tv Doc Film Deutsche Welle October 20, 2019 10:30pm-11:01pm CEST
to lose friends. to the world today in 60 minutes. welcome to the what is the game here or do. we have to talk about and. let's go over it. so you. know. this journey begins in the dark a long time ago and stretches far into the future. stone for stone it tells the story of life in what is today thuringia in central germany millions of years ago.
thomas martins is showing his successor tom hooper the borough mocker quarry a fossil site close to the town tom bhakti tots who can a is taking over as the paleontologist at clayton stein castle in go top home to 290000000 year old treasures from the lower permian period martin spent 40 years digging through the earth's history on the site and who know hopes his time will be similarly fruitful. brawl mocker in the thuringia forest is a very special fossil locality. in the season you could say the bra macher is the only lower permian locality in the world well track sprints and the track makers that is skeletons basically be found in one layer just an island sheesh to fit in this group used to be a common academic consensus that no one would ever find body fossils in this kind
of reddish brown vine green rocks. i guess some academic opinion shouldn't be written in stone. of. thomas martin showed the consensus to be mistaken with the help of a bone he found as a young geologist at the bro market quarry in 1974. we weren't actually looking for bones for execution it happened by coincidence one 1st i didn't recognize it as a bone i thought it was a part of the stone just by but then i prepared this white thing and saw it as a bone as. my then teacher and professor on know him on miller and 5 wrote to me. mr martin's you didn't find that here it can't be funny there's no such thing here services. he subsequently accepted it gave me a symbolic pat on my shoulder and from then onwards i came back here every year so . at the
end of the 19th century a footprint left by primitive tetrapods animals which predate dinosaurs was discovered by chance on a sandstone block that it come from the pearl marker quarry this launched various excavations the discoveries were brought to the do call museum in gautama or sold to museums and universities around the world. about 150 years before the bro marker footprint was unearthed finds from another part of thuringia called bad levenstein had kicked off paleontological research around the world. is heading to that beginning. a geologist of the national geo park insoles bad guy glycine is working his way through the corridors of an old cobalt and copper mine. parts of the mine have been made accessible again for scientific research.
this is an older excavation oh all of this is old. when this and when is this from around 1730. in the 17th thirty's discoveries were made that would change what we knew and thought about the world forever. as if you know this i know the us than this is where one of the 1st specimens of proto resource or 1st lizard was around. when that discovery was made here in $733.00 was particularly valuable and this is to suggest this was named after that he's been told it's now in the natural history museum of the animals and was their movie and this is and this in shaft from the front. row to restore us was the 1st fossilized primitive reptiles that was ever described with cities let's have that time people knew nothing about fossils it was not yet generally understood or
accepted that these were the remains of former living creatures for and the fact that people still thought that these shapes had grown inside the rocks by chance sees a few groovin to turn to fairly soon shiny box and we. as a heroes into this so here we see a recently opened rock which shows us the history of this region fish disease in up the great the range in flood that happened to your 257000000 years ago and found that seen from fish new york of its height on top of the water you can add lies that say which was laid down by the sea the year. flooded the central european basin. i mean. the rock here below with the large particles is the conglomerate after that we have a time period which lasted around 15000 years when this black copper slate for the
. during this time to see stagnated and there was a slug at the bottom from a poorly ventilated sea lift. this is the layer in which the remains of proto and many other fossils can be found it was preserved of over $4000.00. 1 geological period and many dramatic climate changes later primitive tetrapod left tracks and wet sand which eventually became mottled sunstone the fossilized tracks were discovered in $833.00 in the nearby vince a quarry. they were the very 1st trace fossils to be described in the history of science part of the trace fossil is on display in the museum of natural history in the castle batons books noising and it's arguably the most beautiful plate showing 3 crossing tracks. in the 19th century people didn't really understand how these pictures walked if you put your hand on the print you can see if it's
really well here. when taking the position of the tracks into account it became clear that the suppose a dog was actually a little finger if the clerk of the funeral would distill the researchers surmised the creatures must have walked criss cross cloyd's which didn't really seem natural to us why that's why people were always very uncertain what kind of animals produced this curious drags on this for a few would give you something nice to call yourself sort them. out from 833-2851 about 20 different scientific papers were written about them it was troubling to operate but we will that's how hot the topic was on the. the hand shaped prints led to the animals being called hand beast this remains their name to this day. one can and. we can determine the shoulder point and the pelvic point of the animals from their
tracks and how they step. on which means we can estimate and reconstruct the animal's proportions with in addition the foot morphology can be used to determine the animal group the in this case the pseudo suturing an arguer source if you will similar animals have been found in to chino and south america when both methods lead you or defend some picture which we used as the basis for a reconstructed model that the consul saw in. beast is an ancestor of crocodiles and belongs to the crown group of dinosaurs it had a fluid gait like today's mammals and dinosaurs before them. this is one of the many details contained in the tour through 300000000 years of the earth's history. khalfan a book is a sought after expert for early m. 50 ns and set up the museum exhibition like thomas martin's and stefan bonna he
stands in the great tradition of the engine for. researchers and discoverers. who live fun lynch down for example discovered the skeleton of a neo theropod a carnivore from the triassic period. this ancestor of the t.-rex was named lillian channels after the discovery. down in the museum's archive the history of the earth lies tucked inside drawers a picture of the evolution of living creatures millions of years ago can be reconstructed stone for stone. and publish this is a magnificent specimen. and see it for with frank you're sorry. you see. some plants were swept in but the brink you're sorry were the real inhabitants of the lexus. let's take
a look at the largest loss ally skeletons of these still are dinosaurs of their primitive amphibians that lived in the leg during the sister really an epic and this was a young. and that's what's particularly interesting with the skeleton is that it still has its last excrement in its pelvis. or fossilized feces preserved with the skeleton well that tells us something about the circumstances under which this animal died. so sudden this in the slot open he would enjoy getting buried in a lake by a mud flood because. it's also possible to analyze what happened in that lake afterwards. with this creature maybe floating on the surface for a while didn't skin burst. by may have some examples of that happening because of the heat and gas in the intestines could cause the skin to split. and some simply
did in this case the skin burst and the spine came out. of your claws and almost in to shield. the tetrapods living in the bone markers site near tom it's probably also fell victim to a mudslide 285000000 years ago a flood caused by heavy rainfall in the winter was then close to the equator periods of drought alternated with monsoon rains back then mountains surrounded the brahmachari and a river and its pools served as watering holes for animals. and. we need a very soft medium like this mud here and it needs to be moldable. it can't be too liquid. it needs to have a plastic consistency. then we need the sun to dry it out which makes it very hard . and the wind covers it in sand and just going jerry it can now stay preserved like that. as a fossil for millions of years and dishes are right. as
the tracks found in the borough marker in the 19th century made the quarry known but the skeletons brought the sign to world's famed after came across the 1st bone here in 1984 he returned every year each time he discovered new fossils. in the 1980 s. i found the 1st skull of the genus in morea hair. and we knew it was a some morea from comparing it with american literature. that was a big surprise. because it was the 1st example of the gene is found in europe and it made this connection clear these have been. trying to reach out to researchers in the u.s. which wasn't easy to do in the g.d.r. . but with the help of the museum it worked. that's
how interest from america from the western world started. a little from this nation's ideal. after the fall of the berlin wall martin managed to get one of the world's leading vertebrate paleontologists interested in the scientists david berman from the carnegie museum in pittsburgh pennsylvania. the 1st and most important thing is that all the things we're finding here 13 different types of animals are more or nowhere else in europe but they are many of them are found in states or north america which goes to prove biologically that the 2 continents are together the europe the north america were one continuous land continent. the science was under the care of the. freedon stein which stopped the excavation in 2010 the reason given was that there are more important priorities. but a group of researchers in berlin have said they want to continue digging in the
borough market also because the site with its combination of tracks and track makers is unique and the skeletons are exceptionally well preserved. researchers at the carnegie museum of natural history in pittsburgh have been working on extracting and cleaning the skeletons for years. amy had received as collection manager for the section of vertebrate paleontology she is also a fossil prepare and participated in bro marker quarry excavations the discoveries at the brown water were important for me as a fossil prepared or because they are the best fossils i prepared in my career at the carnegie museum they far exceeded incompleteness preservation and also in there is a preparation other fossils that i worked on we started with her. and we were found out of the incredible. unique for every form. of that
in the reason for that. he was a gap. to be able to run. not only on our way through the upright. but we moved. up to white that. you know other animals for thought this sort of the round. the dinosaur. was there a small tie around a source in germany 170000000 years before the 1st real t.-rex appeared on earth actually the 2 are unrelated except for that as the small one is called also walked on 2 legs it may have been the 1st to do so. of all the discoveries we've made of the broad marker the one that sticks in my mind the most is the discovery of or a baby's pap's style and one of the reasons this was my favorite is because i was the one who just. scuppered and we were working in the corrie and i was sort of
going into my oval never find a fossil when i lifted up a piece of broad and underneath that lifted up looked at the underside and there was an articulated foot and we didn't know what it was of at the time but we knew from the bro marker that if you found an articulated foot there was a good chance that you would have a whole skeleton. is a close relative of the last common ancestor of mammals lizards snakes turtles crocodiles and birds that lived around 290000000 years ago shortly after vertebrates 1st came out of the water and stepped onto the shore. and this is why researchers and switzerland have taught oral beatty's pap started to walk again. the interdisciplinary project is a joint effort of the institute of file logy of the university of berlin and the
core polytechnique in. the biologist hope this early land can shed light on evolutionary history. the engineers hope it will help them develop robots that can save lives in emergencies. i guess is one of the think of chinese where like connect control the motors at the same time . gracefully like 5 degrees of freedom like berkeley. so there are very what they're like 5 mortars into like that but that was sort of challenging. to get all the degrees of freedom that is a real animal can feel. like. there's never been a walking machine like this there's 28 different motors that control the complete movement. and it was a big challenge for the robotics specialists to create this kind of natural sequence of movement. if. you have
all these degrees of flexibility and where you have to solve problems such as hand and foot joint rotations. and at the same time we could play at various scenarios. in the robot can reproduce the tracks that the baso left behind 300000000 years ago . but i don't so we can now use the robot to identify what movements could create tracks like these. and that's a. professor in the uk a tourist started the project at the previous schiller's. university. he measured the bones and tracks digitized them animated them together with specialists and compared their mobility with that of living reptiles today. we found that the movement of these animals was already very well adapted to life on land that's going on which meant we had to shift our estimation of when i collected
mobility on land had a vault back by 15 to 20000000 years and the time. and go time thomas martin's his grandson and his successor tom hooper are all the way to the depot of freedon stein castle prepared oral beatty's is back from the us. this book is. a skeleton it's absolutely complete as far as the most in taxes gallatin of this kind of animal in the world it. was really crazy seeing something like this. almost picture how it lives how it moved and what it saw. you can see the eye sockets in its skull. this is where the treasures of the brahmachari are stored among them the famous tom. 2 fossilized say moria the
discovery was the 1st biological proof that europe and the us were still a super continent called some 300000000 years ago. as if they had been saying goodbye to one another one last time before they were. whispering they were whispering to each other. we had the idea to call them the tom box lovers and then because of the famous painting. lovers the world's oldest couple. in here. the demitra don. that's the one with the neural spine sales which had previously only been known for north america but this part of been found in the. these are long along it it's lines that extend from the vertebrae here of the individual for every this is what carried the neural spine so . this isn't exactly the same species but it is a demitra dog. it's
a little smaller than those found in north america but hey we now know we had her mentor down in europe doesn't which is great with one of our goals is to someday find a complete animal. and in here is the you doing this. is the legs are so long that we think we could also run on his hind feet when he wanted to go faster than. almost like a dinosaur although he's not one of us. we also have a posterity or part of pelvic bone in the extremities of a 2nd davis so there's that back there he's still being prepared in the us but we'll get it back by the end of the year. i just finding another you've been missed during the next excavations is definitely one of my wishes. with pleasure i'm adding it to my list. in the quarry of bad tots. are standing and now petrified lake dating from the whole
endorses a rally and 295000000 years ago these 2 paleontologists also have a wish list. of these still exist today planned trip. these bluish white shells were the houses a clam shrimp which are sort of like small crabs. in the tetrapods that swam in this lake these. rooms and you can thank you because they're also small crustaceans and here too at 1st maybe will also find some paragraph and. they're looking for a branch and other larger amphibians but they aren't in the right layer yet the digger still needs to remove a few 1000 years of petrified time. single father
and now we've reached the right stratum and should be long now for the tetrapods jump out again. when it's. yeah lunch might get to my knees are layers where you find a lot and think a lot has been preserved in the stratum one but there are others in which there are tightly packed here and we have the highest tech density in the world gets flexion there are areas with up to $1500.00 small brick you saw per square metre of concrete clock it's like opening a tin of sardines in that that's how packed the brink you sorry sometimes are here . so really you know bunches the real mantra might have been. the paleontologists found about $500.00 broncos sorry and a large skull. a 22 month old. one and then. monday morning 3. you don't see much at 1st i knew no one would have known but you can open it with me and then you can see
a bit more. and this is the inside view of the skull and there you could see the skull cap it's like this white bone on the other side which . you can see the politician on. wouldn't you and this is a large tooth that broke off at the base about one centimeter long. and cindy along with this is a canine of the hard palate. it's ok no one has lebron to donte an unfolding of the dentate. which tells us this is a labyrinth a daunting to do and i'm so north. it was all the snow was about so wide and so long dozens of others relatively large to the front of i think we were also able to recover other parts of the skeleton and we found the spine in some ribs both still preserved as if there are some blocks where we don't know what's inside yet so
we're hoping for more finds what's going through this is something really great because we don't have such big skulls from those of you yet. care will be able to extract this with a few months of work. to the skull could belong to an account on the tops 2 years ago researchers found one in. before that only small skulls and single skeleton bones from saxony had been excavated but there seems to be a complete skeleton with every new find the picture of life 295000000 years ago becomes clearer. is that what's special here and is that the wrote this is eerie and is so exposed to us and it's a large section which is more than 3 to 4 kilometers thick if you keep the sense that the range in forest is a narrow mountain range so if i lifted up which means that everything is accessible from the deepest layers of the middle to the highest parts where the market can be
borrow to do it in 30 minutes on t w. today i'm going to take on a trip along the texas line route from place to tell my son writes why in the name of selling a. 60 fun filled kilometers i just have to come to the 2nd one most it's a small a one region but it's got a lot of history and culture cheers. 60 minutes. or. in the book you are now going to keep. going length. exposing and justice global news that matters to me from mines.
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