forced resettlement of the innuit people and provide better jobs and job training programs.
for young people they are today there are so many more possibilities for them to get a proper education and we hope that. wealthy within that 1020 years that they'll be a doctor. we now have. lawyers we now have well nurses. but we need more. in the proper. system. and. the arctic region includes parts of 5 countries. denmark. norway. russia. the usa.
and canada. in 1909 the canadian government created a new northern territory called nunavut which means our land. the researchers are right from resolute bay. spent 2 months on the territories north cops. there are no settlements here and no roads either there's not a lot of vegetation because the tundra subsoil is permanently frozen. the scientists set up their camp and it's anything but luxurious their only connection to the outside world are the transport helicopters this expedition is financed by the governments of canada and germany. germany has invested a lot of money in out research and will continue to do so i think is very important as we continue to study the effects of global warming. we need to find out more
about how the entire climate system functions push the. cost is a geologist who works for germany's institute for geosciences and natural resources which is part of the federal ministry of economics and technology. there are scientists here from several other countries as you can see from these flags. stephen grasp is a geo chemist who works for canada's department of energy and environment his work here will focus on the composition of rocks. american biologist john spear will study microbes that could be used in research on antibiotics resistant bacteria. these are.
little green tough tubes is $15.00 each and they are. are for extracting d.n.a. out of samples collect like a little bit of a pencil eraser size amount of material and i'll insert it into these tubes and it will shake it around i'll take it home or will extract d.n.a. out of it at home. the weather is good today so the scientists head out to do some work. when these mountains were formed millions of years ago the local environment looked much different there was no ice cover in the land was covered with plants and trees .
geologists take a long term view of life on earth they think in terms of millennia not centuries and many scientists believe that today we are living in the final stages of the most recent ice age. stephen grass be discovered some unusual vegetation on a mountainside recently and now he's come back to take a closer look. there's a freshwater spring here a rare occurrence in this part of the arctic. the topsoil follows only in the summer time. rescue speculates on the origins of the spring. we're finding more and more different areas of springs and we're able to record temperatures we've made
a lot of the springs through the winter and we can see that if all winter long it turns out that is very high latitude art. regions are sheets of areas a very active groundwater flow and challenges all our conceptions of those see what's happening in a pretty cold as for you you don't know as much as we thought we did those exciting so few things to learn. the researchers have dug this the ice spring it continues to flow even in winter when the temperature is minus 4 degrees centigrade. the water temperature at that time is 6 degrees. speer captures a thermal image of the spring before the team heads back to camp. geologist victoria pease specializes in the study of plate tectonics the movement of parts of the earth's crust. she's been doing research in the arctic for 20 years and also teaches at the university of stockholm today she's working with
a colleague from canada. and the arctic is a hole in the global warming de icing framework of climate today industry not just petroleum but other economic resources fishing shipping transportation mining oil and gas are all interested in accessing what they perceive to be a new. reservoir a new region right and i would say that the industry side of things are very interested in the arctic what's going on here and how they may be
able to capitalize on ice free conditions in the arctic. some experts speculate that the melting of the arctic ice open up to shipping routes between asia and europe. could have substantial strategic and economic benefits for several countries including china. believe that china do have a role to play in seeking peace. the ability in that region and in promoting a sense of ability sustainable development in the area china's government is a white paper on the arctic policy in which the pole the silk road has been off fish will be announced as a policy of the chinese government and you can see the north sea of routes.
i have to because. commercial they face a ball all of 2 years of the celebration melting ice in the arctic region in. china aims to create a new silk road trade route that would run from asia to europe via the north pole. right now china has to move its exports to europe through the indian ocean the proposed new arctic route would cut shipping time by 20 percent for about 2 weeks. some experts say that china also wants access to the arctic's rich supply of natural resources. the growing chinese middle class is basically screaming for resources from all over
the planet. and the oxy is no exception so what you see is basically the same interest for resources as china have in south america and china in africa and that and you can also i think there see that china moves in in the places where united states is not present always united states pours out then you see china course in and and we also stopped to see that in the oxy. meanwhile back in arctic canada the tory apiece prepares to fly back to camp and. the research that she and her colleagues are doing here could be used by any number of countries. the scientists have no control over where their data ends up and that's fine with victoria.
i look at the tectonic environment romps form and that information is useful to the industry. and what they do with it is beyond me. this research work is difficult time consuming and expensive it's not yet clear how the governments and businesses that are funding these projects will make use of all the data. but if they have a strategic interest in the arctic after the ice they'll have to start preparing now. it's just this i will start with some materials from the franklin basin. what's it these researchers at germany's institute for geosciences and natural resources and
how know if are going to end a life some rock samples that were taken off the coast of western greenland they've got a lot of work ahead of them. first to cut away a slice of rock that's just 30 microns think about the same width as a sheet of paper for. them will examine it under a microscope. my voice jesus christ this sample is almost transparent it's thinner than a single human hair. that will allow us to examine in detail how this material interacts with light. and that will help us identify the individual minerals that are contained in this sample is. the ice in the holly and. we return to. the local residents sometimes find jobs helping the foreign research teams. several countries have
a vested interest in exploiting the region's natural resources and the scientists research may help them to do that. to him you would hope that if the arctic ice continues to melt will be able to share in the economic benefits and have more of a say in how they live their lives. over the centuries in you would have proven that they can adapt to even the harshest climate conditions. but they're tired of living in primitive dwellings and eating only the meat and fish that nature provides as their ancestors did before them. this is greenland's capital new coal located on the southwest coast. greenland has been part of denmark since 814 but now enjoys a great deal of autonomy. still subsidy payments from denmark make up about 60
percent of the territory's budget. the capital is in the middle of a construction boom as greenland gains more control over the allocation of revenues generated by the exploitation of natural resources. we want to diversify away economy inchers of generating new income sources for our country we see. the mining as serve as a few chain come shores along with tourism along with other industries that we are trying to attract to green so there is a consideration of making ali economy less vulnerable for rapid there or something changes a fish. the fishing industry is
a key element in greenland's economy fish and shellfish make up about 90 percent of total exports and as much as 20 percent of g.d.p. greenland left the european economic community in 1905 in a dispute over fishing policy. part of today's catch is being unloaded at the port of new. mali olson works for oil greenland the territories largest fishing company . it has more than 40 processing facilities in greenland and also on canada's atlantic coast. the company headquarters are located here in new cook. the most important fish shellfish is from greenland i think it has a good price in the international market so it's a good species to have but at the moment.
our main supply us all the local fisherman. in the near coastal fishery so that approximately 3000 people fisherman delivering the fish for our factories and besides that we have a lot of troll us that off fishing in the in the sea. oil greenland also operates its own fleet of fishing vessels one of them is just coming to port. and mike wallace and meets the captain yes the ship was at sea for 2 weeks and brought in 250 tons of fish the catch was immediately frozen onboard. this is the cooling facility the temperature is minus 25 degrees centigrade each bag contains 30 kilos of cot.
some scientists predict the climate change will force large numbers of fish and shellfish to move north to cold or water. in addition there are indications that the area off greenland's coast is being overfished. malika seen that happen before . there is a species that is coming back back in the eighty's there was a lot of a lot of cut in the greenlandic sea but suddenly it disappeared so there hasn't been the fishing in the last 20 years and greene and so it's it's 1st the last years that it's started to come back. after the trawler unloads its catch it goes back out to sea. the market for fish and fish products is good right now sales and prices are rising still the fishing industry
does not generate enough revenue to support greenland's entire economy on its own so the territory will have to find new sources of income. at the moment the fishery cannot alone. maintain this economy for greenland so we have to welcome some new businesses in the greenland sure is a mess one of the things that the politicians are talking about and though we have to develop new businesses to to gain some more economic growth in greenland. were greenland is one of europe's most remote tourist destinations but visitors are not attracted by luxury hotels or wellness with celebrities there are none here. they've come to see the territory's breathtaking natural beauty. those who are looking for
a unique travel experience will find it here. there are ruins of viking settlements. in. the northern lights. and arctic wildlife including reindeer. these vast landscapes are populated by more than 20 species of mammals and dozens of bird species. roomier. but greenland is an expensive place to visit food prices are high mostly because supplies have to be imported. the infrastructure needs a lot of the. only small planes can land at the airport and. the runway is too
short for large commercial passenger jets. freeman's government is trying to line up foreign investors who will help finance improvements high on the list of potential partners are chinese businesses. not afraid of china in general i think china. and metals and minerals. is an important investment country. last year a company owned by the chinese government submitted a bid for the expansion of 3 smaller ports in greenland but the government in denmark stepped in and blocked the bid citing security and financial concerns. in any case greenland needs to make a serious effort to improve its infrastructure. definitely
the logistics are very difficult it is far away from both europe and north america and it's a very big island the biggest island and world spread out over a very large area so definitely look just tickle challenges and also environmental challenges and from one form of bad weather. in large parts of greenland many people earn a living by hunting. one of them is to be a signal to use and blue. the luck in the southeast comes. during the summer he
goes hunting every week. in the winter months he catches fish. this is the only way that he can provide food for his family. it up enough my father and brothers taught me how to hunt i don't need in. grade 9 no longer alone so now i go by myself. being the. binya. my family lives on the meat all the fish that i bring back. so far we've always had enough to eat out. we've never go hungry. but i made sure of that. b.s. and his family ate reindeer and musk ox meat in summer. and in winter mostly seals
a few luxuries like a snowmobile and an outboard motor for his boat. when you know it's going to be on what are we gonna grow vegetables here. we can only provide on it's you know we don't waste any food. if we don't eat it right away we'll freeze it and story. you know if you're going to be you know top of all . those who prefer to buy their food instead of hunting or fishing for it can shop at the supermarkets and as the like. but the food in the shops is expensive because a lot of it has to be imported mostly from europe. some food supplies are brought in by helicopter.
there aren't many trees in greenland only a few species are able to grow here mostly in the far south but that may change because of global warming. during the summer some crops are grown in the south. as legend has it the region was given the name greenland by a tense century norse explorer he hoped that a pleasant sounding name would attract settlers. of. the residents up to z. like would love to grow vegetables here in the summer and that may happen if the arctic ice continues to melt. 2000 people live into z. like it's the largest town in southeastern greenland. but behind the colorful facades of these homes many people suffer from depression and alcoholism. the
community only recently started to discuss these problems openly. the causes include the town's high unemployment rate and the poverty that goes along with it. domestic abuse is common. the suicide rate among young men is high. and during the winter the bodies can't be buried because the ground is frozen. the news. the local mortuary is located next to a church. the bodies are kept here until spring. many local residents simply have not been able to cope with the transition from
a semi nomadic eco centered culture to a modern society that's based on commerce and consumerism. some are frustrated by the presence of wealthy tourists when they themselves can't find a job. there's no need to go hunting anymore you can just buy food at the supermarket. many people have ended up on welfare. every family in greenland knows the pain of the social problems that we are seeing in the statistics and they are quite high i mean it's both suicides and as i said.
we do see. a lot of violence as well and violence against women and children and this is something that we need to fix and i think we need to fix it within the next generation or otherwise it will be every every family it is being affected by this 3 or 4 times over we have to stop it now. tilly martinez is a member of greenland's parliament and has been speaking out on these problems. she's half innuit and have to. she believes that greenland should maintain close ties to denmark because she fears that the indigenous peoples will not be able to survive on their own. right back. politician elect a ham and also hopes for a better future for greenland but she believes that this will only happen if the territory wins its independence from denmark.
i have a danish passport but that's all i'm not danish i don't think danish i don't speak things at home i don't feel like a dane and i don't feel like at home when i meant i'm not. greenland continues to move toward independence from denmark and today even young in what children learn to take pride in their traditional culture their language and their homeland. a lot of people around the world are definitely concerned about the effects of global warming but many in greenland see these environmental changes as an opportunity to free themselves from foreign influence. and many of the european immigrants who helped build this territory are buried in the cemetery. and then insists the question of what society. that
we want in the future for the people of green. and independence is a question of the freedom of the choices the government of $39.00 should be doing in regards to the foreign affairs in terms of the safety and the military issues connected to bring. denmark is responsible for. agreement security and maintain several military bases here. but in the near future greenland will have more control over its defense and foreign policy but still some danes are reluctant to sever ties completely for a number of different reasons but. i think. that. the danish
greenlandic relationship goes back many hundreds of years so there is there is culture tires there's historical ties people who have married each other a lot of greenland those living in denmark there's a lot of danish people living in greenland so so so it's not just you know a matter of pulling the plug and then say from now on we are independent. denmark also understands the importance of maintaining good relations with the territory to the strategic lee important and rich in natural resources. as the competition for those resources intensifies denmark aims to maintain its security presence there. many danes believe that the government's current policies on greenland benefits both sides. but. that is where i would argue that it is
difficult to find a better deal if you are looking at the world from a greenlandic perspective and being. with denmark and i would doubt that if your partner up with china or anyone else that there will be no favors in return. china keeps a close eye on developments in the arctic from its embassy in reykjavik iceland the ambassador says that the world has nothing to fear from beijing's trade policy. yes the chinese government has no intention of a cow painting with the u.s. side for the influence we regard space on its merits and also we have a strong wish to develop a good relationship with all the countries. as world powers compete for position and influence in greenland to anyone people are standing up for their rights when these children grow up they may find themselves living in a country that has won its freedom from denmark but is heavily dependent on china.
to in us and canada also want more autonomy some even favor closer ties with when you are peoples of other countries. we were one people before governments were going to east and divided us through borders we work with we work. across borders we have always been one in it we recognize that we know we have rights as it is peoples. okalik easy ak is a former chair of the innuit circumpolar council and often speaks out on issues that affect indigenous peoples. here she's meeting with an old friend former nun of the premier eva arya. they've set up camp on the outskirts of none of its capital calling it. the. never completely lose. who we are. it's not in the military.
in the. land. we want to work with our governments and we want to work with the industries. that are up here that want to come up here . recognize that. act and. work with us to your collective benefit i guess which. every year hundreds of delegates from dozens of countries gather in reykjavik for the annual arctic circle assembly. the participants include politicians scientists business executives representatives of indigenous peoples and others who are interested in the future of the arctic region and how it will be affected by climate change. the organization's chairman is
former iceland president owner for a grim sign he says it's important to bring together as many international representatives as possible to discuss policy. the problem for the arctic is not in the arctic and it should be heavily industrialized countries in the world and without putting about that in perspective we want. for the future of. the arctic ice has been rapidly melting now for 2 decades the process has even affected glaciers in greenland that are 100000 years old. scientists estimate that 10000 tons of arctic ice are lost every 2nd due to global warming but some say that this may turn out to be a positive development. summers are. getting longer there's led to change and. i believe.
you know there are all even read things. that have become so. i guess it's their problem. i believe the population. as the arctic ice continues to melt the indigenous people stand to benefit from the exploitation of the region's natural resources and the creation of new tree. routes . increased prosperity may help them to preserve their natural way of life but as all if i could him some points out the future of the arctic has become an international issue. and. we are seeing for the 1st time in film history the arctic becoming robel. the consequences for the rest of the world toppling and the author and also how the rest of the world impacts on the author.
of the flame. wars on the battle to find decent accommodation. number of applicants for a flat often in the interests of the ranch up to $100.00 euros per square meter. the last one of a sense to 100 years ago. secure and affordable housing is becoming a scarce commodity. tests made in germany. intends to. and i'm just looking at a brand new w. from the bottom of explosive device and it's about topics that affect us all.
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play. democrats in the u.s. congress launch an impeachment inquiry into crimes. the actions of the presidency. dishonorable that of the president's betrayal of his oath of office. of our national security and betrayal of the integrity of our elections the president must be held accountable no one is of the law.